1887
image of Interpreting cognitive decline in the face of cognitive reserve
  • ISSN 1879-9264
  • E-ISSN 1879-9272
USD
Buy:$35.00 + Taxes

Abstract

Evaluation of the cognitive level of older adults, including decisions about meeting clinical thresholds for dementia, is typically based on behavioral levels of performance. However, individuals with high cognitive reserve will outperform the levels typically associated with their brain structure, providing inaccurate assessments of their status. We define cognitive reserve as the relation between brain integrity and cognitive level, and use the case of bilingualism as a source of cognitive reserve to illustrate how information from only one can distort the interpretation of the individual’s cognitive status.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1075/lab.18040.bia
2018-09-03
2019-10-13
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

References

  1. Abutalebi, J., Canini, M., Della Rosa, P. A., Green, D. W., & Weekes, B. S.
    (2015) The neuroprotective effects of bilingualism upon the inferior parietal lobule: A structural neuroimaging study in aging Chinese bilinguals. Journal of Neurolinguistics, 33, 3–13. doi: 10.1016/j.jneuroling.2014.09.008
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jneuroling.2014.09.008 [Google Scholar]
  2. Abutalebi, J., Canini, M., Rosa, P. A. D., Sheung, L. P., Green, D. W., & Weekes, B. S.
    (2014) Bilingualism protects anterior temporal lobe integrity in aging. Neurobiology of Aging, 35, 2126–2133. doi: 10.1016/j.neurobiolaging.2014.03.010
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neurobiolaging.2014.03.010 [Google Scholar]
  3. Alladi, S., Bak, T. H., Duggirala, V., Surampudi, B., Shailaja, M., Shukla, A. K., … & Kaul, S.
    (2013) Bilingualism delays age at onset of dementia, independent of education and immigration status. Neurology, 81, 1938–1944.10.1212/01.wnl.0000436620.33155.a4
    https://doi.org/10.1212/01.wnl.0000436620.33155.a4 [Google Scholar]
  4. Alladi, S., Bak, T. H., Mekala, S., Rajan, A., Chaudhuri, J. R., Mioshi, E., … & Kaul, S.
    (2016) Impact of bilingualism on cognitive outcome after stroke. Stroke, 47, 258–261. doi: 10.1161/STROKEAHA.115.010418
    https://doi.org/10.1161/STROKEAHA.115.010418 [Google Scholar]
  5. Ansaldo, A. I., Ghazi-Saidi, L., & Adrover-Roig, D.
    (2015) Interference control in elderly bilinguals: Appearances can be misleading. Journal of Clinical Experimental Neuropsychology, 37(5), 455–470. doi: 10.1080/13803395.2014.990359
    https://doi.org/10.1080/13803395.2014.990359 [Google Scholar]
  6. Antón, E., Fernández García, Y., Carreiras, M., & Duñabeitia, J. A.
    (2016) Does bilingualism shape inhibitory control in the elderly?Journal of Memory and Language, 90, 147–160. doi: 10.1016/j.jml.2016.04.007
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jml.2016.04.007 [Google Scholar]
  7. Bak, T. H., & Alladi, S.
    (2014) Can being bilingual affect the onset of dementia?Future Neurology, 9, 101–103.10.2217/fnl.14.8
    https://doi.org/10.2217/fnl.14.8 [Google Scholar]
  8. Bak, T. H., Nissan, J. J., Allerhand, M. M., & Deary, I. J.
    (2014) Does bilingualism influence cognitive aging?Annals of Neurology, 75, 959–963.10.1002/ana.24158
    https://doi.org/10.1002/ana.24158 [Google Scholar]
  9. Barulli, D., & Stern, Y.
    (2013) Efficiency, capacity, compensation, maintenance, plasticity: emerging concepts in cognitive reserve. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 17, 502–509.10.1016/j.tics.2013.08.012
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tics.2013.08.012 [Google Scholar]
  10. Bialystok, E., Craik, F. I., Klein, R., & Viswanathan, M.
    (2004) Bilingualism, aging, and cognitive control: Evidence from the Simon Task. Psychology and Aging, 19, 290–303.10.1037/0882‑7974.19.2.290
    https://doi.org/10.1037/0882-7974.19.2.290 [Google Scholar]
  11. Bialystok, E., Craik, F. I. M., & Freedman, M.
    (2007) Bilingualism as a protection against the onset of symptoms of dementia. Neuropsychologia, 45, 459–464. doi: 10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2006.10.009
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2006.10.009 [Google Scholar]
  12. Bonner, M. F., & Price, A. R.
    (2013) Where is the anterior temporal lobe and what does it do?Journal of Neuroscience, 33, 4213–4215. doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.0041‑13.2013
    https://doi.org/10.1523/JNEUROSCI.0041-13.2013 [Google Scholar]
