1887
Volume 6, Issue 1-2
  • ISSN 1879-9264
  • E-ISSN: 1879-9272
USD
Buy:$35.00 + Taxes

Abstract

Increasing our understanding about neuroprotective lifestyle variables has become a practical imperative in our aging society. Cognitive reserve (CR) refers to the use brain resources in a way that allows for coping with neuropathology and maintaining cognitive functioning. A growing body of evidence suggests that bilingualism may represent a form of CR against Alzheimer’s disease (AD). The purpose of the present review is to summarize both behavioral and neuroimaging evidence for bilingualism as a reserve variable against AD. The potential influences of literacy, intelligence, immigration status are discussed. Evidence is reviewed suggesting that bilingualism may delay clinical AD symptoms by protecting against age-related declines in the brain’s executive control circuitry. It is suggested that such potential beneficial effects within executive control systems may enable bilinguals to circumvent the typical effects of AD pathology on symptom expression for several years.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1075/lab.14028.gol
2016-03-01
2019-10-18
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

References

  1. Abutalebi, J. , Canini, M. , Della Rosa, P.A. , Sheung, L.P. , Green, D.W. , & Weekes, B.S.
    (2014) The neuroprotective effects of bilingualism upon the inferior parietal lobule: A Structural Neuroimaging Study in Aging Chinese Bilinguals. Journal of Neurolinguistics.
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Albert, M.S. , Jones, K. , Savage, C.R. , Berkman, L. , Seeman, T. , Blazer, D. , & Rowe, J.W.
    (1995) Predictors of cognitive change in older persons: MacArthur studies of successful aging. Psychol Aging, 10:578-589. doi: 10.1037/0882‑7974.10.4.578
    https://doi.org/10.1037/0882-7974.10.4.578 [Google Scholar]
  3. Alladi, S. , Bak, T.H. , Duggirala, V. , Surampudi, B. , Shailaja, M. , Shukla, A.K. , Chaudhuri, J.R. , & Kaul, S.
    (2013) Bilingualism delays age at onset of dementia, independent of education and immigration status. Neurology81:1938–1944. doi: 10.1212/01.wnl.0000436620.33155.a4
    https://doi.org/10.1212/01.wnl.0000436620.33155.a4 [Google Scholar]
  4. Amieva, H. , Jacqmin-Gadda, H. , Orgogozo, J.M. , Le Carret, N. , Helmer, C. , Letenneur, L. , Barberger-Gateau, P. , Fabrigoule, C. , & Dartigues, J.F.
    (2005) The 9 year cognitive decline before dementia of the Alzheimer type: a prospective population-based study. Brain128:1093–1101. doi: 10.1093/brain/awh451
    https://doi.org/10.1093/brain/awh451 [Google Scholar]
  5. Bak, T.H. , Nissan, J.J. , Allerhand, M.M. , & Deary, I.J.
    (2014) Does bilingualism influence cognitive aging? Ann Neurol75:959–963. doi: 10.1002/ana.24158
    https://doi.org/10.1002/ana.24158 [Google Scholar]
  6. Bennett, D.A. , Schneider, J.A. , Tang, Y. , Arnold, S.E. , & Wilson, R.S.
    (2006) The effect of social networks on the relation between Alzheimer's disease pathology and level of cognitive function in old people: a longitudinal cohort study. Lancet Neurol5:406–412. doi: 10.1016/S1474‑4422(06)70417‑3
    https://doi.org/10.1016/S1474-4422(06)70417-3 [Google Scholar]
  7. Bialystok, E. , & Craik, F.I.M.
    (2010) Cognitive and linguisitc processing in the bilingual mind. Current Directions in Psychological Science19:19–23. doi: 10.1177/0963721409358571
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0963721409358571 [Google Scholar]
  8. Bialystok, E. , Craik, F.I.M. , & Ryan, J.
    (2006) Executive control in a modified antisaccade task: Effects of aging and bilingualism. J Exp Psychol Learn Mem Cogn32:1341–1354. doi: 10.1037/0278‑7393.32.6.1341
    https://doi.org/10.1037/0278-7393.32.6.1341 [Google Scholar]
  9. Bialystok, E. , Craik, F.I.M. , & Freedman, M.
    (2007) Bilingualism as a protection against the onset of symptoms of dementia. Neuropsychologia45:459–464. doi: 10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2006.10.009
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2006.10.009 [Google Scholar]
