Volume 9, Issue 1
  • ISSN 1879-9264
  • E-ISSN: 1879-9272
Buy:$35.00 + Taxes


This bidirectional study investigated the L2 acquisition of plural marking in L2 Indonesian by native Korean speakers and in L2 Korean by native Indonesian speakers. Indonesian and Korean are classifier languages with partially overlapping restrictions on how pluralization interacts with quantification, allowing us to test the acquisition of new L2 features vs. the preemption of L1 features that are not in the L2. We also examined how the contextual complexity of new L2 features impacts development. Seventy learners at three L2 Korean proficiency levels and 40 native controls participated in Experiment 1; 61 learners at three L2 Indonesian proficiency levels and 39 native controls participated in Experiment 2. All participants completed three tasks – a Sentence Completion Task, a Grammaticality Judgment Task and a Multiple-Choice Task. Whereas learners were largely able to overcome the difficulty of preemption, they were less successful in acquiring new L2 feature contrasts in more complex conditioning environments.


Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...


  1. An, Y.
    (2007) Korean tul and English all. LSO Working Papers in Linguistics 7: Proceedings of WIGL, 1–16.
    [Google Scholar]
  2. (2010) Frequency, gradience, and variance in consonant insertion (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Stony Brook University, New York.
  3. Beard, R.
    (1995) Lexeme-morpheme base morphology. Albany, NY: SUNY Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Borer, H.
    (2005) Inname only: Structuring sense: Vol. 1. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Boyd, J. & Goldberg, A.
    (2011) Learning what NOT to say: The role of statistical preemption and categorization in a-adjective production. Language, 87, 55–83. doi:  10.1353/lan.2011.0012
    https://doi.org/10.1353/lan.2011.0012 [Google Scholar]
  6. Carson, J. C.
    (2000) The semantics of number in Malay noun phrases (Unpublished MA thesis). University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta.
  7. Chierchia, G.
    (1998) Reference to kinds across languages. Natural Language Semantics, 6, 339–405. doi:  10.1023/A:1008324218506
    https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1008324218506 [Google Scholar]
  8. Cho, J. & Slabakova, R.
    (2014) Interpreting definiteness in second language without articles: The case of L2 Russian. Second Language Research, 30, 159–190. doi:  10.1177/0267658313509647
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0267658313509647 [Google Scholar]
  9. Cho, Y. M., Lee, H. S., Schulz, C., Sohn, H., & Sohn, S. O.
    (2012) Integrated Korean: Beginning 1, (2nd ed.). University of Hawai’i Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  10. (2012) Integrated Korean: Beginning 2, (2nd ed.). University of Hawai’i Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  11. (2012) Integrated Korean: Intermediate 1, (2nd ed.). University of Hawai’i Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  12. (2012) Integrated Korean: Intermediate 2, (2nd ed.). University of Hawai’i Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Chomsky, N.
    (1981) Lectures on Government and Binding. Dordrecht: Foris.
    [Google Scholar]
  14. (1998) Minimalist inquiries: the framework. MIT Working Papers in Linguistics, 15, 1–56.
    [Google Scholar]
  15. (2001) Derivation by phase. InM. Kenstowicz (Ed.), Ken Hale: A life in language (pp.1–52). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Chung, S.
    (2000) On reference to kinds in Indonesian. Natural Language Semantics, 9, 157–171. doi:  10.1023/A:1026527925514
    https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1026527925514 [Google Scholar]
  17. Corver, N.
    (2003) Perfect projections. InR. van Hout, A. Hulk, F. Kuiken & R. Towell (Eds.), The Lexicon-Syntax-Interface in Second Language Acquisition (pp.45–69). Amsterdam: John Benjamins. doi:  10.1075/lald.30.04cor
    https://doi.org/10.1075/lald.30.04cor [Google Scholar]
  18. Cowper, E., & Hall, D. C.
    (2012) Aspects of individuation. InD. Massam (Ed.), Count and mass across languages (pp.27–53). Oxford: Oxford University Press. doi:  10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199654277.003.0003
    https://doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199654277.003.0003 [Google Scholar]
  19. Dalrymple, M., & Mofu, S.
    (2012) Plural semantics, reduplication, and numeral modification in Indonesian. Journal of Semantics, 29, 229–260. doi:  10.1093/jos/ffr015
    https://doi.org/10.1093/jos/ffr015 [Google Scholar]
  20. Embick, D., & Noyer, R.
    (2007) Distributed Morphology and the syntax–morphology interface. InG. Ramchand & C. Reiss (Eds.), The Oxford handbook of linguistic interfaces (pp.289–324). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Franceschina, F.
    (2005) Fossilized Second Language Grammars: The Acquisition of Grammatical Gender. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. doi:  10.1075/lald.38
    https://doi.org/10.1075/lald.38 [Google Scholar]
