Volume 14, Issue 3
  • ISSN 1879-9264
  • E-ISSN: 1879-9272
Buy:$35.00 + Taxes



The present study uses the apparent-time construct to analyze cross-generational variability of word order in unergative and unaccusative constructions in Basque (e.g., ‘to cry’ and ‘to arrive’, respectively). It considers the results of an acceptability judgment as well as elicitation tasks carried out among two generations of Basque native speakers (55–75 years old, and 35–45 years old). Unlike the younger participants, the older participants lack the syntactic focus strategy. It is proposed that this lack among the older participants was conditioned by the socially restricted bilingualism that they experienced during the dictatorship of Francisco Franco (1939–1975), while the younger participants appeared to have acquired (i.e. recovered) the syntactic focus strategy because they experienced the legitimacy and vitality of Basque in public life and in formal education following the Normalization Law of 1982. Studies in Basque sociolinguistics have identified language changes through feature loss, dialectal leveling and contact-induced change, but no studies to date have identified the recovery of a previously lost syntactic structure.


Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...


  1. Altube, S.
    (1929) Erderismos. Gaubeka.
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Amorrortu, E.
    (2003) Hizkuntza aldakortasuna eta identitatea. InI. Gaminde, J. L. Goikoetxea, & I. Sarriugarte (Eds.), Ahozkotasuna aztergai (pp157–167). Mendebalde Kultura Allartea.
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Andersen, R.
    (1982) Determining the linguistic attributes of language attrition. InR. Lambert, & B. Freed (Eds.), The Loss of Language Skills (pp. 83–118). Newbury House.
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Ariztimuño, B.
    (2009) Tolosako eta Ataungo hizkerak: hizkuntz bariazioa eta konbergentzia joerak. Uztaro, 721, 79–96.
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Arregi, K.
    (2002) Focus on Basque movements. [Doctoral dissertation, Massachusetts Institute of Technology]. DSpace@MIT.
  6. (2016) Focus projection theories. InC. Féry, & S. Ishihara (Eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Information Structure (pp. 185–202). Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Aurrekoetxea, G.
    (2008) Bariazio soziolinguistikoa Dimako euskaran. Euskalingua, 121, 17–26.
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Azurmendi, M. J., Larrañaga, N., & Apalategi, J.
    (2008) Bilingualism, identity and citizenship in the Basque Country. InM. Niño-Murcia, & J. Rothman (Eds.), Bilingualism and Identity (pp. 35–62). John Benjamins. 10.1075/sibil.37.05azu
    https://doi.org/10.1075/sibil.37.05azu [Google Scholar]
  9. Birdsong, D., Gertken, L. M., & Amengual, M.
    (2012) Bilingual language profile: An easy-to-use instrument to assess bilingualism. COERLL, University of Texas at Austin. https://sites.la.utexas.edu/bilingual/
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Brunetti, L.
    (2003) Information focus movement in Italian and contextual constraints on ellipsis. InG. Garding, & M. Tsujimura (Eds.), Proceedings of 22nd West Conference on Formal Linguistics (pp. 95–108). Cascadilla Proceedings Project.
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Büring, D., & Gutiérrez-Bravo, R.
    (2001) Focus-related word order variation without the NSR: A prosody-based crosslinguistic analysis. InS. Mac Bloscaidh (Ed.), Syntax at Santa Cruz 3 (pp. 41–58).
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Burzio, L.
    (1986) Italian syntax: A government-binding approach. D. Reidel Publishing Company. 10.1007/978‑94‑009‑4522‑7
    https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-009-4522-7 [Google Scholar]
  13. Bybee, J.
    (2003) Phonology and language use (Vol.941). Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  14. (2005) Language change and universals. InR. Mairal, & J. Gil (Eds.), Linguistic universals (pp. 179–194). Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Choi, H. W.
    (2003) Paradigm leveling in American Korean. Language Research, 391, 183–204.
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Christensen, R. H. B.
    (2019) Ordinal – Regression Models for Ordinal Data. [R package ordinal version 2019.12–10].
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Costa, J.
    (2001) The emergence of unmarked word order. G. Legendre, G., Grimshaw, J., & Vikner, S. (Eds.), Optimality-Theoretic Syntax (pp. 171–204). MIT Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Dekydtspotter, L., Sprouse, R. A., & Anderson, B.
    (1997) The interpretive interface in L2 acquisition: The process-result distinction in English-French interlanguage grammars. Language Acquisition, 6(4), 297–332. 10.1207/s15327817la0604_2
    https://doi.org/10.1207/s15327817la0604_2 [Google Scholar]
  19. Bates, D., Mächler, M., Bolker, B., & Walker, S.
    (2015) Fitting Linear Mixed-Effects Models Using lme4. Journal of Statistical Software, 67(1), 1–48. 10.18637/jss.v067.i01
    https://doi.org/10.18637/jss.v067.i01 [Google Scholar]
  20. Elordieta, A.
    (2001) Verb movement and constituent permutation in Basque. Landelijke Onderzoekschool Taalwetenschap (LOT).
