1887
image of Native language, L2 experience, and pitch processing in music
USD
Buy:$35.00 + Taxes

Abstract

Abstract

The current study investigated how the role of pitch in one’s native language and L2 experience influenced musical melodic processing by testing Turkish and Mandarin Chinese advanced and beginning learners of English as an L2. Pitch has a lower functional load and shows a simpler pattern in Turkish than in Chinese as the former only contrasts between presence and the absence of pitch elevation, while the latter makes use of four different pitch contours lexically. Using the Musical Ear Test as the tool, we found that the Chinese listeners outperformed the Turkish listeners, and the advanced L2 learners outperformed the beginning learners. The Turkish listeners were further tested on their discrimination of bisyllabic Chinese lexical tones, and again an L2 advantage was observed. No significant difference was found for working memory between the beginning and advanced L2 learners. These results suggest that richness of tonal inventory of the native language is essential for triggering a music processing advantage, and on top of the tone language advantage, the L2 experience yields a further enhancement. Yet, unlike the tone language advantage that seems to relate to pitch expertise, learning an L2 seems to improve sound discrimination in general, and such improvement exhibits in non-native lexical tone discrimination.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1075/lab.20030.che
2021-07-16
2021-09-18
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

References

  1. Bauer, R. S., & Benedict, P. K.
    (1997) Modern Cantonese phonology. Mouton de Gruyter. 10.1515/9783110823707
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110823707 [Google Scholar]
  2. Bhatara, A., Yeung, H. H., & Nazzi, T.
    (2015) Foreign language learning in french speakers is associated with rhythm perception, but not with melody perception. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 41(2), 277–282.
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Bialystok, E., Craik, F. I. M., Green, D. W., & Gollan, T. H.
    (2009) Bilingual minds. Psychological Science in the Public Interest, 10(3), 89–29. doi:  10.1177/1529100610387084
    https://doi.org/10.1177/1529100610387084 [Google Scholar]
  4. Bidelman, G., Gandour, J., & Krishnan, A.
    (2011) Cross-domain effects of music and language experience on the representation of pitch in the human auditory brainstem. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 23, 425–434. 10.1162/jocn.2009.21362
    https://doi.org/10.1162/jocn.2009.21362 [Google Scholar]
  5. Bidelman, G., Hutka, S., & Moreno, S.
    (2013) Tone language speakers and musicians share enhanced perceptual and cognitive abilities for musical pitch: Evidence for bidirectionality between the domains of language and music. Plos One, 8, e60676. 10.1371/journal.pone.0060676
    https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0060676 [Google Scholar]
  6. Bradley, E. D.
    (2016) Phonetic dimensions of tone language effects on musical melody perception. Psychomusicology: Music, Mind, and Brain, 26(4), 337. 10.1037/pmu0000162
    https://doi.org/10.1037/pmu0000162 [Google Scholar]
  7. Bradlow, A. R., Akahane-Yamada, R., Pisoni, D. B., & Tohkura, Y.
    (1999) Training Japanese listeners to identify English /r/and /l/: Long-term retention of learning in perception and production. Perception & Psychophysics, 61(5), 977–985. doi:  10.3758/BF03206911
    https://doi.org/10.3758/BF03206911 [Google Scholar]
  8. Callan, A. M., Callan, D. E., Tajima, K., Kubo, R., Masaki, S., & Akahane-Yamada, R.
    (2003) Learning-induced neural plasticity associated with improved identification performance after training of a difficult second-language phonetic contrast. Neuroimage, 19(1), 113–124. doi:  10.1016/S1053‑8119(03)00020‑X
    https://doi.org/10.1016/S1053-8119(03)00020-X [Google Scholar]
  9. Chen, A., Liu, L., & Kager, R.
    (2016) Cross-domain correlation in pitch perception, the influence of native language. Language, Cognition and Neuroscience, 31(6), 751–760. doi:  10.1080/23273798.2016.1156715
    https://doi.org/10.1080/23273798.2016.1156715 [Google Scholar]
  10. Chen, A., Peter, V., Wijnen, F., Schnack, H., & Burnham, D.
    (2018) Are lexical tones musical? native language’s influence on neural response to pitch in different domains. Brain and Language, 180–182, 31–41. doi:  10.1016/j.bandl.2018.04.006
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bandl.2018.04.006 [Google Scholar]
  11. Delogu, F., Lampis, G., & Belardinelli, M. O.
    (2006) Music-to-language transfer effect: May melodic ability improve learning of tonal languages by native nontonal speakers?Cognitive Processing, 7(3), 203–207. 10.1007/s10339‑006‑0146‑7
    https://doi.org/10.1007/s10339-006-0146-7 [Google Scholar]
  12. Deutsch, D., Henthorn, T., Marvin, E., & Xu, H.
