Volume 10, Issue 5
  • ISSN 1879-9264
  • E-ISSN: 1879-9272
Buy:$35.00 + Taxes



The article addresses the issue of an assumed correlation between heritage language speakers’ linguistic system and their fluency. Previous research has shown that heritage language speakers who have grammatical patterns that are divergent from the language spoken in the homeland also have lexical retrieval problems and speak with a slower speech rate. We approach the issue by examining two linguistic features and 11 different fluency features (‘structural’ and ‘performance features’) of 10 speakers of Argentine Heritage Danish. A factor analysis shows that the 11 performance features can be reduced to 2 factors that characterize the speakers ‘lexical retrieval’ and ‘fluency’. A correlation analysis with the two structural features, weakening of a phonological contrast between /oː/ and /ɔː/ and simplification of the gender system, shows that there are no correlations at all between these two measures of the speakers’ language production, in contrast to what previous research has found.


Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...


  1. Allen, B. , & Salmons, J.
    (2015) Heritage language obstruent phonetics and phonology: American Norwegian and Norwegian-American English. In J. B. Johannessen & J. Salmons (Eds.), Germanic Heritage Languages in America (pp.97–116). Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 10.1075/silv.18.04all
    https://doi.org/10.1075/silv.18.04all [Google Scholar]
  2. Basbøll, H.
    (2005) The phonology of Danish. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Bergmann, C. , Sprenger, S. , & Schmid, M. S.
    (2015) The impact of language co-activation on L1 and L2 speech fluency. Acta Psychologica11, 25–35. 10.1016/j.actpsy.2015.07.015
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.actpsy.2015.07.015 [Google Scholar]
  4. Benmamoun, E. , Montrul, S. , & Polinsky, M.
    (2013) Heritage languages and their speakers: Opportunities and challenges for linguistics. Theoretical Linguistics39(3–4), 129–181.
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Bjerg, M.
    (1996) Entre Sofie y Tovelille. Una historia de los immigrantes daneses en la Argentina (1848–1930). Buenos Aires: Editorial Biblos.
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Boersma, P. , & Weenink, D.
    Praat: Doing phonetics by computer [Computer Program]. Version 5.4.15 2017www.praat.org/
  7. Brink, L. , & Lund, J.
    (1975) Dansk rigsmål. Lydudviklingen siden 1840 med særligt henblik på sociolekterne i København. København: Gyldendal.
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Brink, L. , Lund, J. , Heger, S. , & Jørgensen, J. N.
    (1991) Den store danske udtale-ordbog. København: Munksgaard.
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Cattell, R. B.
    (1955) Factor Analysis. An Introduction and Manual for the Psychologist and Social Scientist. Westport CT: Greenwood Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Den Danske Ordbog
    Den Danske Ordbog . https://ordnet.dk/ddo, accessedJune 2018.
  11. Ejstrup, M. , & Foget Hansen, G.
    (2003) Vokaler i tre regionale varianter af dansk. MA thesis, University of Copenhagen.
  12. Field, A.
    (2012) Discovering Statistics Using IBM SPSS Statistics. London: Sage.
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Goldman-Eisler, F.
    (1968) Psycholinguistics: Experiments in Spontaneous Speech. New York, NY: Academic Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Gordon, M. J.
    (2015) Exploring chain shifts, mergers, near-mergers as changes in progress. In P. Honeybone & J. Salmons (Eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Historical Phonology (pp.173–194). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Gregersen, F. , Maegaard, M. , Pharao, N.
    (2015) The LANCHART corpus. In J. Durand , U. Gut & G. Kristoffersen (Eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Corpus Phonology. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Grønnum, N.
    (2005) Fonetik og fonologi, almen og dansk. København: Akademisk.
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Hall-Lew, L.
    (2010) Improved representation of variance in measure of vowel merger. InProceedings of Meetings on Acoustics11, 1–10.
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Hand, D. J. , & Taylor, C. C.
