1887
Volume 8, Issue 1
  • ISSN 1879-9264
  • E-ISSN: 1879-9272
USD
Buy:$35.00 + Taxes

    Experimental contributions of eye-tracking to the understanding of comprehension processes while hearing and reading code-switches

  • Author(s): Jorge R. Valdés Kroff 1 , Rosa E. Guzzardo Tamargo 2  and Paola E. Dussias 3, 4
  • View Affiliations Hide Affiliations
    Affiliations:
    1 Department of Spanish and Portuguese Studies, University of Florida
    2 Department of Hispanic Studies, Graduate Program of Linguistics, University of Puerto Rico-Río Piedras
    3 Center for Language Science, Penn State University
    4 Department of Spanish, Italian and Portuguese, Penn State University
  • Source: Linguistic Approaches to Bilingualism, Volume 8, Issue 1, Jan 2018, p. 98 - 133
  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1075/lab.16011.val
    • Received : 24 Feb 2016
    • Accepted : 04 Apr 2017
    • Version of Record published : 17 May 2017
    • Corrected : 21 Feb 2018

Abstract

Researchers who study code-switching using lab-based approaches face a series of methodological challenges; these include, but are not limited to, using adequate techniques and tasks that allow for processing that reflects real-language usage and selecting stimuli that reflect the participants’ code-switching community norms. We present two illustrative eye-tracking studies that consider these challenges. Study 1 tests whether experience with code-switching leads to differential processing of Spanish determiner-English noun code-switches (e.g., ‘a cookie’). Study 2 examines auxiliary-verb code-switches involving the progressive structure (e.g., ‘are cooking’) and perfect structure (e.g., ‘have cooked’) while participants read either for comprehension or provide grammaticality judgments. The results of both studies highlight the advantages that eye-tracking provides when its use is accompanied by an appropriate bilingual sample, by stimuli that reflect actual bilingual language use, and by secondary tasks that do not invoke metalinguistic processes.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1075/lab.16011.val
2017-05-17
2019-08-25
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

References

  1. Altarriba, J. , Kroll, J. F. , Sholl, A. , & Rayner, K.
    (1996) The influence of lexical and conceptual constraints on reading mixed-language sentences: Evidence from eye fixations and naming times. Memory and Cognition, 24, 477–492. doi: 10.3758/BF03200936
    https://doi.org/10.3758/BF03200936 [Google Scholar]
  2. Altmann, G T M.
    (2011) The mediation of eye movements by spoken language. In S. P. Liversedge , I. D. Gilchrist , & S. Everling (Eds.), The Oxford handbook of eye movements (pp.979–1004). Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Altmann, G T M. , & Kamide, Y.
    (1999) Incremental interpretation at verbs: Restricting the domain of subsequent reference. Cognition, 73, 247–264. doi: 10.1016/S0010‑0277(99)00059‑1
    https://doi.org/10.1016/S0010-0277(99)00059-1 [Google Scholar]
  4. Badiola, L. , Delgado, R. , Sande, A. , & Stefanich, S.
    (2017) Code-switching attitudes and their effects on acceptability judgment tasks. Linguistic Approaches to Bilingualism, 8(1). doi: 10.1075/lab.16006.bad
    https://doi.org/10.1075/lab.16006.bad [Google Scholar]
  5. Balukas, C. , & Koops, C.
    (2015) Spanish-English bilingual voice onset time in spontaneous code-switching. International Journal of Bilingualism, 19, 423–443. doi: 10.1177/1367006913516035
    https://doi.org/10.1177/1367006913516035 [Google Scholar]
  6. Blackburn, A.
    (2013) A study of the relationship between code switching and the bilingual advantage: Evidence that language use modulates neural indices of language processing and cognitive control. (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). University of Texas at San Antonio, San Antonio, TX.
  7. Brown-Schmidt, S. , & Konopka, A. E.
    (2008) Little houses and casa pequeñas: Message formulation and syntactic form in unscripted speech with speakers of English and Spanish. Cognition, 109, 274–280. doi: 10.1016/j.cognition.2008.07.011
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2008.07.011 [Google Scholar]
  8. (2015) Processes of incremental message planning during conversation. Psychonomics Bulletin Review, 22, 833–843. doi: 10.3758/s13423‑014‑0714‑2
    https://doi.org/10.3758/s13423-014-0714-2 [Google Scholar]