  10. Bialystok, E. , Craik, F.I.M. , & Luk, G.
    (2012) Bilingualism: consequences for mind and brain. Trends Cogn Sci16:240–250. doi: 10.1016/j.tics.2012.03.001
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tics.2012.03.001 [Google Scholar]
  11. Birks, J.
    (2006) Cholinesterase inhibitors for Alzheimer's disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev:CD005593. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD005593
    https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD005593 [Google Scholar]
  12. Bradl, M. , & Lassmann, H.
    (2010) Oligodendrocytes: biology and pathology. Acta Neuropathol119:37–53. doi: 10.1007/s00401‑009‑0601‑5
    https://doi.org/10.1007/s00401-009-0601-5 [Google Scholar]
  13. Chertkow, H. , Whitehead, V. , Phillips, N. , Wolfson, C. , Atherton, J. , & Bergman, H.
    (2010) Multilingualism (but not always bilingualism) delays the onset of Alzheimer disease: evidence from a bilingual community. Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord24:118–125. doi: 10.1097/WAD.0b013e3181ca1221
    https://doi.org/10.1097/WAD.0b013e3181ca1221 [Google Scholar]
  14. Christensen, H.
    (2001) What cognitive changes can be expected with normal ageing? The Australian and New Zealand journal of psychiatry35:768–775. doi: 10.1046/j.1440‑1614.2001.00966.x
    https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1440-1614.2001.00966.x [Google Scholar]
  15. Chua, T.C. , Wen, W. , Slavin, M.J. , & Sachdev, P.S.
    (2008) Diffusion tensor imaging in mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease: a review. Curr Opin Neurol21:83–92. doi: 10.1097/WCO.0b013e3282f4594b
    https://doi.org/10.1097/WCO.0b013e3282f4594b [Google Scholar]
  16. Convit, A. , De Leon, M.J. , Tarshish, C. , De Santi, S. , Tsui, W. , Rusinek, H. , & George, A.
    (1997) Specific hippocampal volume reductions in individuals at risk for Alzheimer's disease. Neurobiol Aging18:131–138. doi: 10.1016/S0197‑4580(97)00001‑8
    https://doi.org/10.1016/S0197-4580(97)00001-8 [Google Scholar]
  17. Costa, A. , Hernandez, M. , & Sebastian-Galles, N.
    (2008) Bilingualism aids conflict resolution: evidence from the ANT task. Cognition106:59–86. doi: 10.1016/j.cognition.2006.12.013
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2006.12.013 [Google Scholar]
  18. Craik, F.I.M. , Bialystok, E. , & Freedman, M.
    (2010) Delaying the onset of Alzheimer disease: bilingualism as a form of cognitive reserve. Neurology75:1726–1729. doi: 10.1212/WNL.0b013e3181fc2a1c
    https://doi.org/10.1212/WNL.0b013e3181fc2a1c [Google Scholar]
  19. Craik, F.I.M. , & Salthouse, T.A.
    Eds (2008) The Handbook of Aging and Cognition, Third Edition. New York, NY: Psychology Press.
  20. Deary, I.J. , Gow, A.J. , Pattie, A. , & Starr, J.M.
    (2012) Cohort profile: the Lothian Birth Cohorts of 1921 and 1936. International journal of epidemiology41:1576–1584. doi: 10.1093/ije/dyr197
    https://doi.org/10.1093/ije/dyr197 [Google Scholar]
  21. Dickerson, B.C. , & Wolk, D.A.
    (2012) MRI cortical thickness biomarker predicts AD-like CSF and cognitive decline in normal adults. Neurology78:84–90. doi: 10.1212/WNL.0b013e31823efc6c
    https://doi.org/10.1212/WNL.0b013e31823efc6c [Google Scholar]
  22. Dickerson, B.C. , Bakkour, A. , Salat, D.H. , Feczko, E. , Pacheco, J. , Greve, D.N. , Grodstein, F. , Wright, C.I. , Blacker, D. , Rosas, H.D. , Sperling, R.A. , Atri, A. , Growdon, J.H. , Hyman, B.T. , Morris, J.C. , Fischl, B. , & Buckner, R.L.