    (1987) Multivariate analysis of variance and repeated measures. London: Chapman Hall. 10.1007/978‑94‑009‑3143‑5
    https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-009-3143-5 [Google Scholar]
  19. Hansen, E. , & Heltoft, L.
    (2011) Grammatik over det danske sprog. København: Det Danske Sprog- og Litteraturselskab.
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Hay, J. , Warren, P. , & Drager, K.
    (2006) Factors influencing speech perception in the context of a merger-in-progress. Journal of Phonetics, 11, 458–484. 10.1016/j.wocn.2005.10.001
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.wocn.2005.10.001 [Google Scholar]
  21. Heegård Petersen, J. , & Kühl, K.
    (2017) Argentinadansk: Semantiske, syntaktiske og morfologiske forskelle til rigsdansk. NyS, Nydanske Sprogstudier, 52–53, 231–258.
    [Google Scholar]
  22. (Eds.) (2018) Selected Proceedings of the 8th Workshop on Immigrant Languages in the Americas (WILA 8). Cascadilla Press. www.lingref.com/cpp/wila/8/
    [Google Scholar]
  23. (Submitted). Gender in Argentine Danish.
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Heegård Petersen, J. , Foget Hansen, G. , Thøgersen, J. , & Kühl, K.
    (2018) Linguistic proficiency in immigrant and heritage speakers of Danish in Argentina and North America: A quantitative approach. Journal of Corpus Linguistics and Linguistic Theory. doi:  10.1515/cllt‑2017‑0088
    https://doi.org/10.1515/cllt-2017-0088 [Google Scholar]
  25. Hjelde, A.
    (1996) Some phonological changes in a Norwegian dialect in America. In P. S. Ureland & I. Clarkson (Eds.), Language Contact Across the North Atlantic (pp.283–295). Tübingen: Max Niemeyer. 10.1515/9783110929652.283
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110929652.283 [Google Scholar]
  26. Johannessen, J. B.
    (2015) Attrition in an American Norwegian heritage language speaker. In J. B. Johannessen & J. Salmons (Eds.), Germanic Heritage Languages in America. Acquisition, attrition and change (pp.46–71). Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company. 10.1075/silv.18.02joh
    https://doi.org/10.1075/silv.18.02joh [Google Scholar]
  27. Johannessen, J. B. , Vangsnes, Ø. A. , Priestley, J. , & Hagen, K.
    (2014) A multilingual speech corpus of North-Germanic languages. In T. Raso & H. Mello (Eds.), Spoken Corpora and Linguistic Studies (pp.69–83). Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company. 10.1075/scl.61.02joh
    https://doi.org/10.1075/scl.61.02joh [Google Scholar]
  28. Johannessen, J. B. , & Salmons, J.
    (Eds.) (2015) Germanic heritage languages in America. Acquisition, attrition and change. Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company. 10.1075/silv.18
    https://doi.org/10.1075/silv.18 [Google Scholar]
  29. Juul, H. M. , Pharao, N. , & Thøgersen, J.
    (2016) Moderne danske vokaler. Danske Talesprog, 11, 35–72.
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Kagan, O. S. , & Friedman, D.
    (2003) Using the OPI to place heritage speakers of Russian. Foreign Language Annals, 11, 536–545. 10.1111/j.1944‑9720.2003.tb02143.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1944-9720.2003.tb02143.x [Google Scholar]
  31. Kupisch, T. , & Rothman, J.
    (2016) Terminology matters! Why difference is not incompleteness and how early child bilinguals are heritage speakers. International Journal of Bilingualism. doi:  10.1177/1367006916654355. Published online bySAGE journals, June22 2016.
    https://doi.org/10.1177/1367006916654355 [Google Scholar]
  32. Kühl, K. , Heegård Petersen, J. , Foget Hansen, G. , & Gregersen, F.
    (2017) CoAmDa. Et nyt dansk talesprogskorpus. Danske Talesprog, 11, 131–160.
