1887
Volume 20, Issue 1
  • ISSN 0257-3784
  • E-ISSN: 2212-9731

Abstract

Abstract

This paper describes word segmentation granularity in Korean language processing. From a word separated by blank space, which is termed an eojeol, to a sequence of morphemes in Korean, there are multiple possible levels of word segmentation granularity in Korean. For specific language processing and corpus annotation tasks, several different granularity levels have been proposed and utilized, because the agglutinative languages including Korean language have a one-to-one mapping between functional morpheme and syntactic category. Thus, we analyze these different granularity levels, presenting the examples of Korean language processing systems for future reference. Interestingly, the granularity by separating only functional morphemes including case markers and verbal endings, and keeping other suffixes for morphological derivation results in the optimal performance for phrase structure parsing. This contradicts previous best practices for Korean language processing, which has been the de facto standard for various applications that require separating all morphemes.

Available under the CC BY-NC 4.0 license.
Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1075/kl.00008.par
2024-05-30
2024-06-19
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/kl.00008.par.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.1075/kl.00008.par&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Bikel, Daniel M.
    2004 Intricacies of Collins’ Parsing Model. Computational Linguistics, 30(4):479–511. 10.1162/0891201042544929
    https://doi.org/10.1162/0891201042544929 [Google Scholar]
  2. Black, Ezra, Steve Abney, Dan Flickinger, Claudia Gdaniec, Ralph Grishman, Phil Harrison, Donald Hindle, Robert Ingria, Frederick Jelinek, Judith L. Klavans, Mark Liberman, Mitch Marcus, Salim Roukos, Beatrice Santorini, and Tomek Strzalkowski
    1991 A Procedure for Quantitatively Comparing the Syntactic Coverage of English Grammars. InSpeech and Natural Language: Proceedings of a Workshop Held at Pacific Grove, California, February 19–22, 1991, pages306–311, Pacific Grove, California. DARPA/ISTO. https://aclanthology.org/H91-1060. 10.3115/112405.112467
    https://doi.org/10.3115/112405.112467 [Google Scholar]
  3. Cha, Jeong-Won, Geunbae Lee, and Jong-Hyeok Lee
    1998 Generalized Unknown Morpheme Guessing for Hybrid POS Tagging of Korean. InEugene Charniak, editor, Proceedings of the Sixth Workshop on Very Large Corpora, pages85–93, Montreal, Quebec, Canada. Morgan Kaufrnann Publisher. https://www.aclweb.org/anthology/W98-1110/
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Chen, Yige, Eunkyul Leah Jo, Yundong Yao, KyungTae Lim, Miikka Silfverberg, Francis M Tyers, and Jungyeul Park
    2022 Yet Another Format of Universal Dependencies for Korean. InProceedings of the 29th International Conference on Computational Linguistics, pages5432–5437, Gyeongju, Republic of Korea, 101. International Committee on Computational Linguistics. https://aclanthology.org/2022.coling-1.482
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Chen, Yige, KyungTae Lim, and Jungyeul Park
    2023 Korean Named Entity Recognition Based on Language-Specific Features. Natural Language Engineering, FirstView:1–25. 10.1017/S1351324923000311
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S1351324923000311 [Google Scholar]
  6. Choi, DongHyun, Jungyeul Park, and Key-Sun Choi
    2012 Korean Treebank Transformation for Parser Training. InProceedings of the ACL 2012 Joint Workshop on Statistical Parsing and Semantic Processing of Morphologically Rich Languages, pages78–88, Jeju, Republic of Korea. Association for Computational Linguistics. www.aclweb.org/anthology/W12-3411
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Choi, Key-Sun, Young S. Han, Young G. Han, and Oh W. Kwon
    1994 KAIST Tree Bank Project for Korean: Present and Future Development. InProceedings of the International Workshop on Sharable Natural Language Resources, pages7–14, Nara Institute of Science and Technology. Nara Institute of Science and Technology.