  9. Brown-Schmidt, S. , & Tanenhaus, M. K.
    (2008) Real-time investigation of referential domains in unscripted conversation: A targeted language game approach. Cognitive Science, 32, 643–684. doi: 10.1080/03640210802066816
    https://doi.org/10.1080/03640210802066816 [Google Scholar]
  10. Bullock, B. , & Toribio, A. J.
    (2009) Themes in the study of code-switching. In B. E. Bullock & A. J. Toribio (Eds.), The Cambridge handbook of linguistic code-switching (pp.1–17). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. doi: 10.1017/CBO9780511576331.002
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511576331.002 [Google Scholar]
  11. Bultena, S. , Dijkstra, T. , & Van Hell, J. G.
    (2015a) Language switch costs in comprehension depend on language dominance: Evidence from self-paced reading. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 18, 453–469. doi: 10.1017/S1366728914000145
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S1366728914000145 [Google Scholar]
  12. (2015b) Switch cost modulations in bilingual sentence processing: Evidence from shadowing. Language, Cognition, and NeuroScience, 30, 586–605. doi: 10.1080/23273798.2014.964268
    https://doi.org/10.1080/23273798.2014.964268 [Google Scholar]
  13. Callahan, L.
    (2003) Spanish/English code-switching in a written corpus. Philadelphia, PA: John Benjamins.
  14. Chan, M. C. , Chau, H. , & Hoosain, R.
    (1983) Input/output switch in bilingual code switching. Journal of Psycholinguistic Research, 12, 407–416. doi: 10.1007/BF01067622
    https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01067622 [Google Scholar]
  15. Clifton, C., Jr. , & Staub, A.
    (2011) Syntactic influences on eye movements in reading. In S. P. Liversedge , I. D. Gilchrist , & S. Everlling (Eds.), The Oxford handbook of eye movements (pp.895–909). Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Dell, G. S. , & Chang, F.
    (2013) The P-chain: Relating sentence production and its disorders to comprehension and acquisition. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B, 369. doi: 10.1098/rstb.2012.0394
    https://doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2012.0394 [Google Scholar]
  17. Deuchar, M. , Davies, P. , Herring, J. R. , Parafita Couto, M. C. , & Carter, D.
    (2014) Building bilingual corpora: Welsh-English, Spanish-English and Spanish-Welsh. In E. M. Thomas & I. Mennen (Eds.), Advances in the study of bilingualism (pp.93–110). Bristol, UK: Multilingualism Matters.
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Dorleijn, M. , & Nortier, J.
    (2009) Code-switching and the internet. In B. Bullock & A. J. Toribio (Eds.), The Cambridge handbook of linguistic code-switching. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. doi: 10.1017/CBO9780511576331.009
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511576331.009 [Google Scholar]
  19. Dussias, P. E.
    (2003) Spanish-English code-mixing at the auxiliary phrase: Evidence from eye-movement data. Revista Internacional de Lingüística Iberoamericana, 2, 7–34.
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Dussias, P. E. , Guzzardo Tamargo, R. E. , Valdés Kroff, J. R. , & Gerfen, C.
    (2014) Looking into comprehension of Spanish-English code-switched sentences: Evidence from eye movements. In F. -H. Liu & J. Huang (Eds.), Peaches and plums (pp.335–351). Taipei, Taiwan: Academia Sinica.
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Dussias, P. E. , Valdés Kroff, J. R. , & Gerfen, C.
    (2014) Using the visual world to explore spoken language processing in second language speakers. In J. Jegerski & B. Van Patten (Eds.), Research methods in second language psycholinguistics (pp.93–126). London, UK: Taylor & Francis.
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Ebert, S. , & Koronkiewicz, B.
    (2017) Monolingual stimuli as a foundation for analyzing code-switching data. Linguistic Approaches to Bilingualism, 8(1). doi: 10.1075/lab.16007.ebe
    https://doi.org/10.1075/lab.16007.ebe [Google Scholar]
  23. Fairchild, S. , & Van Hell, J. G.
    (2015) Determiner-noun code-switching in Spanish-English heritage speakers. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition. doi: 10.1017/S1366728915000619
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S1366728915000619 [Google Scholar]
  24. Federmeier, K. D. , McLennan, D. B. , De Ochoa, E. , & Kutas, M.
    (2002) The impact of semantic memory organization and sentence context information on spoken language processing by younger and older adults: An ERP study. Psychophysiology, 39, 133–146. doi: 10.1017/S004857720139203X
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S004857720139203X [Google Scholar]