    [Google Scholar]
  33. (Revision submitted). The Corpus of American Danish: A language resource of spoken immigrant Danish in North and South America. Language Resources and Evaluation.
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Labov, W.
    (1994) Principles of Linguistic Change. Internal factors (Language in Society 20). Oxford: Blackwell.
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Ladefoged, P. , & Johnson, K.
    (2010) A Course in Phonetics. Boston, MA: Wadsworth Publishing.
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Larsson, I. , & Johannessen, J. B.
    (2015) Incomplete acquisition and verb placement in Heritage Scandinavian. In B. R. Page & M. T. Putnam (Eds.), Moribund Germanic Heritage Languages in North America: Theoretical perspectives and empirical findings (pp.153–189). Leiden: Brill NV. 10.1163/9789004290211_008
    https://doi.org/10.1163/9789004290211_008 [Google Scholar]
  37. Lindblom, B.
    (1990) Explaining phonetic variation: A sketch of the H&H theory. In W. J. Hardcastle & A. Marchal (Eds.), Speech Production and Speech Modelling (pp.403–431). Dordrecht: Kluwer. 10.1007/978‑94‑009‑2037‑8_16
    https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-009-2037-8_16 [Google Scholar]
  38. Montrul, S.
    (2008) Incomplete acquisition. Re-examining the age factor (Studies in Bilingualism 39). Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company. 10.1075/sibil.39
    https://doi.org/10.1075/sibil.39 [Google Scholar]
  39. (2009) Incomplete acquisition of tense-aspect and mood in Spanish heritage speakers. The International Journal of Bilingualism, 13(3), 239–269. 10.1177/1367006909339816
    https://doi.org/10.1177/1367006909339816 [Google Scholar]
  40. (2016) The acquisition of heritage languages. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9781139030502
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781139030502 [Google Scholar]
  41. Nakuma, C.
    (1997a) Loss of communicative competence: measurability and description of a method. International Review of Applied Linguistics in Language Teaching, 35(3), 199–209.
    [Google Scholar]
  42. (1997b) A method for measuring the attrition of communicative competence: A pilot study with Spanish L3 subjects. Applied Psycholinguistics, 18(2), 219–235. 10.1017/S014271640000998X
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S014271640000998X [Google Scholar]
  43. Natvig, D.
    (2016) Heritage Norwegian vowel phonology and English dialect formation. Heritage Language Journal, 13(2), Special Issue on the Phonetics and Phonology, 245–274.
    [Google Scholar]
  44. Paradis, M.
    (2007) L1 attrition features predicted by a neurolinguistic theory of bilingualism. In B. Köpke , M. S. Schmid , M. Keijzer & S. Dostert (Eds.), Language Attrition: Theoretical Perspectives (pp.121–134). Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company. 10.1075/sibil.33.09par
    https://doi.org/10.1075/sibil.33.09par [Google Scholar]
  45. Pascual y Cabo, D. , & Rothman, J.
    (2012) The (il)logical problem of heritage speaker bilingualism and incomplete acquisition. Applied Linguistics, 33(4), 450–455. 10.1093/applin/ams037
    https://doi.org/10.1093/applin/ams037 [Google Scholar]
  46. Pedersen, I. L.
    (2003) Traditional dialects of Danish and the de-dialectification 1900–2000. International Journal of the Sociology of Language, 159(1), 9–28.
    [Google Scholar]
  47. Pires, A. , & Rothman, J.
    (2009) Disentangling sources of incomplete acquisition: an explanation for competence divergence across heritage grammars. International Journal of Bilingualism, 13(2), 211–238. 10.1177/1367006909339806
    https://doi.org/10.1177/1367006909339806 [Google Scholar]
  48. Polinsky, M.
    (2008) Gender under incomplete acquisition: Heritage speakers’ knowledge of noun categorization. Heritage Language Journal, 11, 40–71.