  22. Gabriele, A.
    (2009) Transfer and transition in the SLA of aspect. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 31, 371–402. doi:  10.1017/S0272263109090342
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0272263109090342 [Google Scholar]
  23. Gebhardt, L.
    (2009) Numeral classifiers and the structure of DP (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Northwestern University, Evanston, IL.
  24. Goldberg, A.
    (2011) Corpus evidence of the viability of statistical preemption. Cognitive Linguistics, 22, 1–28. doi:  10.1515/cogl.2011.006
    https://doi.org/10.1515/cogl.2011.006 [Google Scholar]
  25. Halle, M. & Marantz, A.
    (1993) Distributed Morphology and the pieces of inflection. InK. Hale & S. J. Keyser (Eds.), The view from Building 20: Essays in honor of Sylvain Bromberger (pp.111–176). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Harley, H., & Ritter, E.
    (2002) Person and number in pronouns: A feature-geometric analysis. Language, 78, 482–526. doi:  10.1353/lan.2002.0158
    https://doi.org/10.1353/lan.2002.0158 [Google Scholar]
  27. Hawkins, R., & Casillas, G.
    (2008) Explaining frequency of verb morphology in early L2 speech. Lingua, 118, 595–612. doi:  10.1016/j.lingua.2007.01.009
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lingua.2007.01.009 [Google Scholar]
  28. Hawkins, R., & Chan, Y.-H. C.
    (1997) The partial availability of Universal Grammar in second language acquisition: the ‘failed functional feature hypothesis’. Second Language Research, 13, 187–226. doi:  10.1191/026765897671476153
    https://doi.org/10.1191/026765897671476153 [Google Scholar]
  29. Hawkins, R., & Hattori, H.
    (2006) Interpretation of English multiple wh- questions by Japanese speakers: A missing uninterpretable feature account. Second Language Research, 22, 269–301. doi:  10.1191/0267658306sr269oa
    https://doi.org/10.1191/0267658306sr269oa [Google Scholar]
  30. Haznedar, B., & Schwartz, B. D.
    (1997) Are there Optional Infinitives in child L2 acquisition?InE. Hughes, M. Hughes & A. Greenhill (Eds.), Proceedings of the 21st Annual Boston University Conference on Language Development, 21, 257–68. Somerville, MA: Cascadilla Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Hwang, S. H., & Lardiere, D.
    (2013) Plural-marking in L2 Korean: A feature-based approach. Second Language Research, 29, 57–86. doi:  10.1177/0267658312461496
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0267658312461496 [Google Scholar]
  32. Hwang, S. H.
    (2013) The acquisition of Korean plural marking by native English speakers (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Georgetown University, Washington, DC.
  33. Ionin, T., Montrul, S., & Crivos, M.
    (2013) A bidirectional study on the acquisition of plural noun phrase interpretation in English and Spanish. Applied Psycholinguistics, 34, 483–518. doi:  10.1017/S0142716411000841
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0142716411000841 [Google Scholar]
  34. Kang, B-M.
    (1994) Plurality and other semantic aspects of common nouns in Korean. Journal of East Asian Linguistics, 3, 1–24. doi:  10.1007/BF01733148
    https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01733148 [Google Scholar]
  35. Kim, C.
    (2005) The Korean plural marker tul and its implications. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware.
  36. Kwon, S-N., & Zribi-Hertz, A.
    (2004) Number from a syntactic perspective: Why plural marking looks ‘truer’ in French than in Korean. InO. Bonami & P. Cabredo Hofherr (Eds.), Empirical issues in formal syntax and semantics5 (pp.133–158). www.cssp.cnrs.fr/eiss5/kwon-zribi-hertz/kwon-zribi-hertz-eiss5.pdf.
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Lardiere, D.
    (1998) Dissociating syntax from morphology in a divergent end-state grammar. Second Language Research, 14, 359–375. doi:  10.1191/026765898672500216
    https://doi.org/10.1191/026765898672500216 [Google Scholar]
  38. (2000) Mapping features to forms in second language acquisition. InJ. Archibald (Ed.), Second language acquisition and linguistic theory (pp.102–129). Malden, MA: Blackwell.
    [Google Scholar]
  39. (2005) On morphological competence. InL. Dekydtspotter, R. A. Sprouse, & A. Liljestrad (Eds.), Proceedings of the 7th Generative Approaches to Second Language Acquisition Conferece (GASLA 2004), 178–192. Somerville, MA: Cascadilla Proc.
    [Google Scholar]
  40. (2008) Feature assembly in second language acquisition. InJ. M. Liceras, H. Zobl, & H. Goodluck (Eds.), The role of formal features in second language acquisition (pp.106–140). New York: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
    [Google Scholar]
  41. (2009) Some thoughts on the contrastive analysis of features in second language acquisition. Second Language Research, 25, 173–227. doi:  10.1177/0267658308100283
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0267658308100283 [Google Scholar]
  42. Lee, E.
    (2015) L2 acquisition of number marking: A bidirectional study of adult learners of Korean and Indonesian (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Georgetown University, Washington, DC.
