1887
Volume 8, Issue 1
  • ISSN 1879-9264
  • E-ISSN: 1879-9272
USD
Buy:$35.00 + Taxes

Abstract

Among methodological concerns specific to code-switching (CS) research is the design of the target stimuli used in experiments with an acceptability judgment task. We argue here that research which makes use of CS data of this type must also incorporate monolingual stimuli into the experimental design, specifically monolingual stimuli judged by the same bilingual participants who judge the code-switched stimuli. We do so by reviewing two sets of experimental CS data we collected and exploring the role that monolingual stimuli can play in the analysis of that data. In each experiment, an analysis based solely on acceptability judgments of the CS stimuli leads to one interpretation, while incorporation of results from the monolingual stimuli leads to a distinct interpretation. We show that it is the interpretation integrating the monolingual acceptability judgments which is more valid, thereby arguing for the value of monolingual stimuli in design and analysis.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1075/lab.16007.ebe
2017-04-20
2019-10-21
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

References

  1. Appel, R. , & Muysken, P.
    (2006) Language contact and bilingualism. Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press. doi: 10.5117/9053568573
    https://doi.org/10.5117/9053568573 [Google Scholar]
  2. Bandi-Rao, S. , & den Dikken, M.
    (2014) Light switches: On v as a pivot in codeswitching, and the nature of the ban on word-internal switches. In J. MacSwan (Ed.), Grammatical theory and bilingual codeswitching, (pp.161–183). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Barbosa, P.
    (2001) On inversion in wh-questions in Romance. In A. Hulk , & J .-Y. Pollock (Eds.), Subject inversion in Romance and the theory of Universal Grammar, (pp.20–59). Oxford (New York): Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Buesa-García, C.
    2008 The Subject-Gap Restriction in Spanish Wh-questions: Some Empirical and Theoretical Consequences. Second General Examination, University of Connecticut, Storrs.
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Cardinaletti, A. , & Starke, M.
    (1999) The typology of structural deficiency: A case study of the three classes of pronouns. In H. van Riemsdijk (Ed.), Clitics in the languages of Europe, (pp.145–233). Berlin: De Gruyter.
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Chomsky, N.
    (2013) Problems of projection. Lingua, 130, 33–49. doi: 10.1016/j.lingua.2012.12.003
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lingua.2012.12.003 [Google Scholar]
  7. Déchaine, R .-M. , & Wiltschko, M.
    (2002) Decomposing pronouns. Linguistic Inquiry, 33(3), 409–442. doi: 10.1162/002438902760168554
    https://doi.org/10.1162/002438902760168554 [Google Scholar]
  8. D’Introno, F.
    1996 English-Spanish code-switching: conditions on movement. In: Jensen, J. , Roca, A. (Eds.), Spanish in Contact, (pp.187–201). Cascadilla Press, Cambridge.
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Ebert, S.
    (2014) The morphosyntax of wh-questions: Evidence from Spanish-English code-switching. Doctoral dissertation, University of Illinois at Chicago.
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Fernández Fuertes, R. F. , Liceras, J. M. , & de la Fuente, A. A.
    (2016) Beyond the subject DP versus the subject pronoun divide in agreement switches. In C. Tortora , M. den Dikken , I. L. Montoya , & T. O’Neill (Eds.), Romance Linguistics 2013: Selected papers from the 43rd Linguistic Symposium on Romance Languages (LSRL), New York, 17–19April 2013 Philadelphia: John Benjamins. doi: 10.1075/rllt.9.05fue
    https://doi.org/10.1075/rllt.9.05fue [Google Scholar]
  11. Giancaspro, D.
    (2015) Code-switching at the auxiliary-VP boundary: A comparison of heritage speakers and L2 learners. Linguistic Approaches to Bilingualism, 5(3), 379–407 doi: 10.1075/lab.5.3.04gia
    https://doi.org/10.1075/lab.5.3.04gia [Google Scholar]
  12. González-Vilbazo, K. , Bartlett, L. , Downey, S. , Ebert, S. , Heil, J. , Hoot, B. , Koronkiewicz, B. , & Ramos, S. E.