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Choi, Sanghyuk, Taeuk Kim, Jinseok Seol, and Sang-goo Lee
    2017 A Syllable-based Technique for Word Embeddings of Korean Words. InProceedings of the First Workshop on Subword and Character Level Models in NLP, pages36–40, Copenhagen, Denmark, 91. Association for Computational Linguistics. www.aclweb.org/anthology/W17-4105. 10.18653/v1/W17‑4105
    https://doi.org/10.18653/v1/W17-4105 [Google Scholar]
  9. Chomsky, Noam
    1981Lectures on Government and Binding. Studies in Generative Grammar. Foris Publications, Dordrecht, The Netherlands.
    [Google Scholar]
  10. 1982Some Concepts and Consequences of the Theory of Government and Binding. Linguistic Inquiry Monograph 6. The MIT Press, Cambridge, MA. ISBN9780262030908.
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Chun, Jayeol, Na-Rae Han, Jena D. Hwang, and Jinho D. Choi
    2018 Building Universal Dependency Treebanks in Korean. InProceedings of the Eleventh International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC 2018), Miyazaki, Japan. European Language Resources Association (ELRA). ISBN979-10-95546-00-9.
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Chung, Min-Chung
    1998 Les nominalisations d’adjectifs en coréen: constructions nominales à support issda (il y avoir). PhD thesis, Université Paris 7 – Denis Diderot, Paris, France. https://www.theses.fr/1998PA070002
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Chung, Tagyoung and Daniel Gildea
    2009 Unsupervised Tokenization for Machine Translation. InProceedings of the 2009 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing, pages718–726, Singapore. Association for Computational Linguistics. www.aclweb.org/anthology/D/D09/D09-1075. 10.3115/1699571.1699606
    https://doi.org/10.3115/1699571.1699606 [Google Scholar]
  14. Chung, Tagyoung, Matt Post, and Daniel Gildea
    2010 Factors Affecting the Accuracy of Korean Parsing. InProceedings of the NAACL HLT 2010 First Workshop on Statistical Parsing of Morphologically-Rich Languages, pages49–57, Los Angeles, CA, USA. Association for Computational Linguistics. www.aclweb.org/anthology/W10-1406
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Collins, Michael
    1997 Three Generative, Lexicalised Models for Statistical Parsing. InProceedings of the 35th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics, pages16–23, Madrid, Spain. Association for Computational Linguistics. 10.3115/976909.979620. www.aclweb.org/anthology/P97-1003
    https://doi.org/10.3115/976909.979620 [Google Scholar]
  16. Gross, Maurice
    1975Méthodes en syntaxe. Hermann.
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Han, Chung-Hye, Na-Rae Han, Eon-Suk Ko, Martha Palmer, and Heejong Yi
    2002 Penn Korean Treebank: Development and Evaluation. InProceedings of the 16th Pacific Asia Conference on Language, Information and Computation, pages69–78, Jeju, Korea. Pacific Asia Conference on Language, Information and Computation.
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Han, Sunhae
    2000 Les predicats nominaux en coreen: Constructions a verbe support hata. PhD thesis, Université Paris 7 – Denis Diderot, Paris, France. https://www.theses.fr/2000PA070002
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Hong, Jeen-Pyo
    2009 Korean Part-Of-Speech Tagger using Eojeol Patterns (M.S. Thesis). Technical report, Changwon National University, Changwon.
