1887
Volume 7, Issue 3-4
  • ISSN 1879-9264
  • E-ISSN: 1879-9272
USD
Buy:$35.00 + Taxes

Abstract

The current study assessed independent and combined effects of SLI and bilingualism on tasks tapping into verbal short-term memory (vSTM) with varying linguistic load in two languages (Russian and Hebrew). The study explored the extent to which the presence of SLI is related to limited vSTM storage and bilingualism is associated with reduced vocabulary size.

A total of 190 monolingual and bilingual children aged 5;5–6;8 participated in the current study: 108 sequential Russian-Hebrew bilinguals (18 with SLI), 48 Hebrew monolinguals (13 with SLI) and 34 Russian monolinguals (14 with SLI). Children performed three repetition tasks: forward-digit span (FWD), non-word repetition (NWR) and sentence repetition (SRep); bilingual children were tested in both of their languages.

Results indicated a negative effect of SLI on all experimental tasks tapping into vSTM. The effect of SLI rose as a function of increased linguistic load. Regarding bilingualism, no effect was found on the measure of vSTM with the lowest linguistic load (FWD), while its effect was robust once the linguistic load was increased (SRep). The results reported in this study bring evidence that lower performance on measures of vSTM in children with SLI and bilingual children stem from different sources. Although, children with SLI have limitations of vSTM, deficient vSTM cannot fully account for the linguistic difficulties observed in children with SLI. As for bilingualism, it does not affect verbal storage when the linguistic load is minimal, while poor performance in bilingual children on tasks with greater linguistic load is attributed to smaller vocabulary sizes.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1075/lab.15033.mei
2017-02-02
2019-10-19
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

References

  1. Abutbul-Oz, H. , Armon-Lotem, S. , & Walters, J.
    (2012) Bilingual Parents Questionnaire (BIPAQ).Ramat Gan: Bar-Ilan University.
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Alloway, T. P. , & Gathercole, S. E.
    (2005a) The role of sentence recall in reading and language skills of children with learning difficulties. Learning and Individual Differences, 15(4), 271–282. doi: 10.1016/j.lindif.2005.05.001
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lindif.2005.05.001 [Google Scholar]
  3. (2005b) Working memory and short-term sentence recall in young children. European Journal of Cognitive Psychology, 17(2), 207–220. doi: 10.1080/09541440440000005
    https://doi.org/10.1080/09541440440000005 [Google Scholar]
  4. Altman, C. , Harel, E. , Meir, N. , Iluz-Cohen, P. , Walters, J. , & Armon-Lotem, S.
    (2014) Can the Goralnik (1995) be used to screen bilingual children? Focus on Accuracy and Specificity. Presented atthe conference on multilingualism and multi-culturalism in communication disorders. Hadassah Academic College.
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Antoniou, M. , Liang, E. , Ettlinger, M. , & Wong, P. C. M.
    (2015) The bilingual advantage in phonetic learning. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 18(4), 683–695. doi: 10.1017/S1366728914000777
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S1366728914000777 [Google Scholar]
  6. Archibald, L. M. , & Gathercole, S. E.
    (2006) Short-term and working memory in specific language impairment. International Journal of Language & Communication Disorders, 41(6), 675–693. doi: 10.1080/13682820500442602
    https://doi.org/10.1080/13682820500442602 [Google Scholar]
  7. Armon-Lotem, S. , & Chiat, S.
    (2012) How do sequential bilingual children perform on non-word repetition tasks?In A. K. Biller , E. Y. Chung , & A. E. Kimball (Eds.), Proceedings of the 36th annual Boston University Conference on Language Development. (pp.53–62). Somerville, MA: Cascadilla Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Armon-Lotem, S. , & Meir, N.
    (2016) Diagnostic accuracy of repetition tasks for the identification of specific language impairment (SLI) in bilingual children: evidence from Russian and Hebrew. International Journal of Language & Communication Disorders. Published online before print. doi: 10.1111/1460‑6984.12242
    https://doi.org/10.1111/1460-6984.12242 [Google Scholar]
  9. Armon-Lotem, S. , Gagarina, N. , & Walters, J.
    (2011) The impact of internal and external factors on linguistic performance in the home language and in L2 among Russian-Hebrew and Russian-German preschool children. Linguistic Approaches to Bilingualism, 1(3), 291–317. doi: 10.1075/lab.1.3.04arm
    https://doi.org/10.1075/lab.1.3.04arm [Google Scholar]
  10. Baddeley, A. , Vallar, G. , & Wilson, B.
    (1987) Sentence comprehension and phonological memory: Some neuropsychological evidence. In M. Coltheart (Ed.), Attention and Performance XII (pp.509–529). London: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Baddeley, A.