  25. Fodor, J. A. , & Bever, T. G.
    (1965) The psychological reality of linguistic segments. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 4, 414–420 doi: 10.1016/S0022‑5371(65)80081‑0
    https://doi.org/10.1016/S0022-5371(65)80081-0 [Google Scholar]
  26. Fricke, M. , Kroll, J. F. , & Dussias, P. E.
    (2016) Phonetic variation in bilingual speech: A lens for studying the production-comprehension link. Journal of Memory and Language, 89, 110–137. doi: 10.1016/j.jml.2015.10.001
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jml.2015.10.001 [Google Scholar]
  27. Gardner-Chloros, P.
    (2009) Code-swtiching. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. doi: 10.1017/CBO9780511609787
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511609787 [Google Scholar]
  28. Garnsey, S. M. , Pearlmutter, N. J. , Myers, E. , & Lotocky, M. A.
    (1997) The contributions of verb bias and plausibility to the comprehension of temporarily ambiguous sentences. Journal of Memory and Language, 93, 58–93. doi: 10.1006/jmla.1997.2512
    https://doi.org/10.1006/jmla.1997.2512 [Google Scholar]
  29. Gennari, S. P. , & MacDonald, M. C.
    (2009) Linking production and comprehension processes: The case of relative clauses. Cognition, 111, 1–23. doi: 10.1016/j.cognition.2008.12.006
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2008.12.006 [Google Scholar]
  30. Giancaspro, D.
    (2015) Code-switching at the auxiliary-VP boundary: A comparison of heritage speakers and L2 learners. Linguistic Approaches to Bilingualism, 5, 379–407. doi: 10.1075/lab.5.3.04gia
    https://doi.org/10.1075/lab.5.3.04gia [Google Scholar]
  31. Grainger, J. , & Beauvillain, C.
    (1987) Language blocking and lexical access in bilinguals. The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, A39, 295–319. doi: 10.1080/14640748708401788
    https://doi.org/10.1080/14640748708401788 [Google Scholar]
  32. Green, D.
    (2011) Language control in different contexts: The behavioural ecology of bilingual speakers. Frontiers in Psychology, 2, 1–4. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2011.00103
    https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2011.00103 [Google Scholar]
  33. Griffin, Z. , & Bock, J. K.
    (2000) What the eyes say about speaking. Psychological Science, 11, 274–279. doi: 10.1111/1467‑9280.00255
    https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-9280.00255 [Google Scholar]
  34. Grosjean, F.
    (2001) The bilingual’s language modes. In L. N. Janet (Ed.), One mind, two languages: Bilingual language processing (pp.1–22). Oxford, UK: Blackwell.
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Gullberg, M. , Indefrey, P. , & Muysken, P.
    (2009) Research techniques for the study of code-switching. In B. Bullock & A. J. Toribio (Eds.), The Cambridge handbook of linguistic code-switching (pp.21–39). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. doi: 10.1017/CBO9780511576331.003
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511576331.003 [Google Scholar]
  36. Gullifer, J. W. , Kroll, J. F. , & Dussias, P. E.
    (2013) When language switching has no apparent cost: Lexical access in sentence context. Frontiers in Psychology, 4, 1–13. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2013.00278
    https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2013.00278 [Google Scholar]
  37. Guzzardo Tamargo, R. E. , & Dussias, P. E.
    (2013) Processing of Spanish-English code-switches by late bilinguals. In S. Baiz , N. Goldman , & R. Hawkes (Eds.), BUCLD 37: Proceedings of the 37th annual Boston University Conference on Language Development (pp.134–146). Somerville, MA: Cascadilla Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Guzzardo Tamargo, R. E. , Valdés Kroff, J. R. , & Dussias, P. E.
    (2016) Using code-switching as a tool to study the link between production and comprehension. Journal of Memory and Language, 89, 138–161. doi: 10.1016/j.jml.2015.12.002
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jml.2015.12.002 [Google Scholar]
  39. Hamers, J. F. , & Blanc, M H A.
    (2000) Bilinguality and bilingualism (2nd ed.). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. doi: 10.1017/CBO9780511605796
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511605796 [Google Scholar]
  40. Hanna, J. E. , Tanenhaus, M. K. , & Trueswell, J. C.
    (2003) The effects of common ground and perspective in domains of referential interpretation. Journal of Memory and Language, 49, 43–61. doi: 10.1016/S0749‑596X(03)00022‑6
    https://doi.org/10.1016/S0749-596X(03)00022-6 [Google Scholar]