  13. Brayne, C., & Miller, B.
    (2017) Dementia and aging populations–A global priority for contextualized research and health policy. PLoS Medicine, 14, e1002275. doi: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1002275
    https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1002275 [Google Scholar]
  14. Calvo, N., Garcia, A. M., Manoiloff, L., & Ibanez, A.
    (2016) Bilingualism and cognitive reserve: A critical overview and a plea for methodological innovations. Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience, 7, 249. doi: 10.3389/fnagi.2015.00249
    https://doi.org/10.3389/fnagi.2015.00249 [Google Scholar]
  15. Chertkow, H., Whitehead, V., Phillips, N., Wolfson, C., Atherton, J., & Bergman, H.
    (2010) Multilingualism (but not always bilingualism) delays the onset of Alzheimer disease: evidence from a bilingual community. Alzheimer Disease & Associated Disorders, 24, 118–125.10.1097/WAD.0b013e3181ca1221
    https://doi.org/10.1097/WAD.0b013e3181ca1221 [Google Scholar]
  16. Cummings, J., Lee, G., Mortsdorf, T., Ritter, A., & Zhong, K.
    (2017) Alzheimer’s disease drug development pipeline: 2017. Alzheimer’s & Dementia, 3, 367–384. doi: 10.1016/j.trci.2017.05.002
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.trci.2017.05.002 [Google Scholar]
  17. Craik, F. I., Bialystok, E., & Freedman, M.
    (2010) Delaying the onset of Alzheimer disease Bilingualism as a form of cognitive reserve. Neurology, 75, 1726–1729.10.1212/WNL.0b013e3181fc2a1c
    https://doi.org/10.1212/WNL.0b013e3181fc2a1c [Google Scholar]
  18. Crane, P. K., Gruhl, J. C., Erosheva, E. A., Gibbons, L. E., McCurry, S. M., Rhoads, K., … & White, L.
    (2010) Use of spoken and written Japanese did not protect Japanese-American men from cognitive decline in late life. Journals of Gerontology Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences, 65, 654–666.10.1093/geronb/gbq046
    https://doi.org/10.1093/geronb/gbq046 [Google Scholar]
  19. Duncan, H. D., Nikelski, J., Pilon, R., Steffener, J., Chertkow, H., & Phillips, N. A.
    (2018) Structural brain differences between monolingual and multilingual patients with mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer disease: Evidence for cognitive reserve. Neuropsychologia, 109, 270–282. doi: 10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2017.12.036
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2017.12.036 [Google Scholar]
  20. Fjell, A. M., & Walhovd, K. B.
    (2010) Structural brain changes in aging: courses, causes and cognitive consequences. Reviews in the Neurosciences, 21, 187–222.10.1515/REVNEURO.2010.21.3.187
    https://doi.org/10.1515/REVNEURO.2010.21.3.187 [Google Scholar]
  21. Gold, B. T., Kim, C., Johnson, N. F., Kryscio, R. J., & Smith, C. D.
    (2013) Lifelong bilingualism maintains neural efficiency for cognitive control in aging. Journal of Neuroscience, 33, 387–396.10.1523/JNEUROSCI.3837‑12.2013
    https://doi.org/10.1523/JNEUROSCI.3837-12.2013 [Google Scholar]
  22. Gollan, T. H., Salmon, D. P., Montoya, R. I., & Galasko, D. R.
    (2011) Degree of bilingualism predicts age of diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease in low-education but not in highly educated Hispanics. Neuropsychologia, 49, 3826–3830.10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2011.09.041
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2011.09.041 [Google Scholar]
  23. Grundy, J. G., Anderson, J. A. E., & Bialystok, E.
    (2017) Neural correlates of cognitive processing in monolinguals and bilinguals. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1396(1), 183–201. doi: 10.1111/nyas.13333
    https://doi.org/10.1111/nyas.13333 [Google Scholar]
  24. Hebb, D. O.
    (1949) The Organization of Behavior. New York: Wiley.
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Ihle, A., Oris, M., Fagot, D., & Kliegel, M.
    (2016) The relation of the number of languages spoken to performance in different cognitive abilities in old age. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 38, 1103–1114.10.1080/13803395.2016.1197184
    https://doi.org/10.1080/13803395.2016.1197184 [Google Scholar]
  26. Katzman, R., Aronson, M., Fuld, P., Kawas, C., Brown, T., Morgenstern, H., … & Ooi, W. L.
    (1989) Development of dementing illnesses in an 80–year–old volunteer cohort. Annals of Neurology, 25, 317–324.10.1002/ana.410250402
    https://doi.org/10.1002/ana.410250402 [Google Scholar]
  27. Kaufman, A. S., & Kaufman, N. L.
    (1990) Manual for the Kaufman brief intelligence test. Circle Pines, MN: American Guidance Service.