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Ensunza, A.
    (2012) Gernika-Lumoko euskararen aldakortasuna: aldagai fonetiko zenbait. Anuario del Seminario de Filología Vasca “Julio de Urquijo”, 46(2), 177–244.
    [Google Scholar]
  22. (2016) The sociolinguistic variation of palatalization: The case of Gernika-Lumo. Dialectología, 161, 71–91.
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Etxepare, R.
    (2015) How does adjacency arise? Grammatical conditions on focus-verb adjacency in Basque. InM. Jocelyne Fernandez-Vest, & R. Van Valin (Eds.), Information structuring of spoken language from a cross-linguistic perspective (pp. 121–148). De Gruyter Mouton. 10.1515/9783110368758‑007
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110368758-007 [Google Scholar]
  24. Eustat
    Eustat (2016) Datos estadísticos de la C.A. de Euskadi. Vitoria-Gasteiz: Euskal Estatistika Erakundea. https://www.eustat.eus/municipal/datos_estadisticos/mundaka_c.html
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Ezenarro, A.
    (2008) Etxebarri eta Bolibarko bariazio linguistikoa. Uztaro: giza eta gizarte-zientzien aldizkaria, (671), 59–84.
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Ferguson, C.
    (1971) Absence of copula and the notion of simplicity: a study of normal speech, baby talk, foreigner talk and pidgins. InD. Hymes (Ed.), Pidginization and Creolization of Languages (pp. 141–150). Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  27. (1982) Simplified registers and linguistic theory. Exceptional language and linguistics, 49–66.
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Gabriel, C.
    (2010) On focus, prosody, and word order in Argentinean Spanish: A minimalist OT account. Revista virtual de estudos da linguagem, 41, 183–222.
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Gaminde, I.
    (2003) Mungialdeko herskarien eta afrikatuen txandaketaz. Euskalingua, 21, 10–17.
    [Google Scholar]
  30. (2009) Hiztunen generoaren eta adinaren pertzepzioaz. Revista de sociolingüística BAT, 711, 151–164.
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Garmendia, L.
    (2008) Hizkuntza aldakortasuna Zaldibiako euskaran: ikuspegi soziolinguistikoa. InEuskalgintza XXI. mendeari buruz. Euskaltzaindiaren nazioarteko XV. biltzarra, 2001 (pp. 101–111). Euskaltzaindia.
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Gellon, S.
    (2015) La adquisición del orden verbo sujeto en español por estudiantes de herencia de español. [Doctoral dissertation, University of Houston]. Published ETD Collection.
  33. Gertken, L. M., Amengual, M., & Birdsong, D.
    (2014) Assessing language dominance with the Bilingual language profile. InP. Leclercq, A. Edmonds, & H. Hilton (Eds.), Measuring L2 proficiency (pp. 208–225). Multilingual Matters. 10.21832/9781783092291‑014
    https://doi.org/10.21832/9781783092291-014 [Google Scholar]
  34. Giacalone-Ramat, A.
    (1983) Language shift and language death. Folia linguistica, 171, 495–507.
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Gondra, A.
    (2018) Cross-generational syntactic variation in Mundaka Basque: the influence of the language of instruction. Anuario del Seminario de Filología Vasca “Julio de Urquijo”, 47(2), 235–256. 10.1387/asju.18682
    https://doi.org/10.1387/asju.18682 [Google Scholar]
  36. (2020) Testing the Interface Hypothesis: Heritage speakers’ perception and production of Spanish subject position with unergative and unaccusative verbs. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 25(5), 1730–1764, 10.1080/13670050.2020.1799322
    https://doi.org/10.1080/13670050.2020.1799322 [Google Scholar]
  37. de Groot, C.