    (2001) Is Working Memory still working?American Psychologist, 56(11), 851–864. doi: 10.1037/0003‑066X.56.11.851
    https://doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.56.11.851 [Google Scholar]
  12. Baddeley, A. , Gathercole, S. E. , & Papagno, C.
    (1998) The Phonological Loop as a Language Learning Device. Psychological Review, 105(1), 158–173. doi: 10.1037/0033‑295X.105.1.158
    https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-295X.105.1.158 [Google Scholar]
  13. Bialystok, E. , & Shapero, D.
    (2005) Ambiguous benefits: The effect of bilingualism on reversing ambiguous figures. Developmental Science, 8(6), 595–604. doi: 10.1111/j.1467‑7687.2005.00451.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-7687.2005.00451.x [Google Scholar]
  14. Bialystok, E. , Luk, G. , Peets, K. F. , & Yang, S.
    (2010) Receptive vocabulary differences in monolingual and bilingual children. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 13(4), 525–531. doi: 10.1017/S1366728909990423
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S1366728909990423 [Google Scholar]
  15. Bishop, D. V.
    (1992) The Underlying Nature of Specific Language Impairment. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 33(1), 3–66. doi: 10.1111/j.1469‑7610.1992.tb00858.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7610.1992.tb00858.x [Google Scholar]
  16. Buac, M. , Gross, M. , & Kaushanskaya, M.
    (2016) Predictors of processing-based task performance in bilingual and monolingual children. Journal of Communication Disorders, 62(0), 12–29. doi: 10.1016/j.jcomdis.2016.04.001
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcomdis.2016.04.001 [Google Scholar]
  17. Chiat, S.
    (2015) Nonword Repetition. In S. Armon-Lotem , J. de Jong , & N. Meir (Eds.), Assessing Multilingual Children: Disentangling Bilingualism from Language Impairment (pp.125–150). Bristol: Multilingual Matters.
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Chiat, S. , Armon-Lotem, S. , Marinis, T. , Polišenská, K. , Roy, P. , & Seeff-Gabriel, B.
    (2013) Chiat, Armon-Lotem, Marinis, Polisenska, Roy, & Seeff-Gabriel (2013). In V. Mueller Gathercole (Ed.), Issues in the Assessment of Bilinguals (pp.56–89). Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Chondrogianni, V. , Marinis,T. , Edwards, S. , & Blom, E.
    (2015) Production and on-line comprehension of definite articles and clitic pronouns by Greek sequential bilingual children and monolingual children with specific language impairment. Applied Psycholinguistics, 36(5), 1155–1191. doi: 10.1017/S0142716414000101
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0142716414000101 [Google Scholar]
  20. Cohen, J.
    (1969) Statistical power analysis for the behavioural sciences. New York: Academic Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Conti-Ramsden, G. , Botting, N. , & Faragher, B.
    (2001) Psycholinguistic Markers for Specific Language Impairment (SLI). Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 42(6), 741–748. doi: 10.1111/1469‑7610.00770
    https://doi.org/10.1111/1469-7610.00770 [Google Scholar]
  22. Engel de Abreu, P. M.
    (2011) Working memory in multilingual children: Is there a bilingual effect?Memory, 19(5), 529–537. doi: 10.1080/09658211.2011.590504
    https://doi.org/10.1080/09658211.2011.590504 [Google Scholar]
  23. Engel de Abreu, P. M. , Baldassi, M. , Puglisi, M. L. , & Befi-Lopes, D. M.
    (2013) Cross-Linguistic and Cross-Cultural Effects on Verbal Working Memory and Vocabulary: Testing Language Minority Children with an Immigrant Background. Journal of Speech, Language and Hearing Research, 56(2), 630–642. doi: 10.1044/1092‑4388(2012/12‑0079)
    https://doi.org/10.1044/1092-4388(2012/12-0079) [Google Scholar]
  24. Gagarina, N. , Klassert, A. , & Topaj, N.
    (2010) Russian language proficiency test for multilingual children. ZAS Papers in Linguistics54. Sonderheft. Berlin: ZAS.
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Gathercole, S. E.
