1887
image of Relative clause processing in L1 and L2 English
USD
Buy:$35.00 + Taxes

Abstract

Abstract

This study investigates the locus of processing difficulty in English object-extracted relative clauses during both native and non-native sentence comprehension. Two L-maze experiments were conducted – one with English native speakers ( = 48) and another with highly proficient Chinese learners of English ( = 20) – to compare the processing of object-extracted relative clauses (ORCs) with that of subject-extracted relative clauses (SRCs). Both participants groups revealed clear processing costs for ORC sentences. In both cases, this processing difficulty was localized at the beginning of the ORC, and specifically at the article that introduced the ORC subject (.). These findings are taken to indicate that structural expectations play a central role in the first- and second-language processing of English relative clauses and of complex sentences more generally.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1075/jsls.21008.wit
2021-08-03
2021-09-26
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

References

  1. Baek, S.
    (2019) Locus of difficulty in processing L2 English object relative clauses: A study with Korean university students. Language and Linguistics, 83, 93–120. 10.20865/20198304
    https://doi.org/10.20865/20198304 [Google Scholar]
  2. Barr, D., Levy, R., Scheepers, C., & Tily, H.
    (2013) Random effects structure for confirmatory hypothesis testing: Keep it maximal. Journal of Memory and Language, 68, 255–278. 10.1016/j.jml.2012.11.001
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jml.2012.11.001 [Google Scholar]
  3. Bates, D., Mächler, M., Bolker, B., & Walker, S.
    (2015) Fitting Linear Mixed-Effects Models Using lme4. Journal of Statistical Software, 67(1), 1–48. 10.18637/jss.v067.i01
    https://doi.org/10.18637/jss.v067.i01 [Google Scholar]
  4. Boyce, V., Futrell, R., & Levy, R. P.
    (In press). Maze Made Easy: Better and easier measurement of incremental processing difficulty, Journal of Memory and Language, 111. 10.1016/j.jml.2019.104082
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jml.2019.104082 [Google Scholar]
  5. Clahsen, H., & Felser, C.
    (2006) Grammatical processing in language learners. Applied Psycholinguistics, 27, 3–42. 10.1017/S0142716406060024
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0142716406060024 [Google Scholar]
  6. Clifton, C., Jr., & Frazier, L.
    (1989) Comprehending sentences with long-distance dependencies. InG. Carlson & M. K. Tanenhaus (Eds.), Linguistic structure in language processing (pp.273–317). Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers. 10.1007/978‑94‑009‑2729‑2_8
    https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-009-2729-2_8 [Google Scholar]
  7. Cunnings, I.
    (2017) Parsing and working memory in bilingual sentence processing. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 20, 659–678. 10.1017/S1366728916000675
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S1366728916000675 [Google Scholar]
  8. Dussias, P. E., & Cramer Scaltz, T. R.
    (2008) Spanish–English L2 speakers’ use of subcategorization bias information in the resolution of temporary ambiguity during second language reading. Acta Psychologica, 128, 501–513. 10.1016/j.actpsy.2007.09.004
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.actpsy.2007.09.004 [Google Scholar]
  9. Forster, K. I., & Forster, J. C.
    (2003) DMDX: A Windows display program with millisecond accuracy. Behavior Research Methods, Instruments, and Computers, 35, 116–124. 10.3758/BF03195503
    https://doi.org/10.3758/BF03195503 [Google Scholar]
  10. Forster, K. I., Guerrera, C., & Elliot, L.
    (2009) The maze task: Measuring forced incremental sentence processing time. Behavior Research Methods, 41, 163–171. 10.3758/BRM.41.1.163
    https://doi.org/10.3758/BRM.41.1.163 [Google Scholar]
  11. Frazier, L., & Clifton, C. Jr.
    (1989) Successive cyclicity in the grammar and the parser. Language and Cognitive Processes, 28, 331–344. 10.1080/01690968908406359
    https://doi.org/10.1080/01690968908406359 [Google Scholar]
  12. Gennari, S. P., & MacDonald, M. C.
    (2008) Semantic indeterminacy in object relative clauses. Journal of Memory and Language, 58, 161–187. 10.1016/j.jml.2007.07.004