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Hwang, Byung-sun
    2003 A Study on Interpretation of the Korean Tense. The Korean Language and Literature, 79(1):309–346.
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Johnson, Mark
    1998 PCFG Models of Linguistic Tree Representations . Computational Linguistics, 24 (4):613–632. aclweb.org/anthology-new/J/J98/J98-4004.pdf
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Joshi, Aravind K., Leon S. Levy, and Masako Takahashi
    1975 Tree Adjunct Grammars. Journal of Computer and System Sciences, 10(1):136–163. 10.1016/S0022‑0000(75)80019‑5
    https://doi.org/10.1016/S0022-0000(75)80019-5 [Google Scholar]
  23. Jung, Sangkeun, Changki Lee, and Hyunsun Hwang
    2018 End-to-End Korean Part-of-Speech Tagging Using Copying Mechanism. ACM Transactions on Asian and Low-Resource Language Information Processing (TALLIP), 17(3):19:1–19:8. ISSN2375-4699. 10.1145/3178458
    https://doi.org/10.1145/3178458 [Google Scholar]
  24. Kang, Juyeon
    2011 Problèmes morpho-syntaxiques analysés dans un modèle catégoriel étendu: application au coréen et au français avec une réalisation informatique. PhD thesis, Université Paris IV – Paris-Sorbonne, Paris, France. www.sudoc.fr/161287484
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Kim, Mija and Jungyeul Park
    2022 A note on constituent parsing for Korean. Natural Language Engineering, 28(2):199–222. 10.1017/S1351324920000479
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S1351324920000479 [Google Scholar]
  26. Klein, Dan and Christopher D. Manning
    2003 Accurate Unlexicalized Parsing. InProceedings of the 41st Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics, pages423–430, Sapporo, Japan. Association for Computational Linguistics. 10.3115/1075096.1075150. www.aclweb.org/anthology/P03-1054
    https://doi.org/10.3115/1075096.1075150 [Google Scholar]
  27. Ko, Kil Soo
    2010 La syntaxe du syntagme nominal et l’extraction du complément du nom en coréen: description, analyse et comparaison avec le français. PhD thesis, Université Paris 7 – Denis Diderot, Paris, France. https://www.sudoc.fr/150031696
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Koehn, Philipp, Hieu Hoang, Alexandra Birch, Chris Callison-Burch, Marcello Federico, Nicola Bertoldi, Brooke Cowan, Wade Shen, Christine Moran, Richard Zens, Chris Dyer, Ondrej Bojar, Alexandra Constantin, and Evan Herbst
    2007 Moses: Open Source Toolkit for Statistical Machine Translation. InProceedings of the 45th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics Companion Volume Proceedings of the Demo and Poster Sessions, pages177–180, Prague, Czech Republic. Association for Computational Linguistics. www.aclweb.org/anthology/P07-2045. 10.3115/1557769.1557821
    https://doi.org/10.3115/1557769.1557821 [Google Scholar]
  29. Lim, Donghoon
    2008 The Mood and Modal systems in Korean. Korean Semantics, 26(2):211–248.
    [Google Scholar]
  30. 2011 Sentence types in Korean. Journal of Korean Linguistics, 60(1):323–359.
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Maamouri, Mohamed and Ann Bies
    2004 Developing an Arabic Treebank: Methods, Guidelines, Procedures, and Tools. InProceedings of the Workshop on Computational Approaches to Arabic Script-based Languages, pages2–9, Geneva, Switzerland, 81. COLING. https://aclanthology.org/W04-1602. 10.3115/1621804.1621808
    https://doi.org/10.3115/1621804.1621808 [Google Scholar]
  32. McDonald, Ryan, Joakim Nivre, Yvonne Quirmbach-Brundage, Yoav Goldberg, Dipanjan Das, Kuzman Ganchev, Keith Hall, Slav Petrov, Hao Zhang, Oscar Täckström, Claudia Bedini, Núria Bertomeu Castelló, and Jungmee Lee
    2013 Universal Dependency Annotation for Multilingual Parsing. InProceedings of the 51st Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 2: Short Papers), pages92–97, Sofia, Bulgaria. Association for Computational Linguistics. www.aclweb.org/anthology/P13-2017
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Marcus, Mitchell P., Mary Ann Marcinkiewicz, and Beatrice Santorini
    1993 Building a Large Annotated Corpus of English: The Penn Treebank. Computational linguistics, 19(2):313–330. https://aclanthology.org/J93-2004