    (1995) Is nonword repetition a test of phonological memory or long-term knowledge? It all depends on the nonwords. Memory & Cognition, 23(1), 83–94. doi: 10.3758/BF03210559
    https://doi.org/10.3758/BF03210559 [Google Scholar]
  26. Gathercole, S. E. , Pickering, S. J. , Hall, M. , & Peaker, S. M.
    (2001) Dissociable lexical and phonological inttuences on serial recognition and serial recall. The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 54A(1), 1–30. doi: 10.1080/02724980042000002
    https://doi.org/10.1080/02724980042000002 [Google Scholar]
  27. Gathercole, S. E. , Tiffany, C. , Briscoe, J. , Thorn, A. , &
    The ALSPAC team. (2004) Developmental consequences of poor phonological short-term memory function in childhood: a longitudinal study. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 45(0), 1–14.
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Gathercole, S. , & Baddeley, A.
    (1990) Phonological memory deficits in language disordered children: Is there a causal connection?Journal of Memory and Language, 29(3), 336–360. doi: 10.1016/0749‑596X(90)90004‑J
    https://doi.org/10.1016/0749-596X(90)90004-J [Google Scholar]
  29. Goralnik, E.
    (1995 ) Goralnik Screening Test for Hebrew. Even Yehuda: Matan.
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Graf Estes, K. , Evans, J. L. , & Else-Quest, N. M.
    (2007) Differences in the nonword repetition performance of children with and without specific language impairment: a meta-analysis. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 50(1), 177–195. doi: 10.1044/1092‑4388(2007/015)
    https://doi.org/10.1044/1092-4388(2007/015) [Google Scholar]
  31. Gray, S.
    (2003) Diagnostic accuracy and test-retest reliability of nonword repetition and digit span tasks administered to preschool children with specific language impairment. Journal of Communication Disorders, 36(2), 129–151. doi: 10.1016/S0021‑9924(03)00003‑0
    https://doi.org/10.1016/S0021-9924(03)00003-0 [Google Scholar]
  32. Gutiérrez-Clellen, V. F. , & Simon-Cereijido, G.
    (2010) Using Nonword Repetition Tasks for the Identification of Language Impairment in Spanish-English-Speaking Children: Does the Language of Assessment Matter?Learning Disabilities Research & Practice, 25(1), 48–58. doi: 10.1111/j.1540‑5826.2009.00300.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-5826.2009.00300.x [Google Scholar]
  33. Iluz-Cohen, P. , & Armon-Lotem, S.
    (2013) Language proficiency and executive control in bilingual children. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 16(4), 884–899. doi: 10.1017/S1366728912000788
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S1366728912000788 [Google Scholar]
  34. Kogan, N.
    (2011) Monolingual and Bilingual Children’s Acquisition of Basic Linguistic Prerequisites of Reading. (Unublished PhD thesis. Ramat-Gan: Bar-Ilan University).
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Laloi, A.
    (2015) Language and executive functioning in the context of specific language impairment and bilingualism. PhD thesis. Amsterdam: University of Amsterdam.
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Leonard, L. B.
    (2014) Children with specific language impairment. Cambridge, Mass: The MIT Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Leonard, L. B. , Dromi, E. , & Adam, G.
    (2000) Tense and finiteness in the speech of children with specic language impairment acquiring Hebrew, International Journal of Language & Communication Disorders, 35(3), 319–335. doi: 10.1080/136828200410609
    https://doi.org/10.1080/136828200410609 [Google Scholar]
  38. Marinis, T. , & Armon-Lotem, S.
    (2015) Sentence Repetition. In S. Armon-Lotem , J. de Jong , & N. Meir (Eds.), Assessing Multilingual Children: Disentangling bilingualism from language impairment (pp.95–124). Bristol: Multilingual Matters.
    [Google Scholar]
  39. Marshall, C. R. , & van der Lely, H. K.
    (2009) Effects of Word Position and Stress on Onset Cluster Production: Evidence from Typical Development, Specific Language Impairment, and Dyslexia. Language, 85(1), 39–57. doi: 10.1353/lan.0.0081
    https://doi.org/10.1353/lan.0.0081 [Google Scholar]
  40. Meir, N. , & Amon-Lotem, S.
    (2015) Disentangling bilingualism from SLI in Heritage Russian: The impact of L2 properties and length of exposure to the L2. In C. Hamann & E. Ruigendijk (Eds.). Language Acquisition and Development: Proceedings of GALA 2013 (pp.299–314). Newcastle upon Tyne, UK: Cambridge Scholars Publishing.