    (2009) The cortical signature of Alzheimer's disease: regionally specific cortical thinning relates to symptom severity in very mild to mild AD dementia and is detectable in asymptomatic amyloid-positive individuals. Cereb Cortex19:497–510. doi: 10.1093/cercor/bhn113
    https://doi.org/10.1093/cercor/bhn113 [Google Scholar]
  23. Farrimond, L.E. , Roberts, E. , & McShane, R.
    (2012) Memantine and cholinesterase inhibitor combination therapy for Alzheimer's disease: a systematic review. BMJ open2. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen‑2012‑000917
    https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2012-000917 [Google Scholar]
  24. Fernandes, M.A. , Craik, F.I.M. , Bialystok, E. , & Kreuger, S.
    (2007) Effects of bilingualism, aging, and semantic relatedness on memory under divided attention. Can J Exp Psychol61:128–141. doi: 10.1037/cjep2007014
    https://doi.org/10.1037/cjep2007014 [Google Scholar]
  25. Gold, B.T. , Johnson, N.F. , Powell, D.K. , & Smith, C.D.
    (2012) White matter integrity and vulnerability to Alzheimer's disease: preliminary findings and future directions. Biochim Biophys Acta1822:416–422. doi: 10.1016/j.bbadis.2011.07.009
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbadis.2011.07.009 [Google Scholar]
  26. Gold, B.T. , Johnson, N.F. , & Powell, D.K.
    (2013a) Lifelong bilingualism contributes to cognitive reserve against white matter integrity declines in aging. Neuropsychologia51:2841–2846. doi: 10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2013.09.037
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2013.09.037 [Google Scholar]
  27. Gold, B.T. , Kim, C. , Johnson, N.F. , Kryscio, R.J. , & Smith, C.D.
    (2013b) Lifelong bilingualism maintains neural efficiency for cognitive control in aging. J Neurosci33:387–396. doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.3837‑12.2013
    https://doi.org/10.1523/JNEUROSCI.3837-12.2013 [Google Scholar]
  28. Gold, B.T.
    (2015) Lifelong Bilingualism and Neural Reserve against Alzheimer's disease: A Review of Findings and Potential Mechanisms. Behavioural Brain Research281C, 9–15. doi: 10.1016/j.bbr.2014.12.006
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbr.2014.12.006 [Google Scholar]
  29. Good, C.D. , Johnsrude, I.S. , Ashburner, J. , Henson, R.N. , Friston, K.J. , & Frackowiak, R.S.
    (2001) A voxel-based morphometric study of ageing in 465 normal adult human brains. Neuroimage14:21–36. doi: 10.1006/nimg.2001.0786
    https://doi.org/10.1006/nimg.2001.0786 [Google Scholar]
  30. Grady, C.L. , Luk, G. , Craik, F.I.M. , & Bialystok, E.
    (2015) Brain network activity in monolingual and bilingual older adults. Neuropsychologia66:170–181. doi: 10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2014.10.042
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2014.10.042 [Google Scholar]
  31. Green, D.W.
    (1998) Mental control of the bilingual lexico-semantic system. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition1:67–81. doi: 10.1017/S1366728998000133
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S1366728998000133 [Google Scholar]
  32. Green, D.W. , & Abutalebi, J.
    (2013) Language control in bilinguals: The adaptive control hypothesis. J Cogn Psychol (Hove) 25:515–530. doi: 10.1080/20445911.2013.796377
    https://doi.org/10.1080/20445911.2013.796377 [Google Scholar]
  33. Gyllensten, L. , & Malmfors, T.
    (1963) Myelinization of the optic nerve and its dependence on visual function--a quantitative investigation in mice. J Embryol Exp Morphol11:255–266.
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Hillman, C.H. , Erickson, K.I. , & Kramer, A.F.
    (2008) Be smart, exercise your heart: exercise effects on brain and cognition. Nat Rev Neurosci9:58–65. doi: 10.1038/nrn2298
    https://doi.org/10.1038/nrn2298 [Google Scholar]
  35. Jack, C.R., Jr. , Petersen, R.C. , Xu, Y.C. , Waring, S.C. , O'Brien, P.C. , Tangalos, E.G. , Smith, G.E. , Ivnik, R.J. , & Kokmen, E.
    (1997) Medial temporal atrophy on MRI in normal aging and very mild Alzheimer's disease. Neurology49:786–794. doi: 10.1212/WNL.49.3.786
    https://doi.org/10.1212/WNL.49.3.786 [Google Scholar]
  36. Josefsson, K. , Jokela, M. , Cloninger, C.R. , Hintsanen, M. , Salo, J. , Hintsa, T. , Pulkki-Raback, L. , & Keltikangas-Jarvinen, L.