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jml.2007.07.004 [Google Scholar]
  13. Gibson, E.
    (1998) Syntactic complexity: Locality of syntactic dependencies. Cognition, 68, 1–75. 10.1016/S0010‑0277(98)00034‑1
    https://doi.org/10.1016/S0010-0277(98)00034-1 [Google Scholar]
  14. Levy, R., & Gibson, E.
    (2013) Surprisal, the PDC, and the primary locus of processing difficulty in relative clauses. Frontiers in Psychology, 4, 229. 10.3389/fpsyg.2013.00229
    https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2013.00229 [Google Scholar]
  15. Gordon, P. C., & Lowder, M. W.
    (2012) Complex sentence processing: A review of theoretical perspectives on the comprehension of relative clauses. Language and Linguistics Compass, 6, 403–415. 10.1002/lnc3.347
    https://doi.org/10.1002/lnc3.347 [Google Scholar]
  16. Gordon, P. C., Hendrick, R., & Johnson, M.
    (2001) Memory interference during language processing. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 27, 1411–1423.
    [Google Scholar]
  17. (2004) Effects of noun phrase type on sentence complexity. Journal of Memory and Language, 51, 97–114. 10.1016/j.jml.2004.02.003
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jml.2004.02.003 [Google Scholar]
  18. Gordon, P. C., Hendrick, R., Johnson, M., & Lee, Y.
    (2006) Similarity-based interference during language comprehension: Evidence from eye tracking during reading. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 32, 1304–1321.
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Grodner, D. J., & Gibson, E.ȂA.ȂF.
    (2005) Consequences of the serial nature of linguistic input for sentential complexity. Cognitive Science, 29, 261–291. 10.1207/s15516709cog0000_7
    https://doi.org/10.1207/s15516709cog0000_7 [Google Scholar]
  20. Hale, J.
    (2001) A probabilistic early parser as a psycholinguistic model. InProceedings of NAACL (Vol.2, pp.159–166).
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Hatfield, H.
    (2014) Self-guided reading:Touch-based measures of syntactic processing. Journal of Psycholinguistic Research, 45, 121–141. 10.1007/s10936‑014‑9334‑2
    https://doi.org/10.1007/s10936-014-9334-2 [Google Scholar]
  22. Hatfield, H., & Artos, T.
    (2016) The locus of processing for object relative clauses and the impact of methodology. Language, Cognition and Neuroscience, 2, 190–195. 10.1080/23273798.2015.1095936
    https://doi.org/10.1080/23273798.2015.1095936 [Google Scholar]
  23. Izumi, S.
    (2003) Processing difficulty in comprehension and production of relative clauses by learners of English as a second language. Language Learning, 53, 285–323. 10.1111/1467‑9922.00218
    https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-9922.00218 [Google Scholar]
  24. Johnson, M. L., Lowder, M. W., & Gordon, P. C.
    (2011) The sentence-composition effect: Processing of complex sentences depends on the configuration of common noun phrases versus unusual noun phrases. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 140, 707–724. 10.1037/a0024333
    https://doi.org/10.1037/a0024333 [Google Scholar]
  25. King, J., & Just, M. A.
    (1991) Individual differences in syntactic processing: The role of working memory. Journal of Memory and Language, 30, 580–602. 10.1016/0749‑596X(91)90027‑H
    https://doi.org/10.1016/0749-596X(91)90027-H [Google Scholar]
  26. King, J. W., & Kutas, M.
    (1995) Who did what and when? Using word- and clause-level ERPs to monitor working memory usage in reading. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 7, 376–395. 10.1162/jocn.1995.7.3.376
    https://doi.org/10.1162/jocn.1995.7.3.376 [Google Scholar]
  27. Kuznetsova, A., Brockhoff, P. B., & Christensen, R.ȂH.ȂB.
    (2017) lmerTest Package: Tests in Linear Mixed Effects Models. Journal of Statistical Software, 82(13), 1–26. 10.18637/jss.v082.i13
    https://doi.org/10.18637/jss.v082.i13 [Google Scholar]
  28. Lenth, R. V.
    (2020) emmeans: Estimated Marginal Means, aka Least-Squares Means. R package version 1.5.3.
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Levy, R.
    (2008) Expectation-based syntactic comprehension. Cognition, 106, 1126–1177. 10.1016/j.cognition.2007.05.006
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2007.05.006 [Google Scholar]