    (2006) Absolute pitch among American and Chinese conservatory students: Prevalence differences, and evidence for a speech-related critical period. Journal of Acoustic Society of America, 119(2), 719–722. 10.1121/1.2151799
    https://doi.org/10.1121/1.2151799 [Google Scholar]
  13. Flege, J. E., Bohn, O.-S., & Jang, S.
    (1997) Effects of experience on non-native speakers’ production and perception of English vowels. Journal of Phonetics, 25(4), 437–470. doi:  10.1006/jpho.1997.0052
    https://doi.org/10.1006/jpho.1997.0052 [Google Scholar]
  14. Gandour, J., & Harshman, R.
    (1978) Cross-language difference in tone perception: A multidimensional scaling investigation. Language and Speech, 21, 1–33. 10.1177/002383097802100101
    https://doi.org/10.1177/002383097802100101 [Google Scholar]
  15. Gandour, J.
    (1983) Tone perception in far eastern languages. Journal of Phonetics, 11, 149–176. 10.1016/S0095‑4470(19)30813‑7
    https://doi.org/10.1016/S0095-4470(19)30813-7 [Google Scholar]
  16. Garbin, G., Costa, A., Sanjuan, A., Forn, C., Rodriguez-Pujadas, A., Ventura, N., … Ávila, C.
    (2011) Neural bases of language switching in high and early proficient bilinguals. Brain and Language, 119(3), 129–135. 10.1016/j.bandl.2011.03.011
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bandl.2011.03.011 [Google Scholar]
  17. Kempe, V., Bublitz, D., & Brooks, P. J.
    (2015) Musical ability and non-native speech-sound processing are linked through sensitivity to pitch and spectral information. British Journal of Psychology, 106(2), 349–366. doi:  10.1111/bjop.12092
    https://doi.org/10.1111/bjop.12092 [Google Scholar]
  18. Kraus, N., & Chandrasekaran, B.
    (2010) Music training for the development of auditory skills. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 11(8), 599–605. 10.1038/nrn2882
    https://doi.org/10.1038/nrn2882 [Google Scholar]
  19. Krizman, J., Marian, V., Shook, A., Skoe, E., & Kraus, N.
    (2012) Subcortical encoding of sound is enhanced in bilinguals and relates to executive function advantages. Proceedings of National Academy of Science USA, 109(20), 7877. Retrieved fromwww.pnas.org/content/109/20/7877.abstract. 10.1073/pnas.1201575109
    https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1201575109 [Google Scholar]
  20. Lee, C. Y., & Hung, T. H.
    (2008) Identification of mandarin tones by English-speaking musicians and nonmusicians. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 124, 3235–3248. 10.1121/1.2990713
    https://doi.org/10.1121/1.2990713 [Google Scholar]
  21. Levi, S. V.
    (2005) Acoustic correlates of lexical accent in Turkish. Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 35(1), 73–97. doi:  10.1017/S0025100305001921
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0025100305001921 [Google Scholar]
  22. Li, C., & Thompson, S. A.
    (1989) Mandarin Chinese: A functional reference grammar. University of California Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Lively, S. E., Pisoni, D. B., Yamada, R. A., Tohkura, Y., & Yamada, T.
    (1994) Training Japanese listeners to identify English /r/ and /l/. III. long-term retention of new phonetic categories. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 96(4), 2076–2087. doi:  10.1121/1.410149
    https://doi.org/10.1121/1.410149 [Google Scholar]
  24. Marian, V., Blumenfeld, H. K., & Margarita, K.
    (2007) The language experience and proficiency questionnaire (LEAP-Q): Assessing language profiles in bilinguals and multilinguals. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 50(4), 940–967. 10.1044/1092‑4388(2007/067)
    https://doi.org/10.1044/1092-4388(2007/067) [Google Scholar]
  25. Marie, C., Delogu, F., Lampis, G., Belardinelli, M., & Besson, M.
    (2011) Influence of musical expertise on segmental and tonal processing in mandarin Chinese. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 23, 2701–2715. 10.1162/jocn.2010.21585
    https://doi.org/10.1162/jocn.2010.21585 [Google Scholar]
  26. Mechelli, A., Crinion, J. T., Noppeney, U., O’Doherty, J., Ashburner, J., Frackowiak, R. S., & Price, C. J.
    (2004) Structural plasticity in the bilingual brain. Nature, 431(7010), 757. doi:  10.1038/431757a
    https://doi.org/10.1038/431757a [Google Scholar]
  27. Milovanov, R., Huotilainen, M., Välimäki, V., Esquef, P. A. A., & Tervaniemi, M.
    (2008) Musical aptitude and second language pronunciation skills in school-aged children: Neural and behavioral evidence. Brain Research, 1194, 81–89. doi:  10.1016/j.brainres.2007.11.042
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brainres.2007.11.042 [Google Scholar]
  28. Mok, P. K. P., & Zuo, D.
    (2012) The separation between music and speech: Evidence from the perception of cantonese tones. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 132(4), 2711–2720. 10.1121/1.4747010
    https://doi.org/10.1121/1.4747010 [Google Scholar]
  29. Moore, C. B., & Jongman, A.
    (1997) Speaker normalization in the perception of mandarin chinese tones. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 102(3), 1864–1877. Retrieved fromlink.aip.org/link/?JAS/102/1864/1. 10.1121/1.420092