    (2013) Methodological considerations in code-switching research. Studies in Hispanic and Lusophone Linguistics, 6(1), 118–138. doi: 10.1515/shll‑2013‑1143
    https://doi.org/10.1515/shll-2013-1143 [Google Scholar]
  13. González-Vilbazo, K. , & López, L.
    (2011) Some properties of light verbs in code-switching. Lingua, 121(5), 832–850. doi: 10.1016/j.lingua.2010.11.011
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lingua.2010.11.011 [Google Scholar]
  14. (2012) Little v and parametric variation. Natural Language and Linguistic Theory, 30(1), 33–77. doi: 10.1007/s11049‑011‑9141‑5
    https://doi.org/10.1007/s11049-011-9141-5 [Google Scholar]
  15. Goodall, G.
    (2001) The EPP in Spanish. In W. Davies , & S. Dubinsky (Eds.), Objects and other subjects: Grammatical functions, functional categories and configurationality, (pp.193–223). Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands. doi: 10.1007/978‑94‑010‑0991‑1_8
    https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-010-0991-1_8 [Google Scholar]
  16. Grosjean, F.
    (1985) The bilingual as a competent but specific speaker-hearer. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, 6, 467–477. doi: 10.1080/01434632.1985.9994221
    https://doi.org/10.1080/01434632.1985.9994221 [Google Scholar]
  17. (1998) Studying bilinguals: Methodological and conceptual issues. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 1(02), 131–149. doi: 10.1017/S136672899800025X
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S136672899800025X [Google Scholar]
  18. Gullberg, M. , Indefrey, P. , & Muysken, P.
    (2009) Research techniques for the study of code-switching. In B. E. Bullock , & A. J. Toribio (Eds.), The Cambridge handbook of linguistic code-switching, (pp.21–39). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. doi: 10.1017/CBO9780511576331.003
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511576331.003 [Google Scholar]
  19. Gumperz, J. J.
    (1977) The sociolinguistic significance of conversational code-switching. RELC Journal, 9(2), 1–34. doi: 10.1177/003368827700800201
    https://doi.org/10.1177/003368827700800201 [Google Scholar]
  20. Gutiérrez-Bravo, R.
    (2002) Structural markedness and syntactic structure: A study of word order and the left periphery in Mexican Spanish. Doctoral dissertation, University of California Santa Cruz.
    [Google Scholar]
  21. (2008) Topicalization and preverbal subjects in Spanish wh-interrogatives. In J. B. de Garavito , & E. Valenzuela (Eds.), Selected proceedings of the 10th Hispanic Linguistics Symposium. Somerville, MA: Cascadilla Proceedings Project.
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Ionin, T. , & Montrul, S.
    (2009) Article use and generic reference: Parallels between L1- and L2-acquisition. In M. del Pilar Garcia-Mayo , & R. Hawkins (Eds.), Second language acquisition of articles: Empirical findings and theoretical implications, (pp.147–173). Amsterdam: John Benjamins. doi: 10.1075/lald.49.11ion
    https://doi.org/10.1075/lald.49.11ion [Google Scholar]
  23. (2010) The role of L1-transfer in the interpretation of articles with definite plurals in L2-English. Language Learning, 60(4), 877–925. doi: 10.1111/j.1467‑9922.2010.00577.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9922.2010.00577.x [Google Scholar]
  24. Ionin, T. , Montrul, S. , & Crivos, M.
    (2013) A bidirectional study on the acquisition of plural noun phrase interpretation in English and Spanish. Applied Psycholinguistics, 34(03), 483–518. doi: 10.1017/S0142716411000841
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0142716411000841 [Google Scholar]
  25. Jake, J. L.
    (1994) Intrasentential code switching and pronouns: On the categorial status of functional elements. Linguistics, 32(2), 271–298. doi: 10.1515/ling.1994.32.2.271
    https://doi.org/10.1515/ling.1994.32.2.271 [Google Scholar]
  26. Koronkiewicz, B.
    (2014) Pronoun categorization: Evidence from Spanish/English code-switching. Doctoral dissertation, University of Illinois at Chicago.
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Lipski, J.
    (1978) Code-switching and the problem of bilingual competence. In M. Paradis (Ed.), Aspects of bilingualism (pp.250–264). Columbia, SC: Hornbeam Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  28. MacSwan, J.
    (1999) A Minimalist approach to intra-sentential code-switching. New York: Garland.
    [Google Scholar]
  29. MacSwan, J. , & McAlister, K. T.
    (2010) Naturalistic and elicited data in grammatical studies of codeswitching. Studies in Hispanic and Lusophone Linguistics, 3(2), 521–532. doi: 10.1515/shll‑2010‑1085
    https://doi.org/10.1515/shll-2010-1085 [Google Scholar]
