1887
Volume 6, Issue 5
  • ISSN 1879-9264
  • E-ISSN: 1879-9272
USD
Buy:$35.00 + Taxes

Abstract

While findings on the bilingual advantage in adults are mixed, the data from children are more consistent but still show variations. A number of factors influence the outcomes, such as individual bilingual characteristics, variations in target functions, and differences in task type. Our goal is to demonstrate that there is a complex relationship among these variables and that the outcomes of executive function (EF) studies depend on the interactions among these factors. Performance on EF is influenced by children's language proficiency, language use, age, socioeconomic status, and culture. These individual features show different interactions with different executive components. Bilingual and monolingual children differ in some EFs but not in others. Variations in tasks and other measurement issues further increase the differences in the results. We may better understand the nature of the bilingual advantage in children if we combine aspects of developmental science and language processing with hypotheses about bilingualism.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1075/lab.15038.mar
2016-05-10
2019-10-15
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

References

  1. Barac, R. & Bialystok, E.
    (2012) Bilingual effects on cognitive and linguistic development: Role of language, cultural background, and education. Child Development, 83 (2), 413–422. doi: 10.1111/j.1467‑8624.2011.01707.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8624.2011.01707.x [Google Scholar]
  2. Bialystok, E.
    (2010) Global–local and trail-making tasks by monolingual and bilingual children: Beyond inhibition. Developmental Psychology, 46 (1), 93. doi: 10.1037/a0015466
    https://doi.org/10.1037/a0015466 [Google Scholar]
  3. Bialystok, E. , & Feng, X.
    (2009) Language proficiency and executive control in proactive interference: evidence from monolingual and bilingual children and adults. Brain and Language, 109, 93–100. doi: 10.1016/j.bandl.2008.09.001
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bandl.2008.09.001 [Google Scholar]
  4. Bialystok, E. , Luk, G. , Peets, K. F. , & Yang, S.
    (2010) Receptive vocabulary differences in monolingual and bilingual children. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 13 (4), 525–531. doi: 10.1017/S1366728909990423
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S1366728909990423 [Google Scholar]
  5. Bialystok, E. , & Viswanathan, M.
    (2009) Components of executive control with advantages for bilingual children in two cultures. Cognition, 112 (3), 494–500. doi: 10.1016/j.cognition.2009.06.014
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2009.06.014 [Google Scholar]
  6. Bjorklund, D. F. , & Harnishfeger, K. K.
    (1990) The resources construct in cognitive development: Diverse sources of evidence and a theory of inefficient inhibition. Developmental Review, 10 (1), 48–71. doi: 10.1016/0273‑2297(90)90004‑N
    https://doi.org/10.1016/0273-2297(90)90004-N [Google Scholar]
  7. Blom, E. , Küntay, A. C. , Messer, M. , Verhagen, J. , & Leseman, P.
    (2014) The benefits of being bilingual: Working memory in bilingual Turkish-Dutch children. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 128, 105–119. doi: 10.1016/j.jecp.2014.06.007
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jecp.2014.06.007 [Google Scholar]
  8. Bonifacci, P. , Giombini, L. , Bellocchi, S. , & Contento, S.
    (2011) Speed of processing, anticipation, inhibition and working memory in bilinguals. Developmental Science, 14 (2), 256–269. doi: 10.1111/j.1467‑7687.2010.00974.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-7687.2010.00974.x [Google Scholar]
  9. Carlson, S. M. , & Meltzoff, A. N.
    (2008) Bilingual experience and executive functioning in young children. Developmental Science, 11 (2), 282–298. doi: 10.1111/j.1467‑7687.2008.00675.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-7687.2008.00675.x [Google Scholar]
  10. Cepeda, N. J. , Blackwell, K. A. , & Munakata, Y.
    (2013) Speed isn't everything: Complex processing speed measures mask individual differences and developmental changes in executive control. Developmental Science, 16 (2), 269–286. doi: 10.1111/desc.12024
    https://doi.org/10.1111/desc.12024 [Google Scholar]
  11. Crowe, S. F.
    (1998) The differential contribution of mental tracking, cognitive flexibility, visual search, and motor speed to performance on parts A and B of the Trail Making Test. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 54 (5), 585–591. doi: 10.1002/(SICI)1097‑4679(199808)54:5%3C585::AID‑JCLP4%3E3.0.CO;2‑K
    https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1097-4679(199808)54:5%3C585::AID-JCLP4%3E3.0.CO;2-K [Google Scholar]
  12. De Houwer, A. , Bornstein, M. H. , & Putnick, D. L.
    (2013) A bilingual–monolingual comparison of young children's vocabulary size: Evidence from comprehension and production. Applied Psycholinguistics, 35 (6), 1189–1211. doi: 10.1017/S0142716412000744
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0142716412000744 [Google Scholar]