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Matsuzaki, Takuya, Yusuke Miyao, and Jun’ichi Tsujii
    2005 Probabilistic CFG with Latent Annotations. InProceedings of the 43rd Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (ACL’05), pages75–82, Ann Arbor, Michigan, 61. Association for Computational Linguistics. 10.3115/1219840.1219850. https://www.aclweb.org/anthology/P05-1010
    https://doi.org/10.3115/1219840.1219850 [Google Scholar]
  35. Na, Seung-Hoon
    2015 Conditional Random Fields for Korean Morpheme Segmentation and POS Tagging. ACM Transactions on Asian and Low-Resource Language Information Processing, 14(3):1–10. ISSN2375-4699. 10.1145/2700051
    https://doi.org/10.1145/2700051 [Google Scholar]
  36. Nam, Jee-Sun
    1994 Classification syntaxique des constructions adjectivales en coréen. PhD thesis, Université Paris 7 – Denis Diderot, Paris, France. https://www.theses.fr/1994PA070040
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Nho, Yun-Chae
    1992 Les constructions converses du coréen : études des prédicats nominaux. PhD thesis, Université Paris 7 – Denis Diderot, Paris, France. https://www.theses.fr/1992PA070049
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Nivre, Joakim, Marie-Catherine de Marneffe, Filip Ginter, Yoav Goldberg, Jan Hajic, Christopher D. Manning, Ryan McDonald, Slav Petrov, Sampo Pyysalo, Natalia Silveira, Reut Tsarfaty, and Daniel Zeman
    2016 Universal Dependencies v1: A Multilingual Treebank Collection. InLuis von Ahn, editor, Proceedings of the Tenth International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC 2016), page1659–1666, Portorož, Slovenia. European Language Resources Association (ELRA). https://www.aclweb.org/anthology/L16-1262%0A
    [Google Scholar]
  39. Nivre, Joakim, Marie-Catherine de Marneffe, Filip Ginter, Jan Hajič, Christopher D. Manning, Sampo Pyysalo, Sebastian Schuster, Francis Tyers, and Daniel Zeman
    2020 Universal Dependencies v2: An Evergrowing Multilingual Treebank Collection. InProceedings of the 12th Language Resources and Evaluation Conference, pages4034–4043, Marseille, France, 5. European Language Resources Association. ISBN979-10-95546-34-4. https://www.aclweb.org/anthology/2020.lrec-1.497
    [Google Scholar]
  40. Och, Franz Josef
    2003 Minimum Error Rate Training in Statistical Machine Translation. InProceedings of the 41st Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics, pages160–167, Sapporo, Japan. Association for Computational Linguistics. 10.3115/1075096.1075117. www.aclweb.org/anthology/P03-1021
    https://doi.org/10.3115/1075096.1075117 [Google Scholar]
  41. Oh, Jin-Young and Jeong-Won Cha
    2013 Korean Dependency Parsing using Key Eojoel. Journal of KIISE:Software and Applications, 40(10):600–608.
    [Google Scholar]
  42. Oh, Jin-Young, Yo-Sub Han, Jungyeul Park, and Jeong-Won Cha
    2011 Predicting Phrase-Level Tags Using Entropy Inspired Discriminative Models. InInternational Conference on Information Science and Applications (ICISA) 2011, pages1–5, Jeju, Korea. Information Science and Applications (ICISA).
    [Google Scholar]
  43. Pak, Hyong-Ik
    1987 Lexique-grammaire du coréen : construction à verbes datifs. PhD thesis, Université Paris 7- Denis Diderot, Paris, France. https://www.theses.fr/1987PA070140
    [Google Scholar]
  44. Palmer, Martha, Daniel Gildea, and Paul Kingsbury
    2005 The Proposition Bank: An Annotated Corpus of Semantic Roles. Computational Linguistics, 31(1):71–106. 10.1162/0891201053630264
    https://doi.org/10.1162/0891201053630264 [Google Scholar]
  45. Papineni, Kishore, Salim Roukos, Todd Ward, and Wei-Jing Zhu
    2002 Bleu: a Method for Automatic Evaluation of Machine Translation. InProceedings of 40th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics, pages311–318, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA, 71. Association for Computational Linguistics. 10.3115/1073083.1073135. www.aclweb.org/anthology/P02-1040
    https://doi.org/10.3115/1073083.1073135 [Google Scholar]
  46. Park, Chulwoo
    2007 The Grammatical Voice in Korean: an Interface Phenomenon between Syntax and Semantics. Korean Linguistics, 37(1):207–228.