  30. Montrul, S.
    (2001) Agentive verbs of manner of motion in Spanish and English as second languages. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 23, 171–206. doi: 10.1017/S0272263101002030
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0272263101002030 [Google Scholar]
  31. (2002) Incomplete acquisition and attrition of Spanish tense/aspect distinctions in adult bilinguals. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 5(01), 39–68. doi: 10.1017/S1366728902000135
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S1366728902000135 [Google Scholar]
  32. (2004) Subject and object expression in Spanish heritage speakers: A case of morphosyntactic convergence. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 7(02), 125–142. doi: 10.1017/S1366728904001464
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S1366728904001464 [Google Scholar]
  33. (2008) Incomplete acquisition in bilingualism: Re-examining the age factor. Philadelphia: John Benjamins. doi: 10.1075/sibil.39
    https://doi.org/10.1075/sibil.39 [Google Scholar]
  34. (2010) Current issues in heritage language acquisition. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, 30, 3–23. doi: 10.1017/S0267190510000103
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0267190510000103 [Google Scholar]
  35. Myers-Scotton, C.
    (2002) Contact linguistics: Bilingual encounters and grammatical outcomes. Oxford: Oxford University Press. doi: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198299530.001.0001
    https://doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198299530.001.0001 [Google Scholar]
  36. O’Neill, R. , Cornelius, E. T. , & Washburn, G. N.
    (1981) American Kernel lessons: Advanced student’s book. London: Longman.
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Poplack, S.
    (1980) Sometimes I’ll start a conversation in Spanish y termino en español: Toward a typology of code switching. Linguistics, 18, 581–616. doi: 10.1515/ling.1980.18.7‑8.581
    https://doi.org/10.1515/ling.1980.18.7-8.581 [Google Scholar]
  38. Stadthagen-Gonzalez, H. , López, L. , Parafita Couto, M. C. , & Alejandro Párraga, C.
    (2017) Using two-alternative forced choice tasks and Thurstone’s Law of Comparative Judgment for Acceptability Judgments: Examining the Adjacency Condition in Spanish/English Code-Switched Sentences, Linguistic Approaches to Bilingualism, 8(1).
    [Google Scholar]
  39. Sprouse, J. , & Almeida, D.
    (2013) The role of experimental syntax in an integrated cognitive science of language. The Cambridge Handbook of Biolinguistics, 181–202. doi: 10.1017/CBO9780511980435.013
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511980435.013 [Google Scholar]
  40. Suñer, M.
    (1994) V-movement and the licensing of argumental wh-phrases in Spanish. Natural Language and Linguistic Theory, 12(2), 335–372. doi: 10.1007/BF00993148
    https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00993148 [Google Scholar]
  41. Timm, A.
    (1975) Spanish-English code-switching: El porque y how-not-to. Romance Philology, 18(4), 437–482.
    [Google Scholar]
  42. Torrego, E.
    1984 On Inversion in Spanish and Some of Its Effects. Linguistic Inquiry (15), 103–129.
    [Google Scholar]
  43. Toribio, A. J.
    (2001a) Accessing bilingual code-switching competence. International Journal of Bilingualism, 5(4), 403–436. doi: 10.1177/13670069010050040201
    https://doi.org/10.1177/13670069010050040201 [Google Scholar]
  44. Toribio, A. J. and González-Vilbazo, K.
    (2014) Constraints on operator movement in English-Spanish codeswitching: Generative perspectives, from Government-Binding to Minimalism. In J. MacSwan , (Ed.), Grammatical Theory and Bilingual Code Switching. Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  45. Valdés Kroff, J. R. , Guzzardo Tamargo, R. E. , & Dussias, P. E.
    (2017) Experimental contributions of eye-tracking to the understanding of comprehension processes while hearing and reading code-switches, Linguistic Approaches to Bilingualism, 8(1).
    [Google Scholar]
  46. van Gelderen, E. , & MacSwan, J.
    (2008) Interface conditions and code-switching: Pronouns, lexical DPs, and checking theory. Lingua, 118, 765–776. doi: 10.1016/j.lingua.2007.05.003
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lingua.2007.05.003 [Google Scholar]
  47. van Hell, J. G. , Fernandez, C. B. , Jan Kootstra, G. , Litcofsky, K. A. , & Ting, C. Y.
    (2017) Electrophysiological and experimental-behavioral approaches to the study of intra- sentential code-switching, Linguistic Approaches to Bilingualism, 7(5).
    [Google Scholar]
  48. Villa-García, J.
    (2013) On the status of preverbal subjects in Spanish: Evidence for a dedicated subject position. In S. Keine & S. Sloggett (Eds.), NELS 42: Proceedings of the 42nd annual meeting of the North East Linguistic Society. Amherst, MA: GLSA.
    [Google Scholar]
  49. Woolford, E.
    1984 On the application of wh-movement and inversion in code-switching sentences. Revue Québécoise de Linguistique, 14, 77–86. doi: 10.7202/602528ar
    https://doi.org/10.7202/602528ar [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.1075/lab.16007.ebe
Loading
/content/journals/10.1075/lab.16007.ebe
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Article Type: Research Article
Keyword(s): acceptability judgments , code-switching and methodology
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error