  13. Dunabeitia, J. A. , Hernandez, J.A. , Anton, E. , Macizo, P. , Estevez, A. , Fuentes, L. J. , & Carreiras, M.
    (2014) The Inhibitory Advantage in Bilingual Children Revisited Myth or Reality?Experimental Psychology, 61 (3), 234–251. doi: 10.1027/1618‑3169/a000243
    https://doi.org/10.1027/1618-3169/a000243 [Google Scholar]
  14. Dutilh, G. , Vandekerckhove, J. , Forstmann, B. U. , Keuleers, E. , Brysbaert, M. , & Wagenmakers, E. J.
    (2012) Testing theories of post-error slowing. Attention, Perception, & Psychophysics, 74 (2), 454–465. doi: 10.3758/s13414‑011‑0243‑2
    https://doi.org/10.3758/s13414-011-0243-2 [Google Scholar]
  15. Eichorn, N. , Marton, K. , Campanelli, L. , & Scheuer, J.
    (2014) Verbal strategies and nonverbal cues in school-age children with and without specific language impairment (SLI). International Journal of Language & Communication Disorders, 49 (5), 618–630. doi: 10.1111/1460‑6984.12103
    https://doi.org/10.1111/1460-6984.12103 [Google Scholar]
  16. Engel de Abreu, P. M. E. , Cruz-Santos, A. , Tourinho, C. J. , Martin, R. , & Bialystok, E.
    (2012) Bilingualism enriches the poor enhanced cognitive control in low-income minority children. Psychological Science, 23 (11), 1364–1371. doi: 10.1177/0956797612443836
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0956797612443836 [Google Scholar]
  17. Esposito, A. G. Baker-Ward, L. , & Mueller, S. T.
    (2013) Interference suppression vs. response inhibition: An explanation for the absence of a bilingual advantage in preschoolers’ Stroop task performance. Cognitive Development, 28 (4), 354–363. doi: 10.1016/j.cogdev.2013.09.002
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cogdev.2013.09.002 [Google Scholar]
  18. Filippi, R. , Morris, J. , Richardson, F. M. , Bright, P. , Thomas, M. S. , Karmiloff-Smith, A. , & Marian, V.
    (2014) Bilingual children show an advantage in controlling verbal interference during spoken language comprehension. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 18 (3), 490–501. doi: 10.1017/S1366728914000686
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S1366728914000686 [Google Scholar]
  19. Friedman, N. P. , & Miyake, A.
    (2004) The relations among inhibition and interference control functions: a latent-variable analysis. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 133 (1), 101. doi: 10.1037/0096‑3445.133.1.101
    https://doi.org/10.1037/0096-3445.133.1.101 [Google Scholar]
  20. Green, D. W. , & Abutalebi, J.
    (2013) Language control in bilinguals: The adaptive control hypothesis. Journal of Cognitive Psychology, 25 (5), 515–530. doi: 10.1080/20445911.2013.796377
    https://doi.org/10.1080/20445911.2013.796377 [Google Scholar]
  21. Hart, B. , & Risley, T. R.
    (1995) Meaningful differences in the everyday experience of young American children. Paul H Brookes Publishing.
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Hoff, E.
    (2006) How social contexts support and shape language development. Developmental Review26, 55–88. doi: 10.1016/j.dr.2005.11.002
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dr.2005.11.002 [Google Scholar]
  23. Hoff, E. , Core, C. , Place, S. , Rumiche, R. , Señor, M. , & Parra, M.
    (2012) Dual language exposure and early bilingual development. Journal of Child Language, 39 (1), 1–27. doi: 10.1017/S0305000910000759
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0305000910000759 [Google Scholar]
  24. Iluz-Cohen, P. , & Armon-Lotem, S.
    (2013) Language proficiency and executive control in bilingual children. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 16 (4), 884–899. doi: 10.1017/S1366728912000788
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S1366728912000788 [Google Scholar]
  25. Luk, G. , & Bialystok, E.
    (2013) Bilingualism is not a categorical variable: Interaction between language proficiency and usage. Journal of Cognitive Psychology, 25 (5), 605–621. doi: 10.1080/20445911.2013.795574
    https://doi.org/10.1080/20445911.2013.795574 [Google Scholar]
  26. Luk, G. , De Sa, E. , & Bialystok, E.
    (2011) Is there a relation between onset age of bilingualism and enhancement of cognitive control?Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 14 (4), 588–595. doi: 10.1017/S1366728911000010
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S1366728911000010 [Google Scholar]
  27. Marian, V. , Blumenfeld, H. K. , & Kaushanskaya, M.
    (2007) The Language Experience and Proficiency Questionnaire (LEAP-Q): Assessing language profiles in bilinguals and multilinguals. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 50 (4), 940–967. doi: 10.1044/1092‑4388(2007/067)
    https://doi.org/10.1044/1092-4388(2007/067) [Google Scholar]
  28. Martin-Rhee, M. M. , & Bialystok, E.
    (2008) The development of two types of inhibitory control in monolingual and bilingual children. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 11 (1), 81–93. doi: 10.1017/S1366728907003227
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S1366728907003227 [Google Scholar]
  29. Marton, K.
    (2015a) Theoretically driven experiments may clarify questions about the bilingual advantage. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 18 (1), 37–38. doi: 10.1017/S1366728914000546
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S1366728914000546 [Google Scholar]
  30. (2015b, May). Do bilingual children perform more efficiently in experimental tasks than their monolingual peers?Paper presented atthe Workshop on Bilingualism and Executive functions. An interdisciplinary approach. New York, NY.