    (2013) Maturity and change in personality: developmental trends of temperament and character in adulthood. Dev Psychopathol25:713–727. doi: 10.1017/S0954579413000126
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0954579413000126 [Google Scholar]
  37. Kemper, T.L.
    (1994) Neuroanatomical and neuropathological changes during aging and in dementia. In: Clinical Neurology of Aging ( Albert, M.L. , & Knoepfel, E.J.E. , eds), pp3–67. New York: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Kim, C. , Cilles, S.E. , Johnson, N.F. , & Gold, B.T.
    (2012) Domain general and domain preferential brain regions associated with different types of task switching: a meta-analysis. Hum Brain Mapp33:130–142. doi: 10.1002/hbm.21199
    https://doi.org/10.1002/hbm.21199 [Google Scholar]
  39. Luk, G. , Bialystok, E. , Craik, F.I.M. , & Grady, C.L.
    (2011) Lifelong bilingualism maintains white matter integrity in older adults. J Neurosci31:16808–16813. doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.4563‑11.2011
    https://doi.org/10.1523/JNEUROSCI.4563-11.2011 [Google Scholar]
  40. Madden, D.J. , Bennett, I.J. , Burzynska, A. , Potter, G.G. , Chen, N.K. , & Song, A.W.
    (2012) Diffusion tensor imaging of cerebral white matter integrity in cognitive aging. Biochim Biophys Acta1822:386–400. doi: 10.1016/j.bbadis.2011.08.003
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbadis.2011.08.003 [Google Scholar]
  41. Martensson, J. , Eriksson, J. , Bodammer, N.C. , Lindgren, M. , Johansson, M. , Nyberg, L. , & Lovden, M.
    (2012) Growth of language-related brain areas after foreign language learning. Neuroimage63:240–244. doi: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2012.06.043
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroimage.2012.06.043 [Google Scholar]
  42. Martin, S.B. , Smith, C.D. , Collins, H.R. , Schmitt, F.A. , & Gold, B.T.
    (2010) Evidence that volume of anterior medial temporal lobe is reduced in seniors destined for mild cognitive impairment. Neurobiol Aging31:1099–1106. doi: 10.1016/j.neurobiolaging.2008.08.010
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neurobiolaging.2008.08.010 [Google Scholar]
  43. Mayeux, R.
    (2003) Epidemiology of neurodegeneration. Annu Rev Neurosci26:81–104. doi: 10.1146/annurev.neuro.26.043002.094919
    https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.neuro.26.043002.094919 [Google Scholar]
  44. McKhann, G. , Drachman, D. , Folstein, M. , Katzman, R. , Price, D. , & Stadlan, E.M.
    (1984) Clinical diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease: report of the NINCDS-ADRDA Work Group under the auspices of Department of Health and Human Services Task Force on Alzheimer's Disease. Neurology34:939–944. doi: 10.1212/WNL.34.7.939
    https://doi.org/10.1212/WNL.34.7.939 [Google Scholar]
  45. Miller, E.K. , & Cohen, J.D.
    (2001) An integrative theory of prefrontal cortex function. Annu Rev Neurosci24:167–202. doi: 10.1146/annurev.neuro.24.1.167
    https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.neuro.24.1.167 [Google Scholar]
  46. Mortimer, J.A.
    (1997) Brain reserve and the clinical expression of Alzheimer's disease. Geriatrics 52 Suppl2:S50–53.
    [Google Scholar]
  47. Petrosini, L. , De Bartolo, P. , Foti, F. , Gelfo, F. , Cutuli, D. , Leggio, M.G. , & Mandolesi, L.
    (2009) On whether the environmental enrichment may provide cognitive and brain reserves. Brain research reviews61:221–239. doi: 10.1016/j.brainresrev.2009.07.002
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brainresrev.2009.07.002 [Google Scholar]
  48. Raz, N. , & Kennedy, K.M.
    (2009) A systems approach to age-related change: Neuroanatomical changes, their modifiers, and cognitive correlates. In: Imaging the Aging Brain ( Jagust, W. , & Desposito, M. , eds), pp43–70. New York, NY: Oxford University Press. doi: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195328875.003.0004
    https://doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195328875.003.0004 [Google Scholar]
  49. Raz, N. , Lindenberger, U. , Rodrigue, K.M. , Kennedy, K.M. , Head, D. , Williamson, A. , Dahle, C. , Gerstorf, D. , & Acker, J.D.