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Kave, G., Eyal, N., Shorek, A., & Cohen-Mansfield, J.
    (2008) Multilingualism and cognitive state in the oldest old. Psychology and Aging, 23, 70–78.10.1037/0882‑7974.23.1.70
    https://doi.org/10.1037/0882-7974.23.1.70 [Google Scholar]
  29. Klein, R. M., Christie, J., & Parkvall, M.
    (2016) Does multilingualism affect the incidence of Alzheimer’s disease? A worldwide analysis by country. SSM – Population Health, 2, 463–467. doi: 10.1016/j.ssmph.2016.06.002
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ssmph.2016.06.002 [Google Scholar]
  30. Kowoll, M. E., Degen, C., Gorenc, L., Küntzelmann, A., Fellhauer, I., Giesel, F., … & Schröder, J.
    (2016) Bilingualism as a contributor to cognitive reserve? Evidence from cerebral glucose metabolism in mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer’s disease. Frontiers in Psychiatry, 7, 62.10.3389/fpsyt.2016.00062
    https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2016.00062 [Google Scholar]
  31. Lawton, D. M., Gasquoine, P. G., & Weimer, A. A.
    (2015) Age of dementia diagnosis in community dwelling bilingual and monolingual Hispanic Americans. Cortex, 66, 141–145. doi: 10.1016/j.cortex.2014.11.017
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cortex.2014.11.017 [Google Scholar]
  32. Ljungberg, J. K., Hansson, P., Adolfsson, R., & Nilsson, L. G.
    (2016) The effect of language skills on dementia in a Swedish longitudinal cohort. Linguistic Approaches to Bilingualism, 6, 190–204.10.1075/lab.14031.lju
    https://doi.org/10.1075/lab.14031.lju [Google Scholar]
  33. Luk, G., Anderson, J. A. E., Craik, F. I. M., Grady, C., & Bialystok, E.
    (2010) Distinct neural correlates for two types of inhibition in bilinguals: Response inhibition and interference suppression. Brain and Cognition, 74, 347–357.10.1016/j.bandc.2010.09.004
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bandc.2010.09.004 [Google Scholar]
  34. McAuley, E., Kramer, A. F., & Colcombe, S. J.
    (2004) Cardiovascular fitness and neurocognitive function in older adults: A brief review. Brain, Behavior, and Immunity, 18, 214–220.10.1016/j.bbi.2003.12.007
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbi.2003.12.007 [Google Scholar]
  35. Mosconi, L.
    (2013) Glucose metabolism in normal aging and Alzheimer’s disease: methodological and physiological considerations for PET studies. Clinical and Translational Imaging, 1, 217–233.10.1007/s40336‑013‑0026‑y
    https://doi.org/10.1007/s40336-013-0026-y [Google Scholar]
  36. Mukadam, N., Jichi, F., Green, D., & Livingston, G.
    (2018) The relationship of bilingualism to cognitive decline: The Australian Longitudinal Study of Ageing. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 33, e249–e256.10.1002/gps.4778
    https://doi.org/10.1002/gps.4778 [Google Scholar]
  37. Park, D. C., Lautenschlager, G., Hedden, T., Davidson, N. S., Smith, A. D., & Smith, P. K.
    (2002) Models of visuospatial and verbal memory across the adult life span. Psychology and Aging, 17, 299–320. doi: 10.1037/0882‑7974.17.2.299
    https://doi.org/10.1037/0882-7974.17.2.299 [Google Scholar]
  38. Park, D. C., & Reuter-Lorenz, P.
    (2009) The adaptive brain: aging and neurocognitive scaffolding. Annual Review of Psychology, 60, 173–196.10.1146/annurev.psych.59.103006.093656
    https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.psych.59.103006.093656 [Google Scholar]
  39. Pascual-Leone, A., Amedi, A., Fregni, F., & Merabet, L. B.
    (2005) The plastic human brain cortex. Annual Review of Neuroscience, 28, 377–401.10.1146/annurev.neuro.27.070203.144216
    https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.neuro.27.070203.144216 [Google Scholar]
  40. Perani, D., Farsad, M., Ballarini, T., Lubian, F., Malpetti, M., Fracchetti, A., … & Abutalebi, J.
    (2017) The impact of bilingualism on brain reserve and metabolic connectivity in Alzheimer’s dementia. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 114, 1690–1695.10.1073/pnas.1610909114
    https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1610909114 [Google Scholar]
  41. Prince, M., Comas-Herrera, A., Knapp, M., Guerchet, M., & Karagiannidou, M.
    (2016) World Alzheimer Report 2016: Improving healthcare for people living with dementia. London: Alzheimer’s Disease International.