    [Google Scholar]
  41. Meir, N. , Walters, J. , & Armon-Lotem, S.
    (2016) Disentangling SLI and bilingualism using Sentence Repetition Tasks: the impact of L1 and TL properties. International Journal of Bilingualism, 20(4), 421–452. doi: 10.1177/1367006915609240
    https://doi.org/10.1177/1367006915609240 [Google Scholar]
  42. Messer, M. H. , Leseman, P. P. , Boom, J. , & Mayo, A.
    (2010) Phonotactic probability effect in nonword recall and its relationship with vocabulary in monolingual and bilingual preschoolers. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 105(4), 306–323. doi: 10.1016/j.jecp.2009.12.006
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jecp.2009.12.006 [Google Scholar]
  43. Metsala, J. L.
    (1999) Young children’s phonological awareness and nonword repetition as a function of vocabulary development. Journal of Educational Psychology, 91(1), 3–19. doi: 10.1037/0022‑0663.91.1.3
    https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-0663.91.1.3 [Google Scholar]
  44. Mor-Sommerfeld, A. , Azaiza, F. , & Hertz-Lazarowitz, R.
    (2007) Into the future: towards bilingual education in Israel. Education, Citizenship And Social Justice, 2(1), 5–22. doi: 10.1177/1746197907072123
    https://doi.org/10.1177/1746197907072123 [Google Scholar]
  45. Paradis, J.
    (2010) The interface between bilingual development and specific language impairment. Applied Psycholinguistics, 31(2), 227–252. doi: 10.1017/S0142716409990373
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0142716409990373 [Google Scholar]
  46. Pavlenko, A.
    (2008) Multilingualism in Post-Soviet Countries: Language Revival, Language Removal, and Sociolinguistic Theory. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 11(3–4), 275–314. doi: 10.1080/13670050802271517
    https://doi.org/10.1080/13670050802271517 [Google Scholar]
  47. Polišenská, K. , Chiat, S. , & Roy, P.
    (2015) Sentence repetition: What does the task measure?International Journal of Language and Communication Disorders, 50(1), 106–118. doi: 10.1111/1460‑6984.12126
    https://doi.org/10.1111/1460-6984.12126 [Google Scholar]
  48. Raven, J.
    (1998) Raven’s Coloured Progressive Matrices. San Antonio, TX: Psychological Corporation.
    [Google Scholar]
  49. Rice, M. , & Wexler, K.
    (1996) Toward Tense as a Clinical Marker of Specific Language Impairment in English-Speaking Children. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 39(6), 1239–1257. doi: 10.1044/jshr.3906.1239
    https://doi.org/10.1044/jshr.3906.1239 [Google Scholar]
  50. Richardson, J. T. E.
    (2007) Measures of short-term memory: A historical review. Cortex, 43(5), 635–650. doi: 10.1016/S0010‑9452(08)70493‑3
    https://doi.org/10.1016/S0010-9452(08)70493-3 [Google Scholar]
  51. (2011) Eta squared and partial eta squared as measures of effect size in educational research. Educational Research Review, 6(2), 135–147. doi: 10.1016/j.edurev.2010.12.001
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.edurev.2010.12.001 [Google Scholar]
  52. Riches, N. G.
    (2012) Sentence repetition in children with specific language impairment: an investigation of underlying mechanisms. International Journal of Language & Communication Disorders, 47(5), 499–510. doi: 10.1111/j.1460‑6984.2012.00158.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1460-6984.2012.00158.x [Google Scholar]
  53. Rispens, J. , & Baker, A.
    (2012) Nonword Repetition: The Relative Contributions of Phonological Short-Term Memory and Phonological Representations in Children with Language and Reading Impairment. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 55(3), 683–694. doi: 10.1044/1092‑4388(2011/10‑0263)
    https://doi.org/10.1044/1092-4388(2011/10-0263) [Google Scholar]
  54. Roy, P. , & Chiat, S.
    (2004) A Prosodically Controlled Word and Nonword Repetition Task for 2- to 4-Year-Olds: Evidence From Typically Developing Children. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 47(1), 223–234. doi: 10.1044/1092‑4388(2004/019)
    https://doi.org/10.1044/1092-4388(2004/019) [Google Scholar]