    [Google Scholar]
  47. Park, Jungyeul
    2006 Extraction automatique d’une grammaire d’arbres adjoints à partir d’un corpus arboré pour le coréen. PhD thesis, Université Paris 7 – Denis Diderot, Paris, France. www.sudoc.fr/107995174
    [Google Scholar]
  48. Park, Jungyeul and Francis Tyers
    2019 A New Annotation Scheme for the Sejong Part-of-speech Tagged Corpus. InProceedings of the 13th Linguistic Annotation Workshop, pages195–202, Florence, Italy, 81. Association for Computational Linguistics. https://www.aclweb.org/anthology/W19-4022. 10.18653/v1/W19‑4022
    https://doi.org/10.18653/v1/W19-4022 [Google Scholar]
  49. Park, Jungyeul, Daisuke Kawahara, Sadao Kurohashi, and Key-Sun Choi
    2013 Towards Fully Lexicalized Dependency Parsing for Korean. InProceedings of the 13th International Conference on Parsing Technologies (IWPT 2013), pages120–126, Nara, Japan, 111. Assocation for Computational Linguistics. https://www.aclweb.org/anthology/W13-5714
    [Google Scholar]
  50. Park, Jungyeul, Jeen-Pyo Hong, and Jeong-Won Cha
    2016 Korean Language Resources for Everyone. InProceedings of the 30th Pacific Asia Conference on Language, Information and Computation: Oral Papers (PACLIC 30), pages49–58, Seoul, Korea. Pacific Asia Conference on Language, Information and Computation. aclweb.org/anthology/Y/Y16/Y16-2002.pdf
    [Google Scholar]
  51. Park, Jungyeul, Loïc Dugast, Jeen-Pyo Hong, Chang-Uk Shin, and Jeong-Won Cha
    2017 Building a Better Bitext for Structurally Different Languages through Self-training. InProceedings of the First Workshop on Curation and Applications of Parallel and Comparable Corpora, pages1–10, Taipei, Taiwan, 111. Asian Federation of Natural Language Processing. www.aclweb.org/anthology/W17-5601
    [Google Scholar]
  52. Park, Jungyeul and Mija Kim
    2023 A role of functional morphemes in Korean categorial grammars. Korean Linguistics, 19(1):1–30. 10.1075/kl.22003.par
    https://doi.org/10.1075/kl.22003.par [Google Scholar]
  53. Park, Jungyeul, Sejin Nam, Youngsik Kim, Younggyun Hahm, Dosam Hwang, and Key-Sun Choi
    2014 Frame-Semantic Web: a Case Study for Korean. InISWC-PD’14: Proceedings of the 2014 International Conference on Posters & Demonstrations Track – Volume 1272, pages257–260, Riva del Garda, Italy, 101. International Semantic Web Conference. 10.5555/2878453.2878518
    https://doi.org/10.5555/2878453.2878518 [Google Scholar]
  54. Park, Sounnam
    1996 La construction des verbes neutres en coreen. PhD thesis, Université Paris 7 – Denis Diderot, Paris, France. https://www.theses.fr/1996PA070023
    [Google Scholar]
  55. Park, Sungjoon, Jihyung Moon, Sungdong Kim, Won Ik Cho, Jiyoon Han, Jangwon Park, Chisung Song, Junseong Kim, Yongsook Song, Taehwan Oh, Joohong Lee, Juhyun Oh, Sungwon Lyu, Younghoon Jeong, Inkwon Lee, Sangwoo Seo, Dongjun Lee, Hyunwoo Kim, Myeonghwa Lee, Seongbo Jang, Seungwon Do, Sunkyoung Kim, Kyungtae Lim, Jongwon Lee, Kyumin Park, Jamin Shin, Seonghyun Kim, Lucy Park, Alice Oh, Jung-Woo Ha, and Kyunghyun Cho
    2021 KLUE: Korean Language Understanding Evaluation. Technical report, https://klue-benchmark.com, 51. https://arxiv.org/abs/2105.09680
    [Google Scholar]
  56. Petrov, Slav and Dan Klein
    2007 Improved Inference for Unlexicalized Parsing. InHuman Language Technologies 2007: The Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics; Proceedings of the Main Conference, pages404–411, Rochester, New York. Association for Computational Linguistics. www.aclweb.org/anthology/N/N07/N07-1051
    [Google Scholar]
  57. Petrov, Slav, Dipanjan Das, and Ryan McDonald
    2012 A Universal Part-of-Speech Tagset. InProceedings of the Eighth International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC-2012), pages2089–2096, Istanbul, Turkey. European Language Resources Association (ELRA). ISBN978-2-9517408-7-7
