1887
image of Speech competence and speech performance
USD
Buy:$35.00 + Taxes

Abstract

Abstract

This study examined Chinese-as-a-second-language (L2 Chinese) learners’ speech production ability from a dual perspective: speech competence and speech performance. A total of 118 valid L2 Chinese learners finished two developed tests in this study, namely, the Chinese speech competence test and the Chinese speech performance test. The results suggested that L2 Chinese learners’ speech competence and speech performance, as a twofold rendering of their L2 speech production ability, not only showed a significant positive correlation with a large effect size (Pearson’s  = .598) but also significantly predicted each other with a large effect size (Cohen  = .555). However, such large effect sizes of the correlation and the prediction between speech competence and speech performance were not supported among the upper-intermediate L2 Chinese learners. This suggested that the development between speech competence and speech performance may be more unbalanced among the upper-intermediate L2 Chinese learners compared with their advanced counterparts. The study adds evidence to the call for a multidimensional evaluation of L2 speech production ability. It is hoped that the dual approach (i.e., speech competence and speech performance) proposed in the present study may contribute to a more comprehensive evaluation of learners’ L2 Chinese speech production ability. Consequently, classroom-based teaching can be tailored to facilitate a more balanced development of L2 Chinese learners’ speech competence and speech performance.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1075/jsls.22002.jun
2022-10-18
2023-02-06
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