  41. Herring, J. R. , Deuchar, M. , Parafita Couto, M. C. , & Moro Quintanilla, M.
    (2010) “I saw the madre”: Evaluating predictions about code-switched determiner-noun sequences using Spanish-English and Welsh-English data. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 13, 553–573. doi: 10.1080/13670050.2010.488286
    https://doi.org/10.1080/13670050.2010.488286 [Google Scholar]
  42. Hofweber, J. , Marinis, T. , & Treffers-Daller, J.
    (2016) Effects of dense code-switching on executive control. Linguistic Approaches to Bilingualism, 6, 648-668. doi: 10.1075/lab.15052.hof
    https://doi.org/10.1075/lab.15052.hof [Google Scholar]
  43. Huettig, F. , Rommers, J. , & Meyer, A. S.
    (2011) Using the visual world paradigm to study language processing: A review and critical evaluation. Acta Psychologica, 137, 151–171. doi: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2010.11.003
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.actpsy.2010.11.003 [Google Scholar]
  44. Jake, J. , Myers-Scotton, C. , & Gross, S.
    (2002) Making a minimalist approach to code-switching work: Adding the matrix language. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 5, 69–91. doi: 10.1017/S1366728902000147
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S1366728902000147 [Google Scholar]
  45. Kaplan, E. , Goodglass, H. , Weintraub, S. , & Segal, O.
    (1983) Boston Naming Test. Philadelphia, PA: Lea & Febiger.
    [Google Scholar]
  46. Keating, G. D.
    (2014) Eye-tracking with text. In J. Jegerski & B. Van Patten (Eds.), Research methods in second language psycholinguistics (pp.69–92). London, UK: Taylor & Francis.
    [Google Scholar]
  47. Kolers, P. A.
    (1966) Reading and talking bilingually. American Journal of Psychology, 79, 357–376. doi: 10.2307/1420877
    https://doi.org/10.2307/1420877 [Google Scholar]
  48. Kootstra, G. J. , Van Hell, J. G. , & Dijkstra, T.
    (2012) Priming of code-switching in sentences: The role of lexical repetition, cognates, and proficiency. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 15, 797–819. doi: 10.1017/S136672891100068X
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S136672891100068X [Google Scholar]
  49. Lance, D. M.
    (1975) Spanish-English code-switching. In E. Hernández-Chávez & A. Beltramo (Eds.), El lenguaje de los chicanos. Arlington, VA: Center for Applied Linguistics.
    [Google Scholar]
  50. Lawrence, M. A.
    (2011) ez: Easy analysis and visualization of factorial experiments. R package version 3.0–0. http:/CRAN.R-project.org/package=ez
  51. Lew-Williams, C. , & Fernald, A.
    (2007) Young children learning Spanish make rapid use of grammatical gender in spoken word recognition. Psychological Science, 18, 193–198. doi: 10.1111/j.1467‑9280.2007.01871.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9280.2007.01871.x [Google Scholar]
  52. Lipski, J. M.
    (1978) Code switching and the problem of bilingual competence. In M. Paradis (Ed.), Aspects of bilingualism (pp.250–264). Columbia, SC: Hornbeam Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  53. MacDonald, M. C.
    (2013) How language production shapes language form and comprehension. Frontiers in Psychology, 4. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2013.00226
    https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2013.00226 [Google Scholar]
  54. MacNamara, J. , & Kushnir, S. L.
    (1971) Linguistic independence of bilinguals: The input switch. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 10, 480–487. doi: 10.1016/S0022‑5371(71)80018‑X
    https://doi.org/10.1016/S0022-5371(71)80018-X [Google Scholar]
  55. Meuter, R. F. , & Allport, A.
    (1999) Bilingual language switching in naming: Asymmetrical costs of language selection. Journal of Memory and Language, 40, 25–40. doi: 10.1006/jmla.1998.2602
    https://doi.org/10.1006/jmla.1998.2602 [Google Scholar]
  56. Montes-Alcalá, C.
    (2000) Written code-switching: Powerful bilingual images. In R. Jacobson (Ed.), Code-switching worldwide II (pp.193–219). Berlin, Germany: Mouton de Gruyter.
    [Google Scholar]
  57. (2007) Blogging in two languages: Code-switching in bilingual blogs. In J. Holmquist , A. Lorenzino , & L. Sayahi (Eds.), Selected proceedings of the Third Workshop on Spanish Sociolinguistics (pp.162–170). Somerville, MA: Cascadilla Proceedings Project.