  30. Levy, R., Fedorenko, E., & Gibson, E.
    (2013) The syntactic complexity of Russian relative clauses. Journal of Memory and Language, 69, 461–495. 10.1016/j.jml.2012.10.005
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jml.2012.10.005 [Google Scholar]
  31. Lewis, R. L., Vasishth, S., & Van Dyke, J. A.
    (2006) Computational principles of working memory in sentence comprehension. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 10, 447–454. 10.1016/j.tics.2006.08.007
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tics.2006.08.007 [Google Scholar]
  32. Lim, J. Y., & Christianson, K.
    (2013) Second language sentence processing in reading for comprehension and translation. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 16, 518–537. 10.1017/S1366728912000351
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S1366728912000351 [Google Scholar]
  33. MacDonald, M. C., & Christiansen, M. H.
    (2002) Reassessing working memory: A comment on Just & Carpenter (1992) and Waters & Caplan (1996). Psychological Review, 109, 35–54. 10.1037/0033‑295X.109.1.35
    https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-295X.109.1.35 [Google Scholar]
  34. Marinis, T., Roberts, L., Felser, C., & Clahsen, H.
    (2005) Gaps in second language processing. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 27, 53–78. 10.1017/S0272263105050035
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0272263105050035 [Google Scholar]
  35. Müller, H. M., King, J. W., & Kutas, M.
    (1997) Event-related potentials elicited by spoken relative clauses. Cognitive Brain Research, 5, 193–203. 10.1016/S0926‑6410(96)00070‑5
    https://doi.org/10.1016/S0926-6410(96)00070-5 [Google Scholar]
  36. Nicol, J. L., Forster, K. I., & Vereš, C.
    (1997) Subject–verb agreement processes in comprehension. Journal of Memory and Language, 36, 569–587. 10.1006/jmla.1996.2497
    https://doi.org/10.1006/jmla.1996.2497 [Google Scholar]
  37. Omaki, A., & Ariji, K.
    (2005) Testing and attesting the use of structural information in L2 sentence processing. InL. Dekydtspotter, R. A. Sprouse, & A. Liljestrand (Eds.), Proceedings of the 7th Generative Approaches to Second Language Acquisition Conference (pp.205–218). Somerville, MA: Cascadilla.
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Pliatsikas, C., & Marinis, T.
    (2013) Processing empty categories in a second language: When naturalistic exposure fills the (intermediate) gap. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 16, 167–182. 10.1017/S136672891200017X
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S136672891200017X [Google Scholar]
  39. Price, I. K., & Witzel, J.
    (2017) Sources of relative clause processing difficulty: Evidence from Russian. Journal of Memory and Language, 97, 208–244. 10.1016/j.jml.2017.07.013
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jml.2017.07.013 [Google Scholar]
  40. Qiao, X., Shen, L., & Forster, K. I.
    (2012) Relative clause processing in Mandarin: Evidence from the maze task. Language and Cognitive Processes, 27, 611–630. 10.1080/01690965.2011.578394
    https://doi.org/10.1080/01690965.2011.578394 [Google Scholar]
  41. R Development Core Team
    R Development Core Team (2020) R: A language and environment for statistical computing. Austria: R Foundation for Statistical Computing Vienna.
    [Google Scholar]
  42. Rastle, K., Harrington, J., & Coltheart, M.
    (2002) 358,534 nonwords: The ARC Nonword Database. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 55A, 1339–1362. 10.1080/02724980244000099
    https://doi.org/10.1080/02724980244000099 [Google Scholar]
  43. Reali, F., & Christiansen, M. H.
    (2007) Processing of relative clauses is made easier by frequency of occurrence. Journal of Memory and Language, 57, 1–23. 10.1016/j.jml.2006.08.014
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jml.2006.08.014 [Google Scholar]
  44. Roland, D., Dick, F., & Elman, J. L.
    (2007) Frequency of basic English grammatical structures: A corpus analysis. Journal of Memory and Language, 57, 348–379. 10.1016/j.jml.2007.03.002
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jml.2007.03.002 [Google Scholar]
  45. Staub, A.
    (2010) Eye movements and processing difficulty in object relative clauses. Cognition, 116, 71–86. 10.1016/j.cognition.2010.04.002