References

  1. American Council for the Teaching of Foreign Languages
    American Council for the Teaching of Foreign Languages (2012) The ACTFL proficiency guidelines: Speaking. Alexandria, VA: ACTFL.
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Bachman, L., & Palmer, A.
    (1996) Language testing in practice. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Bowden, H. W.
    (2016) Assessing second-language oral proficiency for research: The Spanish elicited imitation task. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 38(4), 647–675. 10.1017/S0272263115000443
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0272263115000443 [Google Scholar]
  4. Cambridge English Language Assessment
    Cambridge English Language Assessment (2016) Cambridge ESOL common scale for speaking. www.cambridgeenglish.org/images/210434-converting-practice-test-scores-to-cambridge-english-scale-scores.pdf
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Canale, M.
    (1983) From communicative competence to communicative language pedagogy. InJ. C. Richards & R. W. Schmidt (Ed.), Language and communication. (pp.2–27). New York, NY: Longman.
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Chomsky, N.
    (1965) Aspects of the theory of syntax. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  7. (1980) Rules and representations. Oxford, UK: Blackwell. 10.1017/S0140525X00001515
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0140525X00001515 [Google Scholar]
  8. Clark, J. L. D.
    (1979) Direct versus semi-direct tests of speaking proficiency. InE. J. Briere & F. B. Hinofotis (Ed.), Concepts in language testing: Some recent studies (pp.35–49). Washington, DC: TESOL.
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Cohen, J.
    (1988) Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences (2nd ed.). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Council of Europe
    Council of Europe (2001) Common European framework of reference for languages: Learning, teaching, assessment. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  11. de Saussure, F.
    (1959) Course in general linguistics. New York, NY: Philosophy Library.
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Dewaele, J., Petrides, K. V., & Furnham, A.
    (2008) Effects of trait emotional intelligence and sociobiographical variables on communicative anxiety and foreign language anxiety among adult multilinguals: A review and empirical investigation. Language Learning, 58(4), 911–960. 10.1111/j.1467‑9922.2008.00482.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9922.2008.00482.x [Google Scholar]
  13. Fulcher, G.
    (2010) Practical language testing. London, UK: Hodder Education.
    [Google Scholar]
  14. (2018) Assessing spoken production. InJ. I. Liontas (Ed.), The TESOL encyclopedia of English language teaching (pp.1–6). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley & Sons. 10.1002/9781118784235.eelt0364
    https://doi.org/10.1002/9781118784235.eelt0364 [Google Scholar]
  15. Ginther, A.
    (2013) Assessment of speaking. InC. A. Chapelle (Ed.), The encyclopedia of applied linguistics (pp.1–7). Oxford, UK: Blackwell. 10.1002/9781405198431.wbeal0052
    https://doi.org/10.1002/9781405198431.wbeal0052 [Google Scholar]
  16. Hair, J. F., Black, W. C., Babin, B. J., & Anderson, R. E.
    (2014) Multivariate data analysis (7th ed.). Harlow, UK: Pearson.
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Hanban
    Hanban (2016) Hanyu shuiping kouyu kaoshi (Chinese speaking proficiency test). inwww.hanban.edu.cn/tests/node_38289.htm
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Hinton, P. R., McMurray, I., & Brownlow, C.
    (2014) SPSS explained (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Routledge. 10.4324/9781315797298
    https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315797298 [Google Scholar]
  19. Hughes, R., & Reed, B. S.
    (2017) Teaching and researching speaking (3rd ed.). New York, NY: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Hymes, D.
    (1972) On communicative competence. InJ. B. Pride, & J. Holmes (Ed.), Sociolinguistics: Selected readings (pp.269–293). Harmondsworth, UK: Penguin Books.
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Jin, T., & Mak, B.
    (2013) Distinguishing features in scoring L2 Chinese speaking performance: How do they work?. Language Testing, 30(1), 23–47. 10.1177/0265532212442637
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0265532212442637 [Google Scholar]
  22. Kang, O., & Pickering, L.
    (2013) Acoustic and temporal analysis for assessing speaking. InA. J. Kunnan (Ed.), The companion to language assessment (pp.1047–1062). Oxford, UK: Wiley & Sons. 10.1002/9781118411360.wbcla056
    https://doi.org/10.1002/9781118411360.wbcla056 [Google Scholar]
  23. Lambert, C., Aubrey, S., & Leeming, P.
    (2021) Task preparation and second language speech production. TESOL Quarterly, 55(2), 331–365. 10.1002/tesq.598
    https://doi.org/10.1002/tesq.598 [Google Scholar]
  24. Leonard, K. R., & Shea, C. E.
    (2017) L2 speaking development during study abroad: Fluency, accuracy, complexity, and underlying cognitive factors. Modern Language Journal, 101(1), 179–193. 10.1111/modl.12382
    https://doi.org/10.1111/modl.12382 [Google Scholar]
  25. Levelt, W. J. M.
    (1989) Speaking: From intention to articulation. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  26. (1999) Producing spoken language: A blueprint of the speaker. InC. M. Brown & P. Hagoort (Ed.), The neurocognition of language (pp.83–122). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Li, X., & Li, J.
    (2014) 汉语口语考试(SCT)的效度分析 [Validity analysis of spoken Chinese test]. 世界汉语教学 [Chinese Teaching in the World], 28(1), 103–112.
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Litwin, M. S.
    (1995) How to measure survey reliability and validity. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. 10.4135/9781483348957
    https://doi.org/10.4135/9781483348957 [Google Scholar]
  29. Luoma, S.
    (2004) Assessing speaking. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9780511733017
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511733017 [Google Scholar]
  30. Ma, X., Gong, Y., Gao, X., & Xiang, Y.
    (2017) The teaching of Chinese as a second or foreign language: A systematic review of the literature 2005–2015. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, 38(9), 815–830. 10.1080/01434632.2016.1268146
    https://doi.org/10.1080/01434632.2016.1268146 [Google Scholar]
  31. Mahmoodzadeh, M.
    (2012) Investigating foreign language speaking anxiety within the EFL learner’s interlanguage system: The case of Iranian learners. Journal of Language Teaching and Research, 3(3), 466–476. 10.4304/jltr.3.3.466‑476
    https://doi.org/10.4304/jltr.3.3.466-476 [Google Scholar]
  32. Mak, B.
    (2011) An exploration of speaking-in-class anxiety with Chinese ESL learners. System, 39(2), 202–214. 10.1016/j.system.2011.04.002