    [Google Scholar]
  58. Petrov, Slav, Leon Barrett, Romain Thibaux, and Dan Klein
    2006 Learning Accurate, Compact, and Interpretable Tree Annotation. InProceedings of the 21st International Conference on Computational Linguistics and 44th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics, pages433–440, Sydney, Australia. Association for Computational Linguistics. 10.3115/1220175.1220230. www.aclweb.org/anthology/P06-1055
    https://doi.org/10.3115/1220175.1220230 [Google Scholar]
  59. Shin, Kwang-Soon
    1994 Le verbe support hata en coréen contemporain : morpho-syntaxe et comparaison. PhD thesis, Université Paris 7 – Denis Diderot, Paris, France. https://www.theses.fr/1994PA070027
    [Google Scholar]
  60. Song, Hyun-Je and Seong-Bae Park
    2020 Korean Part-of-Speech Tagging Based on Morpheme Generation. ACM Transactions on Asian and Low-Resource Language Information Processing (TAL-LIP), 19(3):1–41, 11. ISSN2375-4699. 10.1145/3373608
    https://doi.org/10.1145/3373608 [Google Scholar]
  61. Song, Jae Mog
    1998 Semantic functions of the non-terminal suffix -te- in Korean: from a typological perspective. Journal of Korean Linguistics, 32(1):135–169.
    [Google Scholar]
  62. Straka, Milan, Jan Hajic, and Jana Straková
    2016 UDPipe: Trainable Pipeline for Processing CoNLL-U Files Performing Tokenization, Morphological Analysis, POS Tagging and Parsing. InProceedings of the Tenth International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC 2016), pages4290–4297, Paris, France, 51. European Language Resources Association (ELRA). ISBN978-2-9517408-9-1
    [Google Scholar]
  63. Stratos, Karl
    2017 A Sub-Character Architecture for Korean Language Processing. InProceedings of the 2017 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing, pages732–737, Copenhagen, Denmark, 91. Association for Computational Linguistics. https://www.aclweb.org/anthology/D17-1076. 10.18653/v1/D17‑1075
    https://doi.org/10.18653/v1/D17-1075 [Google Scholar]
  64. Stratos, Karl, Michael Collins, and Daniel Hsu
    2016 Unsupervised Part-Of-Speech Tagging with Anchor Hidden Markov Models. Transactions of the Association for Computational Linguistics, 41:245–257. ISSN2307-387X. https://tacl2013.cs.columbia.edu/ojs/index.php/tacl/article/view/837. 10.1162/tacl_a_00096
    https://doi.org/10.1162/tacl_a_00096 [Google Scholar]
  65. Taylor, Ann, Mitchell Marcus, and Beatrice Santorini
    2003 The Penn Treebank: An Overview. InAnne Abeillé, editor, Treebanks: Building and Using Parsed Corpora, pages5–22. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht. ISBN978-94-010-0201-1. 10.1007/978‑94‑010‑0201‑1_1
    https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-010-0201-1_1 [Google Scholar]
  66. Xue, Naiwen, Fei Xia, Fu-dong Chiou, and Marta Palmer
    2005 The Penn Chinese TreeBank: Phrase Structure Annotation of a Large Corpus. Natural Language Engineering, 11(2):207–238, 61. ISSN1351-3249. 10.1017/S135132490400364X
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S135132490400364X [Google Scholar]
  67. Yu, Seunghak, Nilesh Kulkarni, Haejun Lee, and Jihie Kim
    2017 Syllable-level Neural Language Model for Agglutinative Language. InProceedings of the First Workshop on Subword and Character Level Models in NLP, pages92–96, Copenhagen, Denmark, 91. Association for Computational Linguistics. www.aclweb.org/anthology/W17-4113. 10.18653/v1/W17‑4113
    https://doi.org/10.18653/v1/W17-4113 [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.1075/kl.00008.par
Loading
/content/journals/10.1075/kl.00008.par
Loading

Data & Media loading...

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error