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Marton, K. , Campanelli, L. , Eichorn, N. , Scheuer, J. , & Yoon, J.
    (2014) Information processing and proactive interference in children with and without specific language impairment. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 57 (1), 106–119. doi: 10.1044/1092‑4388(2013/12‑0306)
    https://doi.org/10.1044/1092-4388(2013/12-0306) [Google Scholar]
  32. Mazuka, R. , Jincho, N. , & Oishi, H.
    (2009) Development of executive control and language processing. Language and Linguistics Compass, 3 (1), 59–89. doi: 10.1111/j.1749‑818X.2008.00102.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1749-818X.2008.00102.x [Google Scholar]
  33. Milner, B.
    (1963) Effects of different brain lesions on card sorting: The role of the frontal lobes. Archives of Neurology, 9, 100–110. doi: 10.1001/archneur.1963.00460070100010
    https://doi.org/10.1001/archneur.1963.00460070100010 [Google Scholar]
  34. Miyake, A. , Friedman, N. P. , Emerson, M. J. , Witzki, A. H. , & Howerter, A.
    (2000) The unity and diversity of executive functions and their contributions to complex “frontal lobe” tasks: A latent variable analysis. Cognitive Psychology, 41, 49–100. doi: 10.1006/cogp.1999.0734
    https://doi.org/10.1006/cogp.1999.0734 [Google Scholar]
  35. Morales, J. , Calvo, A. , & Bialystok, E.
    (2013) Working memory development in monolingual and bilingual children. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 114 (2), 187–202. doi: 10.1016/j.jecp.2012.09.002
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jecp.2012.09.002 [Google Scholar]
  36. Nicolay, A. C. , & Poncelet, M.
    (2013) Cognitive advantage in children enrolled in a second-language immersion elementary school program for three years. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 16 (03), 597–607. doi: 10.1017/S1366728912000375
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S1366728912000375 [Google Scholar]
  37. Novick, J. M. , Hussey, E. , Teubner-Rhodes, S. , Harbison, J. I. , & Bunting, M. F.
    (2013) Clearing the garden-path: Improving sentence processing through cognitive control training. Language, Cognition and Neuroscience, 29 (2), 186–217. doi: 10.1080/01690965.2012.758297
    https://doi.org/10.1080/01690965.2012.758297 [Google Scholar]
  38. Owen, A. M. , Roberts, A. C. , Hodges, J. R. , Summers, B. A. , Polkey, C. E. , & Robbins, T. W.
    (1993) Contrasting mechanisms of impaired attentional set-shifting in patients with frontal lobe damage or Parkinson’s disease. Brain, 116, 1159–1175. doi: 10.1093/brain/116.5.1159
    https://doi.org/10.1093/brain/116.5.1159 [Google Scholar]
  39. Phillips, L. H. , Wynn, V. , Gilhooly, K. J. , Della Sala, S. , & Logie, R. H.
    (1999) The role of memory in the Tower of London task. Memory, 7 (2), 209–231. doi: 10.1080/741944066
    https://doi.org/10.1080/741944066 [Google Scholar]
  40. Portocarrero, J. S. , Burright, R. G. , & Donovick, P. J.
    (2007) Vocabulary and verbal fluency of bilingual and monolingual college students. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 22, 415–422. doi: 10.1016/j.acn.2007.01.015
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.acn.2007.01.015 [Google Scholar]
  41. Tao, L. , Marzecová, A. , Taft, M. , Asanowicz, D. , & Wodniecka, Z.
    (2011) The efficiency of attentional networks in early and late bilinguals: the role of age of acquisition. Frontiers in Psychology, 2 (123), 1–19. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2011.00123
    https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2011.00123 [Google Scholar]
  42. Tse, C. & Altarriba, J.
    (2014) The relationship between language proficiency and attentional control in Cantonese-English bilingual children: evidence from Simon, Simon switching, and working memory tasks. Frontiers in Psychology, 5, (954), 1–18. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2014.00954
    https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2014.00954 [Google Scholar]
  43. Valian, V.
    (2015) Bilingualism and cognition. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 18 (1), 3–24. doi: 10.1017/S1366728914000522
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S1366728914000522 [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.1075/lab.15038.mar
Loading
/content/journals/10.1075/lab.15038.mar
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Article Type: Research Article
Keyword(s): executive control , language proficiency and speed of processing
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error