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.system.2011.04.002 [Google Scholar]
  33. McNamara, T. F., & Röver, C.
    (2006) Language testing: The social dimension. Malden, MA: Blackwell.
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Mouzaki, A., Spyropoulou, E., Ralli, A., Antoniou, F., Diamanti, V., & Papaioannou, S.
    (2020) The dimensionality of oral language ability: Evidence from young Greek children. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 63(8), 2732–2751. 10.1044/2020_JSLHR‑19‑00008
    https://doi.org/10.1044/2020_JSLHR-19-00008 [Google Scholar]
  35. Nikolov, M., & Timpe-Laughlin, V.
    (2021) Assessing young learners’ foreign language abilities. Language Teaching, 54(1), 1–37. 10.1017/S0261444820000294
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0261444820000294 [Google Scholar]
  36. Qian, D. D.
    (2009) Comparing direct and semi-direct modes for speaking assessment: Affective effects on test takers. Language Assessment Quarterly, 6(2), 113–125. 10.1080/15434300902800059
    https://doi.org/10.1080/15434300902800059 [Google Scholar]
  37. Reynolds, C. R., Livingston, R. B., & Willson, V.
    (2009) Measurement and assessment in education (2nd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Röver, C.
    (2005) Testing ESL pragmatics: Development and validation of a web-based assessment battery. New York, NY: Peter Lang. 10.3726/978‑3‑653‑04780‑6
    https://doi.org/10.3726/978-3-653-04780-6 [Google Scholar]
  39. Runnqvist, E., Gollan, T. H., Costa, A., & Ferreira, V. S.
    (2013) A disadvantage in bilingual sentence production modulated by syntactic frequency and similarity across languages. Cognition, 129(2), 256–263. 10.1016/j.cognition.2013.07.008
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2013.07.008 [Google Scholar]
  40. Segalowitz, N.
    (2010) Cognitive bases of second language fluency. New York, NY: Routledge. 10.4324/9780203851357
    https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203851357 [Google Scholar]
  41. Saito, K., Trofimovich, P., & Isaacs, T.
    (2016) Second language speech production: Investigating linguistic correlates of comprehensibility and accentedness for learners at different ability levels. Applied Psycholinguistics, 37(2), 217–240. 10.1017/S0142716414000502
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0142716414000502 [Google Scholar]
  42. Sardegna, V. G., Lee, J., & Kusey, C.
    (2018) Self-Efficacy, attitudes, and choice of strategies for English pronunciation learning. Language Learning, 68(1), 83–114. 10.1111/lang.12263
    https://doi.org/10.1111/lang.12263 [Google Scholar]
  43. Schissel, J. L.
    (2018) Test impact and washback. InJ. I. Liontas (Ed.), The TESOL encyclopedia of English language teaching (1st ed., pp.1–6). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley & Sons. 10.1002/9781118784235.eelt0353
    https://doi.org/10.1002/9781118784235.eelt0353 [Google Scholar]
  44. Sun, P. P.
    (2020) Chinese as a second language multilinguals’ speech competence and speech performance: Cognitive, affective, and socioculrual perspectives. Singapore: Springer. 10.1007/978‑981‑15‑6941‑8
    https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-15-6941-8 [Google Scholar]
  45. (2022) The influence of cognitive, affective, and sociocultural individual differences on L2 Chinese speech performance: A multiple indicators multiple causes approach. Journal of Psycholinguistic Research, 1–23. 10.1007/s10936‑022‑09847‑x
    https://doi.org/10.1007/s10936-022-09847-x [Google Scholar]
  46. Sun, P. P., & Zhang, L. J.
    (2020) A multidimensional perspective on individual differences in multilingual learners’ L2 Chinese speech production. Frontiers in Psychology, 11(59), 1–14. 10.3389/fpsyg.2020.00059
    https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2020.00059 [Google Scholar]
  47. Tedick, D. J.
    (2002) Proficiency-oriented language instruction and assessment: Standards, philosophies, and considerations for assessment. InD. J. Tedick (Ed.), Proficiency-oriented language instruction and assessment: A curriculum handbook for teachers (pp.9–48). Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota.
    [Google Scholar]
  48. Teimouri, Y., Goetze, J., & Plonsky, L.
    (2019) Second language anxiety and achievement: A meta-analysis. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 41(2), 363–387. 10.1017/S0272263118000311
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0272263118000311 [Google Scholar]
  49. Uchihara, T., & Saito, K.
    (2019) Exploring the relationship between productive vocabulary knowledge and second language oral ability. The Language Learning Journal, 47(1), 64–75. 10.1080/09571736.2016.1191527
    https://doi.org/10.1080/09571736.2016.1191527 [Google Scholar]
  50. Vinther, T.
    (2002) Elicited imitation: A brief overview. International Journal of Applied Linguistics, 12(1), 54–73. 10.1111/1473‑4192.00024
    https://doi.org/10.1111/1473-4192.00024 [Google Scholar]
  51. Wang, X.
    (2013) 对外汉语口语成绩测试形式试探 [On the forms of the proficiency test of L2 Chinese speaking]. 首都师范大学学报(社会科学版) [Journal of Capital Normal University (Social Sciences Edition)], S1, 106–109.
    [Google Scholar]
  52. Wright, C.
    (2020) Effects of task type on L2 Mandarin fluency development. Journal of Second Language Studies, 3(2), 157-179. 10.1075/jsls.00010.wri
    https://doi.org/10.1075/jsls.00010.wri [Google Scholar]
  53. Wu, J., & Zhao, X.
    (2020) 初中级汉语水平二语者口语产出质量评估研究 [On the quality assessment of spoken Chinese for low-intermediate level L2 learners]. 语言文字应用 [Applied Linguistics], 1, 76–86.
    [Google Scholar]
  54. Xu, J.
    (2018) Measuring “spoken collocational competence” in communicative speaking assessment. Language Assessment Quarterly, 15(3), 255–272. 10.1080/15434303.2018.1482900
    https://doi.org/10.1080/15434303.2018.1482900 [Google Scholar]
  55. Yan, Q. Z., Zhang, L. J., & Cheng, X. L.
    (2021) Implementing classroom-based assessment for young EFL learners in the Chinese context: A case study. Asia Pacific Education Researcher, 30, 541–552. 10.1007/s40299‑021‑00602‑9
    https://doi.org/10.1007/s40299-021-00602-9 [Google Scholar]
  56. Zhang, W., Zhang, L. J., & Wilson, A. J.
    (2021) Supporting learner success: Revisiting strategic competence through developing an inventory for computer-assisted speaking assessment. Frontiers in Psychology, 12, 689581, 1–14. 10.3389/fpsyg.2021.689581
    https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2021.689581 [Google Scholar]
  57. Zheng, Y., & Gao, A. X.
    (2016) Chinese humanities and social sciences scholars’ language choices in international scholarly publishing: A ten-year survey. Journal of Scholarly Publishing, 48(1), 1–16. 10.3138/jsp.48.1.1
    https://doi.org/10.3138/jsp.48.1.1 [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.1075/jsls.22002.jun
Loading
/content/journals/10.1075/jsls.22002.jun
Loading

Data & Media loading...

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error