    [Google Scholar]
  58. Moreno, E. M. , Federmeier, K. D. , & Kutas, M.
    (2002) Switching languages, switching palabras (words): An electrophysiological study of code switching. Brain and Language, 80, 188–207. doi: 10.1006/brln.2001.2588
    https://doi.org/10.1006/brln.2001.2588 [Google Scholar]
  59. Myers-Scotton, C. , & Jake, J. L.
    (2014) Nonfinite verbs and negotiating bilingualism in codeswitching: Implications for a language production model. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 17, 511–525. doi: 10.1017/S1366728913000758
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S1366728913000758 [Google Scholar]
  60. Ng, S. , Gonzalez, C. , & Wicha, N Y Y.
    (2014) The fox and the cabra: An ERP analysis of reading code switched nouns and verbs in bilingual short stories. Brain Research, 1557, 127–140. doi: 10.1016/j.brainres.2014.02.009
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brainres.2014.02.009 [Google Scholar]
  61. Otheguy, R. , & Lapidus, N.
    (2003) An adaptive approach to noun gender in New York Contact Spanish. In R. Cameron , L. López , & R. Núñez Cedeño (Eds.), A Romance perspective on language knowledge and use (pp.209–229). Amsterdam, The Netherlands: John Benjamins. doi: 10.1075/cilt.238.17oth
    https://doi.org/10.1075/cilt.238.17oth [Google Scholar]
  62. Pfaff, C.
    (1979) Constraints on language mixing: Intrasentential code-switching and borrowing in Spanish/English. Language, 55, 581–618. doi: 10.2307/412586
    https://doi.org/10.2307/412586 [Google Scholar]
  63. Poplack, S.
    (1980) Sometimes I’ll start a sentence in Spanish y termino en español: Towards a typology of code-switching. Linguistics, 18, 581–618. doi: 10.1515/ling.1980.18.7‑8.581
    https://doi.org/10.1515/ling.1980.18.7-8.581 [Google Scholar]
  64. (1988) Contrasting patterns of code-switching in two communities. In M. Heller (Ed.), Code-switching: Anthropological and sociolinguistic perspectives (pp.215–244). The Hague, The Netherlands: Mouton de Gruyter. doi: 10.1515/9783110849615.215
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110849615.215 [Google Scholar]
  65. (2013) Foreword to “Sometimes I’ll start a sentence in Spanish Y TERMINO EN ESPAÑOL: Toward a typology of code-swtiching. Linguistics 1980, Volume18, issue7. 581–618. Linguistics, 51, 11–14.
    [Google Scholar]
  66. Poplack, S. , Sankoff, D. , & Miller, C.
    (1988) The social correlates and linguistic processes of lexical borrowing and assimilation. Linguistics, 26, 47–104. doi: 10.1515/ling.1988.26.1.47
    https://doi.org/10.1515/ling.1988.26.1.47 [Google Scholar]
  67. Prior, A. , & Gollan, T. H.
    (2012) Good language-switchers are good task-switchers: Evidence from Spanish-English and Mandarin-English bilinguals. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 17, 682–691. doi: 10.1017/S1355617711000580
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S1355617711000580 [Google Scholar]
  68. Proverbio, A. M. , Leoni, G. , & Zani, A.
    (2004) Language switching mechanisms in simultaneous interpreters: An ERP study. Neuropsychologia, 42, 1636–1656. doi: 10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2004.04.013
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2004.04.013 [Google Scholar]
  69. Rayner, K.
    (1998) Eye movements in reading and information processing: 20 years of research. Psychological Bulletin, 124, 372–422. doi: 10.1037/0033‑2909.124.3.372
    https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.124.3.372 [Google Scholar]
  70. Rayner, K. , & Duffy, S. A.
    (1986) Lexical complexity and fixation times in reading: Effects of word frequency, verb complexity, and lexical ambiguity. Memory and Cognition, 14, 191–201. doi: 10.3758/BF03197692
    https://doi.org/10.3758/BF03197692 [Google Scholar]
  71. Rodríguez-Fornells, A. , Krämer, U. M. , Lorenzo-Seva, U. , Festman, J. , & Münte, T. F.
    (2011) Self-assessment of individual differences in language switching. Frontiers in Psychology, 2, 388. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2011.00388
    https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2011.00388 [Google Scholar]
  72. Sridhar, S. N. , & Sridhar, K. K.
    (1980) The syntax and psycholinguistics of bilingual code mixing. Canadian Journal of Psychology, 34, 407–416. doi: 10.1037/h0081105
    https://doi.org/10.1037/h0081105 [Google Scholar]