    [Google Scholar]
  49. (2011) Reanalysis in adult heritage language. New evidence in support of attrition. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 11, 305–328. 10.1017/S027226311000077X
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S027226311000077X [Google Scholar]
  50. Polinsky, M. , & Kagan, O. S.
    (2007) Heritage languages: In the wild and in the classroom. Languages and Linguistics Compass, 1(5), 386–395.
    [Google Scholar]
  51. Putnam, M. , & Sánchez, L.
    (2013) What’s so incomplete about incomplete acquisition? A prolegomenon to modeling heritage language grammars. Linguistic Approaches to Bilingualism, 32(2), 233–252. 10.1075/lab.3.2.05put
    https://doi.org/10.1075/lab.3.2.05put [Google Scholar]
  52. Riehl, C. M.
    (2015) Language attrition, language contact and the concept of relic variety: the case of Barossa German. International Journal of the Sociology of Language, 11, 261–292.
    [Google Scholar]
  53. Rothman, J.
    (2007) Heritage speaker competence differences, language change and input type: inflected infinitives in Heritage Brazilian Portuguese. International Journal of Bilingualism, 11(4), 359–389. 10.1177/13670069070110040201
    https://doi.org/10.1177/13670069070110040201 [Google Scholar]
  54. Schmid, M. S.
    (2011) Language attrition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9780511852046
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511852046 [Google Scholar]
  55. (2012) Language attrition and multilingualism. In C. A. Chapelle (Ed.), The Encyclopedia of Applied Linguistics. Oxford: Blackwell Wiley. 10.1002/9781405198431.wbeal0060
    https://doi.org/10.1002/9781405198431.wbeal0060 [Google Scholar]
  56. Schmid, M. S. , & Dusseldorp, E.
    (2010) Quantitative analyses in a multivariate study of language attrition: the impact of extralinguistic factors. Second Language Research, 26(1), 125–160. 10.1177/0267658309337641
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0267658309337641 [Google Scholar]
  57. Schmid, M. S. , & Fägersten, K. B.
    (2010) Disfluency markers in L1 attrition. Language Learning. A Journal of Research in Language Studies, 60(4), 753–791.
    [Google Scholar]
  58. Schmid, M. S. , & Jarvis, S.
    (2014) Lexical first language attrition. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 17(4), 729–748. 10.1017/S1366728913000771
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S1366728913000771 [Google Scholar]
  59. Schmid, M. S. , & Köpke, B.
    (2007) Bilingualism and attrition. In B. Köpke , M. S. Schmid & M. Keijzer (Eds.), Language Attrition: Theoretical perspectives (pp.1–7). Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company. 10.1075/sibil.33.02sch
    https://doi.org/10.1075/sibil.33.02sch [Google Scholar]
  60. Sørensen, F.
    (2016) Lyd og prosodi i de danske dialekter. Unpublished manuscript. jysk.au.dk/fileadmin/www.jysk.au.dk/publikationer/centrets_publikationer/lydogprosodi.pdf
  61. Thøgersen, J.
    (2011) Talesprog i radioavisen. Det kanoniserede talesprogs anatomi. Danske Talesprog, 11, 185–214.
    [Google Scholar]
  62. Trudgill, P. , & Foxcroft, T.
    (1978) On the sociolinguistics of vocalic mergers: Transfer and approximation in East Anglia. In P. Trudgill (Ed.), Sociolinguistic patterns in British English (pp.69–79). London: Edwin Arnold.
    [Google Scholar]
  63. Warne, R. T.
    (2014) A primer on multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) for behavioral scientists. Practical Assessment, Research & Evaluation, 19, no.17. pareonline.net/getvn.asp?v=19&n=17
    [Google Scholar]
  64. Zipf, G. K.
    (1949) Human behavior and the principle of least effort. Cambridge, MA: Addison-Wesley.
    [Google Scholar]

Data & Media loading...

  • Article Type: Research Article
Keyword(s): factor analysis; fluency; heritage language
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error