    [Google Scholar]
  42. Raz, N., Ghisletta, P., Rodrigue, K. M., Kennedy, K. M., & Lindenberger, U.
    (2010) Trajectories of brain aging in middle-aged and older adults: regional and individual differences. NeuroImage, 51, 501–511.10.1016/j.neuroimage.2010.03.020
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroimage.2010.03.020 [Google Scholar]
  43. Reyes, A., Paul, B. M., Marshall, A., Chang, Y. H. A., Bahrami, N., Kansal, L., … & McDonald, C. R.
    (2018) Does bilingualism increase brain or cognitive reserve in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy?Epilepsia, 59, 1037–1047.10.1111/epi.14072
    https://doi.org/10.1111/epi.14072 [Google Scholar]
  44. Salvatierra, J. L., & Rosselli, M.
    (2010) The effect of bilingualism and age on inhibitory control. International Journal of Bilingualism, 15, 26–37. doi: 10.1177/1367006910371021
    https://doi.org/10.1177/1367006910371021 [Google Scholar]
  45. Sattler, C., Toro, P., Schönknecht, P., & Schröder, J.
    (2012) Cognitive activity, education and socioeconomic status as preventive factors for mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer’s disease. Psychiatry Research, 196, 90–95.10.1016/j.psychres.2011.11.012
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychres.2011.11.012 [Google Scholar]
  46. Schweizer, T. A., Ware, J., Fischer, C. E., Craik, F. I., & Bialystok, E.
    (2012) Bilingualism as a contributor to cognitive reserve: Evidence from brain atrophy in Alzheimer’s disease. Cortex, 48, 991–996.10.1016/j.cortex.2011.04.009
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cortex.2011.04.009 [Google Scholar]
  47. Snowdon, D. A.
    (2003) Healthy aging and dementia: Findings from the Nun Study. Annals of Internal Medicine, 139, 450–454.10.7326/0003‑4819‑139‑5_Part_2‑200309021‑00014
    https://doi.org/10.7326/0003-4819-139-5_Part_2-200309021-00014 [Google Scholar]
  48. Soveri, A., Rodriguez-Fornells, A., & Laine, M.
    (2011) Is there a relationship between language switching and executive functions in bilingualism? Introducing a within group analysis approach. Frontiers in Psychology, 2, 183. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2011.00183
    https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2011.00183 [Google Scholar]
  49. Stern, Y.
    (2002) What is cognitive reserve? Theory and research application of the reserve concept. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 8, 448–460.10.1017/S1355617702813248
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S1355617702813248 [Google Scholar]
  50. (2012) Cognitive reserve in ageing and Alzheimer’s disease. The Lancet Neurology, 11, 1006–1012.10.1016/S1474‑4422(12)70191‑6
    https://doi.org/10.1016/S1474-4422(12)70191-6 [Google Scholar]
  51. Stern, Y., Albert, S., Tang, M. X., & Tsai, W. Y.
    (1999) Rate of memory decline in AD is related to education and occupation Cognitive reserve?Neurology, 53, 1942–1942.10.1212/WNL.53.9.1942
    https://doi.org/10.1212/WNL.53.9.1942 [Google Scholar]
  52. Stern, Y., Gurland, B., Tatemichi, T. K., Tang, M. X., Wilder, D., & Maveux, R.
    (1994) JAMA, 271, 1004–1010.10.1001/jama.1994.03510370056032
    https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.1994.03510370056032 [Google Scholar]
  53. Tucker-Drob, E. M., Johnson, K. E., & Jones, R. N.
    (2009) The cognitive reserve hypothesis: a longitudinal examination of age-associated declines in reasoning and processing speed. Developmental Psychology, 45, 431–446.10.1037/a0014012
    https://doi.org/10.1037/a0014012 [Google Scholar]
  54. Wilson, R. S., Boyle, P. A., Yang, J., James, B. D., & Bennett, D. A.
    (2015) Early life instruction in foreign language and music and incidence of mild cognitive impairment. Neuropsychology, 29, 292–302.10.1037/neu0000129
    https://doi.org/10.1037/neu0000129 [Google Scholar]
  55. Woumans, E. V. Y., Santens, P., Sieben, A., Versijpt, J. A. N., Stevens, M., & Duyck, W.
    (2015) Bilingualism delays clinical manifestation of Alzheimer’s disease. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 18, 568–574.10.1017/S136672891400087X
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S136672891400087X [Google Scholar]
  56. Zahodne, L. B., Schofield, P. W., Farrell, M. T., Stern, Y., & Manly, J. J.
    (2014) Bilingualism does not alter cognitive decline or dementia risk among Spanish-speaking immigrants. Neuropsychology, 28, 238–246. doi: 10.1037/neu0000014
    https://doi.org/10.1037/neu0000014 [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.1075/lab.18040.bia
Loading
/content/journals/10.1075/lab.18040.bia
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Article Type: Research Article
Keywords: cognitive reserve; brain integrity; aging
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error