  73. Stadthagen-Gonzalez, H. , López, L. , Parafita Couto, M. C. , & Párraga, C. A.
    (2017) Using two-alternative forced choice tasks and Thurstone’s Law of Comparative Judgment for accpetability judgments: Examining the adjacency condition in Spanish/Englich code-switched sentences. Linguistic Approaches to Bilingualism, 8(1). doi: 10.1075/lab.16030.sta
    https://doi.org/10.1075/lab.16030.sta [Google Scholar]
  74. Tanenhaus, M. K. , Spivey-Knowlton, M. J. , Eberhard, K. M. , & Sedivey, J. C.
    (1995) Integration of visual and spatial information in spoken language comprehension. Science, 268, 1632–1634. doi: 10.1126/science.7777863
    https://doi.org/10.1126/science.7777863 [Google Scholar]
  75. Tanenhaus, M. K. , & Trueswell, J. C.
    (2006) Eye movements and spoken language comprehension. In M. Traxler & M. Gernsbacher (Eds.), Handbook of psycholinguistics (pp.863–900). (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Elsevier Academic Press. doi: 10.1016/B978‑012369374‑7/50023‑7
    https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-012369374-7/50023-7 [Google Scholar]
  76. Taylor, I.
    (1971) How are words from two languages organized in bilinguals’ memory?Canadian Journal of Psychology, 25, 28–239. doi: 10.1037/h0082385
    https://doi.org/10.1037/h0082385 [Google Scholar]
  77. Torres Cacoullos, R. , & Travis, C. E.
    (2015) Gauging convergence on the ground: Code-switching in the community – Introduction. International Journal of Bilingualism, 19, 365–386. doi: 10.1177/1367006913516046
    https://doi.org/10.1177/1367006913516046 [Google Scholar]
  78. Trueswell, J. C. , Tanenhaus, M. K. , & Garnsey, S. M.
    (1994) Semantic influences on parsing: Use of thematic role information in syntactic ambiguity resolution. Journal of Memory and Language, 33, 285–318. doi: 10.1006/jmla.1994.1014
    https://doi.org/10.1006/jmla.1994.1014 [Google Scholar]
  79. Valdés Kroff, J. R.
    (2016) Mixed NPs in Spanish-English bilingual speech: Using a corpus-based approach to inform models of sentence processing. In R. E. Guzzardo Tamargo , C. M. Mazak , & M. C. Parafita Couto (Eds.), Spanish-English code-switching in the Caribbean and the US. Amsterdam, The Netherlands: John Benjamins. doi: 10.1075/ihll.11.12val
    https://doi.org/10.1075/ihll.11.12val [Google Scholar]
  80. Valdés Kroff, J. R. , Dussias, P. E. , Gerfen, C. , Perrotti, L. , & Bajo, M. T.
    (2017) Experience with code-switching modulates the use of grammatical gender during sentence processing. Linguistic Approaches to Bilingualism, 7(2), 163–198. doi: 10.1075/lab.150101.val
    https://doi.org/10.1075/lab.150101.val [Google Scholar]
  81. Valdés Kroff, J. R. , & Fernández-Duque, M.
    (in press). Experimentally inducing Spanish-English code-switching: A new conversation paradigm. In K. Bellamy , M. Child , P. González González , A. Muntendam , & M. C. Parafita Couto Eds. Multidisciplinary approaches to bilingualism in the Hispanic and Lusophone world (pp.209–231). Amsterdam, The Netherlands: John Benjamins.
    [Google Scholar]
  82. Van Hell, J. G. , Fernandez, C. B. , Kootstra, G. J. , Litcofsky, K. A. , & Ting, C. Y.
    (2017) Electrophysiological and experimental-behavioral approaches to the study of intra-sentential code-switching. Linguistic Approaches to Bilingualism, 8(1).
    [Google Scholar]
  83. Weinreich, U.
    (1963) Languages in contact: Findings and problems. The Hague, The Netherlands: Mouton & Co.
    [Google Scholar]
  84. Yim, O. , & Bialystok, E.
    (2012) Degree of conversational code-switching enhances verbal task switching in Cantonese-English bilinguals. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 15, 873–883. doi: 10.1017/S1366728912000478
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S1366728912000478 [Google Scholar]
  85. Zentella, A. C.
    (1997) Growing up bilingual: Puerto Rican children in New York. Malden, MA: Blackwell.
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.1075/lab.16011.val
Loading
/content/journals/10.1075/lab.16011.val
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Article Type: Research Article
Keyword(s): code-switching , eye-tracking methodology and sentence processing
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error