    (2005) Regional brain changes in aging healthy adults: general trends, individual differences and modifiers. Cereb Cortex15:1676–1689. doi: 10.1093/cercor/bhi044
    https://doi.org/10.1093/cercor/bhi044 [Google Scholar]
  50. Resnick, S.M. , Pham, D.L. , Kraut, M.A. , Zonderman, A.B. , & Davatzikos, C.
    (2003) Longitudinal magnetic resonance imaging studies of older adults: a shrinking brain. J Neurosci23:3295–3301.
    [Google Scholar]
  51. Richards, M. , & Deary, I.J.
    (2005) A life course approach to cognitive reserve: a model for cognitive aging and development? Ann Neurol58:617–622. doi: 10.1002/ana.20637
    https://doi.org/10.1002/ana.20637 [Google Scholar]
  52. Riley, K.P. , Snowdon, D.A. , & Markesbery, W.R.
    (2002) Alzheimer's neurofibrillary pathology and the spectrum of cognitive function: findings from the Nun Study. Ann Neurol51:567–577. doi: 10.1002/ana.10161
    https://doi.org/10.1002/ana.10161 [Google Scholar]
  53. Robbins, T.W. , & Arnsten, A.F.
    (2009) The neuropsychopharmacology of fronto-executive function: monoaminergic modulation. Annu Rev Neurosci32:267–287. doi: 10.1146/annurev.neuro.051508.135535
    https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.neuro.051508.135535 [Google Scholar]
  54. Salthouse, T.A.
    (1996) The processing-speed theory of adult age differences in cognition. Psychol Rev103:403–428. doi: 10.1037/0033‑295X.103.3.403
    https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-295X.103.3.403 [Google Scholar]
  55. Schaie, K.W.
    (1996) Intellectual Development in Adulthood: The Seattle Longitudinal Study. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  56. Schmidtke, K. , & Hull, M.
    (2005) Cerebral small vessel disease: how does it progress? J Neurol Sci229–230:13–20.
    [Google Scholar]
  57. Schweizer, T.A. , Ware, J. , Fischer, C.E. , Craik, F.I.M. , & Bialystok, E.
    (2012) Bilingualism as a contributor to cognitive reserve: evidence from brain atrophy in Alzheimer's disease. Cortex48:991–996. doi: 10.1016/j.cortex.2011.04.009
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cortex.2011.04.009 [Google Scholar]
  58. Shaw, L.M. , Vanderstichele, H. , Knapik-Czajka, M. , Clark, C.M. , Aisen, P.S. , Petersen, R.C. , Blennow, K. , Soares, H. , Simon, A. , Lewczuk, P. , Dean, R. , Siemers, E. , Potter, W. , Lee, V.M. , & Trojanowski, J.Q.
    (2009) Cerebrospinal fluid biomarker signature in Alzheimer's disease neuroimaging initiative subjects. Ann Neurol65:403–413. doi: 10.1002/ana.21610
    https://doi.org/10.1002/ana.21610 [Google Scholar]
  59. Smith, C.D. , Chebrolu, H. , Wekstein, D.R. , Schmitt, F.A. , & Markesbery, W.R.
    (2007) Age and gender effects on human brain anatomy: a voxel-based morphometric study in healthy elderly. Neurobiol Aging28:1075–1087. doi: 10.1016/j.neurobiolaging.2006.05.018
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neurobiolaging.2006.05.018 [Google Scholar]
  60. Smith, C.N. , & Squire, L.R.
    (2009) Medial temporal lobe activity during retrieval of semantic memory is related to the age of the memory. J Neurosci29:930–938. doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.4545‑08.2009
    https://doi.org/10.1523/JNEUROSCI.4545-08.2009 [Google Scholar]
  61. Spires, T.L. , & Hannan, A.J.
    (2005) Nature, nurture and neurology: gene-environment interactions in neurodegenerative disease. FEBS Anniversary Prize Lecture delivered on 27 June 2004 at the 29th FEBS Congress in Warsaw. FEBS J272:2347–2361.