  43. Li, Y-H. A.
    (1999) Plurality in a classifier language. Journal of East Asian Linguistics, 8, 75–99. doi:  10.1023/A:1008306431442
    https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1008306431442 [Google Scholar]
  44. Loewen, G.
    (2011) The syntactic structure of noun phrases in Indonesian (Unpublished MA thesis). University of Manitoba, Winnipeg.
  45. MacDonald, R. R.
    (1976) Indonesian reference grammar. Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  46. McCarthy, C.
    (2008) Morphological variability in the comprehension of agreement: an argument for representation over computation. Second Language Research, 24, 459–486. doi:  10.1177/0267658308095737
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0267658308095737 [Google Scholar]
  47. Montrul, S., & Yoon, J.
    (2009) Putting parameters in their proper place. Second Language Research, 25, 291–311. doi:  10.1177/0267658308100290
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0267658308100290 [Google Scholar]
  48. Nakanishi, K., & Tomioka, S.
    (2004) Japanese plurals are exceptional. Journal of East Asian Linguistics, 13, 113–140. doi:  10.1023/B:JEAL.0000019058.46668.c1
    https://doi.org/10.1023/B:JEAL.0000019058.46668.c1 [Google Scholar]
  49. Nemoto, N.
    (2005) On mass denotations of bare nouns in Japanese and Korean. Linguistics, 43(2), 383–413. doi:  10.1515/ling.2005.43.2.383
    https://doi.org/10.1515/ling.2005.43.2.383 [Google Scholar]
  50. Noh, E.
    (2008) A study on the meaning of Korean zero-marked and ‘tul’-marked nouns. Discourse and Cognition, 15, 43–62. doi:  10.15718/discog.2008.15.1.43
    https://doi.org/10.15718/discog.2008.15.1.43 [Google Scholar]
  51. Park, S-Y.
    (2008) Plural marking in classifier languages: A case-study of the so-called plural marking -tul in Korean. Toronto Working Papers in Linguistics, 28, 281–295.
    [Google Scholar]
  52. Prévost, P., & White, L.
    (2000) Missing surface inflection or impairment in second language acquisition? Evidence from tense and agreement. Second Language Research, 16, 103–33. doi:  10.1191/026765800677556046
    https://doi.org/10.1191/026765800677556046 [Google Scholar]
  53. Puspitorini, D.
    (2010) Untaian Bahasa 2 [Indonesian Grammar 2]. Universitas Indonesia.
    [Google Scholar]
  54. Ramscar, M., Dye, M., & McCauley, S. M.
    (2013) Error and expectation in language learning: The curious absence of mouses in adult speech. Language, 89, 760–93. doi:  10.1353/lan.2013.0068
    https://doi.org/10.1353/lan.2013.0068 [Google Scholar]
  55. Rovita, D., Nuryanti, N., Puspitorini, D., & Westi, E. C.
    (2010) 1Untaian Bahasa 1 [Indonesian Grammar 1] Universitas Indonesia.
    [Google Scholar]
  56. Schwartz, B. D., & Sprouse, R. A.
    (1996) L2 cognitive states and the Full Transfer/Full Access model. Second Language Research, 12, 40–72. doi:  10.1177/026765839601200103
    https://doi.org/10.1177/026765839601200103 [Google Scholar]
  57. Slabakova, R.
    (2008) Meaning in the second language. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. doi:  10.1515/9783110211511
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110211511 [Google Scholar]
  58. Sneddon, J. N.
    (2010) Indonesian: A comprehensive grammar. London and New York: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  59. Sprouse, R. A.
    (2006) Full transfer and relexification: Second language acquisition and creole genesis. InC. Lefebvre, L. White & C. Jourdan (Eds.), L2 acquisition and creole genesis: Dialogues (pp.169–181). Philadelphia, PA: John Benjamins. doi:  10.1075/lald.42.11spr
    https://doi.org/10.1075/lald.42.11spr [Google Scholar]
  60. Tsimpli, I. M., & Dimitrakopoulou, M.
    (2007) The interpretability hypothesis: Evidence from wh- interrogatives in second language acquisition. Second Language Research, 23, 215–42. doi:  10.1177/0267658307076546
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0267658307076546 [Google Scholar]
  61. Tsimpli, I. M., & Mastropavlou, M.
    (2008) Feature interpretability in L2 acquisition and SLI: Greek clitics and determiners. InJ. M. Liceras, H. Zobl & H. Goodluck (Eds.) The Role of Formal Features in Second Language Acquisition (pp.142–183). New York: Lawrence Erlbaum.
    [Google Scholar]
  62. Trahey, M. & White, L.
    (1993) Positive evidence and preemption in the second language classroom. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 15, 181–204. doi:  10.1017/S0272263100011955
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0272263100011955 [Google Scholar]
  63. Widjaja, E. N.
    (2010) Second language acquisition order of Indonesian reduplication and numeral classifier (Unpublished MA thesis). University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta.
  64. West, E. C.
    (2010) Untaian Bahasa 3 [Indonesian Grammar 3]. Universitas Indonesia.
    [Google Scholar]

Data & Media loading...

  • Article Type: Research Article
Keyword(s): Feature reassembly; Indonesian and Korean; Plural marking in L2A
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error