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2010.04.002 [Google Scholar]
  46. Staub, A., Dillon, B., & Clifton, C.
    (2017) The matrix verb as a source of comprehension difficulty in object relative sentences. Cognitive Science, 41, 1353–1376. 10.1111/cogs.12448
    https://doi.org/10.1111/cogs.12448 [Google Scholar]
  47. Stowe, L. A.
    (1986) Parsing WH-constructions: Evidence for on-line gap location. Language and Cognitive Processes, 1, 227–245. 10.1080/01690968608407062
    https://doi.org/10.1080/01690968608407062 [Google Scholar]
  48. Street, J. A.
    (2017) This is the native speaker that the non-native speaker outperformed: Individual, education-related differences in the processing and interpretation of Object Relative Clauses by native and non-native speakers of English. Language Sciences, 59, 192–203. 10.1016/j.langsci.2016.10.004
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.langsci.2016.10.004 [Google Scholar]
  49. Traxler, M. J., Morris, R. K., & Seely, R. E.
    (2002) Processing subject and object relative clauses: Evidence from eye movements. Journal of Memory and Language, 47, 69–90. 10.1006/jmla.2001.2836
    https://doi.org/10.1006/jmla.2001.2836 [Google Scholar]
  50. Traxler, M. J., Williams, R. S., Blozis, S. A., & Morris, R. K.
    (2005) Working memory, animacy, and verb class in the processing of relative clauses. Journal of Memory and Language, 53, 204–224. 10.1016/j.jml.2005.02.010
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jml.2005.02.010 [Google Scholar]
  51. Wanner, E., & Maratsos, M.
    (1978) An ATN approach to comprehension. InM. Halle, J. Bresnan, & G. Miller (Eds.), Linguistic theory and psychological reality (pp.119–160). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  52. Warren, T., & Gibson, E.
    (2002) The influence of referential processing on sentence complexity. Cognition, 85, 79–112. 10.1016/S0010‑0277(02)00087‑2
    https://doi.org/10.1016/S0010-0277(02)00087-2 [Google Scholar]
  53. Weiss, S., Müller, H. M., Schack, B., King, J. W., Kutas, M., & Rappelsberger, P.
    (2005) Increased neuronal communication accompanying sentence comprehension. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 57, 129–141. 10.1016/j.ijpsycho.2005.03.013
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpsycho.2005.03.013 [Google Scholar]
  54. Witzel, J., & Forster, K.
    (2014) Lexical co-occurrence and ambiguity resolution. Language, Cognition and Neuroscience, 29, 158–185. 10.1080/01690965.2012.748925
    https://doi.org/10.1080/01690965.2012.748925 [Google Scholar]
  55. Witzel, J., Witzel, N., & Nicol, J.
    (2012) Deeper than shallow: Evidence for structure-based parsing biases in second-language sentence processing. Applied Psycholinguistics, 33, 419–456. 10.1017/S0142716411000427
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0142716411000427 [Google Scholar]
  56. Witzel, J., & Witzel, N.
    (2016) Incremental sentence processing in Japanese: A maze investigation into scrambled and control sentences. Journal of Psycholinguistic Research, 45, 475–505. 10.1007/s10936‑015‑9356‑4
    https://doi.org/10.1007/s10936-015-9356-4 [Google Scholar]
  57. Witzel, N., Witzel, J., & Forster, K. I.
    (2012) Comparisons of online reading paradigms: Eye tracking, moving-window, and maze. Journal of Psycholinguistic Research, 41, 105–128. 10.1007/s10936‑011‑9179‑x
    https://doi.org/10.1007/s10936-011-9179-x [Google Scholar]
  58. Wu, S. & Ma, Z.
    (2020) How is Chinese reading affected by under-specification and over-specification? Evidence from self-paced reading experiments. Journal of Pragmatics155:213–233. 10.1016/j.pragma.2019.11.006
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pragma.2019.11.006 [Google Scholar]
  59. Xia, V. Y., White, L., & Guzzo, N. B.
    (In press). Intervention in relative clauses: Effects of relativized minimality on L2 representation and processing. Second Language Research. 10.1177/0267658320958742
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0267658320958742 [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.1075/jsls.21008.wit
Loading
/content/journals/10.1075/jsls.21008.wit
Loading

Data & Media loading...

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error