    (2005) The grammars of Hungarian outside Hungary from a linguistic-typological perspective. InA. Fenyvesi (Ed.), Hungarian language contact outside Hungary (pp. 351–370). John Benjamins. 10.1075/impact.20.18gro
    https://doi.org/10.1075/impact.20.18gro [Google Scholar]
  38. Guitart, J. M.
    (1982) On the use of the Spanish subjunctive among Spanish-English bilinguals. Word, 33(1–2), 59–67. 10.1080/00437956.1982.11435722
    https://doi.org/10.1080/00437956.1982.11435722 [Google Scholar]
  39. Haddican, W.
    (2005) Standardization, functional shift and language change in Basque. Sociolinguistic Studies, 6(1), 87–11, 10.1558/sols.v6i1.87
    https://doi.org/10.1558/sols.v6i1.87 [Google Scholar]
  40. Haddican, B.
    (2007) Suburbanization and language change in Basque. Language in Society, 36(5), 677–706. 10.1017/S0047404507070923
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0047404507070923 [Google Scholar]
  41. Hale, K., & Keyser, S. J.
    (1993) On argument structure and the lexical expression of syntactic relations. InK. Hale & S. Keyser (Eds.), The view from Building 20, Essays in Linguistics in Honor of Sylvain Bromberger (pp. 53–109). MIT Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  42. Heine, B., & Kuteva, T.
    (2005) Language contact and grammatical change. Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9780511614132
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511614132 [Google Scholar]
  43. (2006) The changing languages of Europe. Oxford University Press. 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199297337.001.0001
    https://doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199297337.001.0001 [Google Scholar]
  44. Hertel, T. J.
    (2003) Lexical and discourse factors in the second language acquisition of Spanish word order. Second Language Research, 19(4), 273–304. 10.1191/0267658303sr224oa
    https://doi.org/10.1191/0267658303sr224oa [Google Scholar]
  45. Hoot, B.
    (2012) Presentational focus in heritage and monolingual Spanish [Doctoral dissertation, University of Illinois at Chicago]. ProQuest.
  46. (2014) Narrow presentational focus in Mexican Spanish: Experimental evidence. Probus, 28(2), 335–365.
    [Google Scholar]
  47. (2017) Narrow presentational focus in heritage Spanish and the syntax-discourse interface. Linguistic Approaches to Bilingualism, 7(1), 63–95. 10.1075/lab.14021.hoo
    https://doi.org/10.1075/lab.14021.hoo [Google Scholar]
  48. Hualde, J. I., Elordieta, G., & Elordieta, A.
    (1994) The Basque dialect of Lekeitio. Bilbo: Universidad del País Vasco; Donostia: Diputación Foral de Gipuzkoa.
    [Google Scholar]
  49. Hualde, J. I., & Zuazo, K.
    (2007) The standardization of the Basque language. Language Problems and Language Planning, 31(2), 143–168. 10.1075/lplp.31.2.04hua
    https://doi.org/10.1075/lplp.31.2.04hua [Google Scholar]
  50. Hualde, J. I., & Ortiz de Urbina, J.
    (2011) A grammar of Basque. Walter de Gruyter.
    [Google Scholar]
  51. Kadmon, N.
    (2001) Formal pragmatics semantics, pragmatics, presupposition, and focus. Blackwell.
    [Google Scholar]
  52. Kennard, H. J.
    (2013) Breton morphosyntax in two generations of speakers: evidence from word order and mutation [Doctoral dissertation, Oxford University, UK]. Oxford University Research Archive (ORA).
  53. Kusters, W.
    (2003) Linguistic complexity: The influence of social change on verbal inflection [Doctoral dissertation, Universiteit Leiden, Netherlands). Landelijke Onderzoekschool Taalwetenschap (LOT).
  54. Labov, W.
    (1963) The social motivation of a sound change. Word, 19(3), 273–309. 10.1080/00437956.1963.11659799
    https://doi.org/10.1080/00437956.1963.11659799 [Google Scholar]
  55. (1972) Sociolinguistic patterns. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  56. Landa, A., & Elordui, A.
    (2001) Sobre las gramáticas bilingües y la permeabilidad estructural. Estudios de Lingüística Inglesa Aplicada, 21, 143–157.
    [Google Scholar]
  57. Langacker, R. W.
    (2000) A dynamic usage-based model. InM. Barlow, & K. Kemmer (Eds.), Usage-based models of language (pp. 1–64). CSLI Publications.
    [Google Scholar]
  58. Laka, I.
    (1993) Unergatives that assign ergative, unaccusatives that assign accusative. MIT working papers in linguistics, 181, 149–172.
    [Google Scholar]
  59. Leal Méndez, T., Rothman, J., & Slabakova, R.
    (2015) Discourse-sensitive clitic-doubled dislocations in heritage Spanish. Lingua, 1551, 85–97. 10.1016/j.lingua.2014.01.002
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lingua.2014.01.002 [Google Scholar]
  60. Leal, T., Destruel, E., & Hoot, B.
    (2018) The realization of information focus in monolingual and bilingual native Spanish. Linguistic Approaches to Bilingualism, 8(2), 217–251. 10.1075/lab.16009.lea
    https://doi.org/10.1075/lab.16009.lea [Google Scholar]
  61. Levin, B.
    (1983) On the Nature of Ergativity. [Doctoral dissertation, Massachusetts Institute of Technology]. DSpace@MIT.