  55. Sharp, K. M. , & Gathercole, V. C.
    (2013) Can a novel word repetition task be a language-neutral assessment tool? Evidence from Welsh -English bilingual children. Child Language Teaching and Therapy, 29(1), 77–89. doi: 10.1177/0265659012465208
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0265659012465208 [Google Scholar]
  56. Smolík, F. , & Vávru, P.
    (2014) Sentence imitation as a marker of SLI in Czech: disproportionate impairment of verbs and clitics. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 57(3), 837–849. doi: 10.1044/2014_JSLHR‑L‑12‑0384
    https://doi.org/10.1044/2014_JSLHR-L-12-0384 [Google Scholar]
  57. Summers, C. , Bohman, T. M. , Gillam, R. B. , Bedore, L. M. , & Peña, E. D.
    (2010) Bilingual performance on nonword repetition in Spanish and English. International Journal of Language & Communication Disorders, 45(4), 480–493. doi: 10.3109/13682820903198058
    https://doi.org/10.3109/13682820903198058 [Google Scholar]
  58. Thordardottir, E.
    (2015) Proposed Diagnostic Procedures for Use in Bilingual and Cross-Linguistic Contexts. In S. Armon-Lotem , J. de Jong , & N. Meir (Eds.), Assessing Multilingual Children: Disentangling Bilingualism from Language Impairmen (pp.331–358). Bristol: Multilingual Matters.
    [Google Scholar]
  59. Thordardottir, E. , & Brandeker, M.
    (2013) The effect of bilingual exposure versus language impairment on nonword repetition and sentence imitation scores. Journal of Communication Disorders, 46(1), 1–16. doi: 10.1016/j.jcomdis.2012.08.002
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcomdis.2012.08.002 [Google Scholar]
  60. Thordardottir, E. , Kehayia, E. , Mazer, B. , Lessard, N. , Majnemer, A. , Sutton, A. , Trudeau, N. , & Chilingaryan, G.
    (2011) Sensitivity and specificity of French language and processing measures for the identification of primary language impairment at age 5. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 54(2), 580–597. doi: 10.1044/1092‑4388(2010/09‑0196)
    https://doi.org/10.1044/1092-4388(2010/09-0196) [Google Scholar]
  61. Thorn, A. S. , & Gathercole, S. E.
    (2001) Language differences in verbal short-term memory do not exclusively originate in the process of subvocal rehearsal. Psychonomic Bulletin and Review, 8(2), 357–364. doi: 10.3758/BF03196173
    https://doi.org/10.3758/BF03196173 [Google Scholar]
  62. van der Lely, H. K. J. , Rosen, S. , & Adlard, A.
    (2004) Grammatical language impairment and the specificity of cognitive domains: Relations between auditory and language abilities. Cognition, 94(2), 167–183. doi: 10.1016/j.cognition.2004.01.003
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2004.01.003 [Google Scholar]
  63. Verhoeven, L. , Steenge, J. , & van Balkom, H.
    (2012) Linguistic transfer in bilingual children with specific language impairment. International Journal of Communication Disorders, 47(2), 76–183. doi: 10.1111/j.1460‑6984.2011.00092.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1460-6984.2011.00092.x [Google Scholar]
  64. Wechsler, D.
    (1998) Wechsler Scales of Intelligence-R 95: Hebrew Version. Jerusalem, Israel: Ministry of Education; 1998.
    [Google Scholar]
  65. Willis, C. S. , & Gathercole, S. E.
    (2001) Phonological short-term memory contributions to sentence processing in young children. Memory, 9(4–6), 49–363.
    [Google Scholar]
  66. Windsor, J. , Kohnert, K. , Lobitz, K. F. , & Pham, G. T.
    (2010) Cross-language nonword repetition by bilingual and monolingual children. American Jornal of Speech-Language Pathology, 19(4), 298–310. doi: 10.1044/1058‑0360(2010/09‑0064)
    https://doi.org/10.1044/1058-0360(2010/09-0064) [Google Scholar]
  67. Ziethe, A. , Eysholdt, U. , & Doellinger, M.
    (2013) Sentence repetition and digit span: Potential markers of bilingual children with suspected SLI?Logopedics Phoniatrics Vocology, 38(1), 1–10. doi: 10.3109/14015439.2012.664652
    https://doi.org/10.3109/14015439.2012.664652 [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.1075/lab.15033.mei
Loading
/content/journals/10.1075/lab.15033.mei
Loading

Data & Media loading...

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error