    https://doi.org/10.1121/1.420092 [Google Scholar]
  30. Osterhout, L., Poliakov, A., Inoue, K., McLaughlin, J., Valentine, G., Pitkanen, I., … Hirschensohn, J.
    (2008) Second-language learning and changes in the brain. Journal of Neurolinguistics, 21(6), 509–521. doi:  10.1016/j.jneuroling.2008.01.001
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jneuroling.2008.01.001 [Google Scholar]
  31. Paap, K. R., & Greenberg, Z. I.
    (2013) There is no coherent evidence for a bilingual advantage in executive processing. Cognitive Psychology, 66(2), 232–258. doi:  10.1016/j.cogpsych.2012.12.002
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cogpsych.2012.12.002 [Google Scholar]
  32. Paap, K. R., Johnson, H. A., & Sawi, O.
    (2015) Bilingual advantages in executive functioning either do not exist or are restricted to very specific and undetermined circumstances. Cortex, 69, 265–278. doi:  10.1016/j.cortex.2015.04.014
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cortex.2015.04.014 [Google Scholar]
  33. Pfordresher, P., & Brown, S.
    (2009) Enhanced production and perception of musical pitch in tone language speakers. Attention, Perception and Psychophysics, 71(-6), 1385–1398. doi:  10.3758/APP.71.6.1385
    https://doi.org/10.3758/APP.71.6.1385 [Google Scholar]
  34. Pierrehumbert, J. B.
    (1980) The phonology and phonetics of English intonation. [Doctoral dissertation]. Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Roncaglia-Denissen, M., Bouwer, F. L., & Honing, H.
    (2018) Decision making strategy and the simultaneous processing of syntactic dependencies in language and music. Frontiers in Psychology, 9, 38. 10.3389/fpsyg.2018.00038
    https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2018.00038 [Google Scholar]
  36. Roncaglia-Denissen, M., Roor, D., Chen, A., & Sadakata, M.
    (2016) The enhanced musical rhythmic perception in second language learners. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 10, 288. 10.3389/fnhum.2016.00288
    https://doi.org/10.3389/fnhum.2016.00288 [Google Scholar]
  37. Roncaglia-Denissen, M., Schmidt-Kassow, M., Heine, A., Vuust, P., & Kotz, S. A.
    (2013) Enhanced musical rhythmic perception in turkish early and late learners of german. Frontiers in Psychology, 4, 645. 10.3389/fpsyg.2013.00645
    https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2013.00645 [Google Scholar]
  38. Roncaglia-Denissen, M., Schmidt-Kassow, M., & Kotz, S. A.
    (2013) Speech rhythm facilitates syntactic ambiguity resolution: ERP evidence. Plos One, 8(2), e56000. 10.1371/journal.pone.0056000
    https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0056000 [Google Scholar]
  39. Salthouse, T. A.
    (2009) When does age-related cognitive decline begin?Neurobiology of Aging, 30(4), 507–514. 10.1016/j.neurobiolaging.2008.09.023
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neurobiolaging.2008.09.023 [Google Scholar]
  40. Schellenberg, E. G.
    (2015) Music training and speech perception: A gene-environment interaction. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1337, 170–177. doi:  10.1111/nyas.12627
    https://doi.org/10.1111/nyas.12627 [Google Scholar]
  41. Schlegel, A. A., Rudelson, J. J., & Tse, P. U.
    (2012) White matter structure changes as adults learn a second language. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 24(8), 1664–1670. 10.1162/jocn_a_00240
    https://doi.org/10.1162/jocn_a_00240 [Google Scholar]
  42. Shaefer, V., & Darcy, I.
    (2014) Lexical function of pitch in the first language shapes cross-linguistic perception of Thai tones. Laboratory Phonology, 5, 489–522. 10.1515/lp‑2014‑0016
    https://doi.org/10.1515/lp-2014-0016 [Google Scholar]
  43. Slevc, L. R., & Miyake, A.
    (2006) Individual differences in second-language proficiency: Does musical ability matter?Psychological Science, 17(8), 675–681. 10.1111/j.1467‑9280.2006.01765.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9280.2006.01765.x [Google Scholar]
  44. Wallentin, M., Nielsen, A. H., Friis-Olivarius, M., Vuust, C., & Vuust, P.
    (2010) The musical ear test, a new reliable test for measuring musical competence. Learning and Individual Differences, 20(3), 188–196. doi:  10.1016/j.lindif.2010.02.004
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lindif.2010.02.004 [Google Scholar]
  45. Wong, C. M. P., Skoe, E., Russo, N. M., Dees, T., & Kraus, N.
    (2007) Musical experience shapes human brainstem encoding of linguistic pitch patterns. Nature Neuroscience, 10, 420–422. 10.1038/nn1872
    https://doi.org/10.1038/nn1872 [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.1075/lab.20030.che
Loading
/content/journals/10.1075/lab.20030.che
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Article Type: Research Article
Keywords: L2 ; tone language ; music advantage ; L2 proficiency
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error