    [Google Scholar]
  62. Spreng, R.N. , Sepulcre, J. , Turner, G.R. , Stevens, W.D. , & Schacter, D.L.
    (2013) Intrinsic architecture underlying the relations among the default, dorsal attention, and frontoparietal control networks of the human brain. J Cogn Neurosci25:74–86. doi: 10.1162/jocn_a_00281
    https://doi.org/10.1162/jocn_a_00281 [Google Scholar]
  63. Squire, L.R.
    (1992) Memory and the hippocampus: a synthesis from findings with rats, monkeys, and humans. Psychol Rev99:195–231. doi: 10.1037/0033‑295X.99.2.195
    https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-295X.99.2.195 [Google Scholar]
  64. Stebbins, G.T. , & Murphy, C.M.
    (2009) Diffusion tensor imaging in Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment. Behav Neurol21:39–49. doi: 10.1155/2009/915041
    https://doi.org/10.1155/2009/915041 [Google Scholar]
  65. Steffener, J. , & Stern, Y.
    (2012) Exploring the neural basis of cognitive reserve in aging. Biochim Biophys Acta1822:467–473. doi: 10.1016/j.bbadis.2011.09.012
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbadis.2011.09.012 [Google Scholar]
  66. Stein, M. , Federspiel, A. , Koenig, T. , Wirth, M. , Strik, W. , Wiest, R. , Brandeis, D. , & Dierks, T.
    (2012) Structural plasticity in the language system related to increased second language proficiency. Cortex48:458–465. doi: 10.1016/j.cortex.2010.10.007
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cortex.2010.10.007 [Google Scholar]
  67. Stern, Y. , Alexander, G.E. , Prohovnik, I. , & Mayeux, R.
    (1992) Inverse relationship between education and parietotemporal perfusion deficit in Alzheimer's disease. Ann Neurol. 32:371–5. doi: 10.1002/ana.410320311
    https://doi.org/10.1002/ana.410320311 [Google Scholar]
  68. Stern, Y.
    (2002) What is cognitive reserve? Theory and research application of the reserve concept. J Int Neuropsychol Soc8:448–460. doi: 10.1017/S1355617702813248
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S1355617702813248 [Google Scholar]
  69. (2009) Cognitive reserve. Neuropsychologia47:2015–2028. doi: 10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2009.03.004
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2009.03.004 [Google Scholar]
  70. Tisserand, D.J. , van Boxtel, M.P. , Pruessner, J.C. , Hofman, P. , Evans, A.C. , & Jolles, J.
    (2004) A voxel-based morphometric study to determine individual differences in gray matter density associated with age and cognitive change over time. Cereb Cortex14:966–973. doi: 10.1093/cercor/bhh057
    https://doi.org/10.1093/cercor/bhh057 [Google Scholar]
  71. Valenzuela, M.J. , & Sachdev, P.
    (2006) Brain reserve and dementia: a systematic review. Psychol Med36:441–454. doi: 10.1017/S0033291705006264
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0033291705006264 [Google Scholar]
  72. Van Dijk, K.R.A. , Van Gerven, P.W.M. , Van Boxtel, M.P.J. , Van der Elst, W. , & Jolles, J.
    (2008) No Protective Effects of Education During Normal Cognitive Aging: Results From the 6-Year Follow-Up of the Maastricht Aging Study. Psychology and Aging23:119–130. doi: 10.1037/0882‑7974.23.1.119
    https://doi.org/10.1037/0882-7974.23.1.119 [Google Scholar]
  73. Vlassenko, A.G. , Benzinger, T.L. , & Morris, J.C.
    (2012) PET amyloid-beta imaging in preclinical Alzheimer's disease. Biochim Biophys Acta1822:370–379. doi: 10.1016/j.bbadis.2011.11.005
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbadis.2011.11.005 [Google Scholar]
  74. Yeung, C.M. , St John, P.D. , Menec, V. , & Tyas, S.L.
    (2014) Is Bilingualism Associated With a Lower Risk of Dementia in Community-living Older Adults? Cross-sectional and Prospective Analyses. Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord. doi: 10.1097/WAD.0000000000000019
    https://doi.org/10.1097/WAD.0000000000000019 [Google Scholar]
  75. Zahodne, L.B. , Schofield, P.W. , Farrell, M.T. , Stern, Y. , & Manly, J.J.
    (2014) Bilingualism does not alter cognitive decline or dementia risk among Spanish-speaking immigrants. Neuropsychology28:238–246. doi: 10.1037/neu0000014
    https://doi.org/10.1037/neu0000014 [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.1075/lab.14028.gol
Loading
/content/journals/10.1075/lab.14028.gol
Loading

Data & Media loading...

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error