  62. Lujanbio, L.
    (2016) Hizkuntza-aldakortasuna euskaran. Nafarroa ipar-mendebaldeko bi udalerritan egindako azterketa [Doctoral dissertation, Universidad del País Vasco-Euskal Herriko Unibertsitatea]. Dialnet.
  63. Mahajan, G.
    (2009) Heritage-Schmeritage: It’s their language. Paper presented at theSecond Language Acquisition Conference, San Diego, April 2009.
  64. Montrul, S.
    (2004) Subject and object expression in Spanish heritage speakers: A case of morphosyntactic convergence. Bilingualism: Language and cognition, 7(2), 125–142. 10.1017/S1366728904001464
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S1366728904001464 [Google Scholar]
  65. (2008) Incomplete acquisition in bilingualism: Re-examining the age factor. John Benjamins. 10.1075/sibil.39
    https://doi.org/10.1075/sibil.39 [Google Scholar]
  66. (2010) Current issues in heritage language acquisition. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, 301, 3–23. 10.1017/S0267190510000103
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0267190510000103 [Google Scholar]
  67. (2012) Is the heritage language like a second language?Eurosla Yearbook, 12(1), 1–29. 10.1075/eurosla.12.03mon
    https://doi.org/10.1075/eurosla.12.03mon [Google Scholar]
  68. (2015) The acquisition of heritage languages. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9781139030502
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781139030502 [Google Scholar]
  69. Montrul, S. & Polinsky, M.
    (2011) Why not HL Speakers?Linguistic Approaches to Bilingualism, 1(1), 58–62. 10.1075/lab.1.1.07mon
    https://doi.org/10.1075/lab.1.1.07mon [Google Scholar]
  70. Mougeon, R., Nadasdi, T., & Rehner, K.
    (2005) Contact-induced linguistic innovations on the continuum of language use: The case of French in Ontario. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 8(2), 99–115. 10.1017/S1366728905002142
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S1366728905002142 [Google Scholar]
  71. (2010) The Sociolinguistic Competence of Immersion Students. Multilingual Matters. 10.21832/9781847692405
    https://doi.org/10.21832/9781847692405 [Google Scholar]
  72. Myers-Scotton, C.
    (1997) Duelling languages: Grammatical structure in codeswitching. Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  73. Muxika-Loitzate, O.
    (2017) Sibilant merger in the variety of Basque spoken in Amorebieta-Etxano. Languages, 2(4), 25. 10.3390/languages2040025
    https://doi.org/10.3390/languages2040025 [Google Scholar]
  74. Nance, C.
    (2022) Sound change or community change? The speech community in sound change studies: A case study of Scottish Gaelic. Linguistics Vangua. 10.1515/lingvan‑2021‑0023
    https://doi.org/10.1515/lingvan-2021-0023 [Google Scholar]
  75. Ormaetxea, J. L.
    (2008) Otxandioko hizkera: Adinaren araberako bariazioa [Age-based variation in Otxandio Basque]. Fontes Linguae Vasconum, 401, 249–262.
    [Google Scholar]
  76. (2011) Apparent time variation in Basque: Variation in Aramaio and Otxandio. Dialectología, 61, 25–44.
    [Google Scholar]
  77. Ortiz de Urbina, J.
    (2019) Parameters in the Grammar of Basque. De Gruyter Mouton.
    [Google Scholar]
  78. Perlmutter, D. M.
    (1978) Impersonal passives and the unaccusative hypothesis. Annual Meeting of the Berkeley Linguistics Society, 41, 157–190. 10.3765/bls.v4i0.2198
    https://doi.org/10.3765/bls.v4i0.2198 [Google Scholar]
  79. Polinsky, M.
    (1995) Cross-linguistic parallels in language loss. Southwest Journal of Linguistics, 14(1–2), 88–123.
    [Google Scholar]
  80. (2006) Incomplete acquisition: American Russian. Journal of Slavic linguistics, 141, 191–262.
    [Google Scholar]
  81. (2018) Heritage languages and their speakers. Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/9781107252349
    https://doi.org/10.1017/9781107252349 [Google Scholar]
  82. Polinsky, M., & Kagan, O.
    (2007) Heritage languages: In the ‘wild’ and in the classroom. Language and Linguistics Compass, 1(5), 368–395. 10.1111/j.1749‑818X.2007.00022.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1749-818X.2007.00022.x [Google Scholar]
  83. de Prada Pérez, A., & Pascual y Cabo, D.
    (2012) Interface heritage speech across proficiencies: unaccusativity, focus, and subject position in Spanish. InK. Geeslin, & M. Díaz-Campos (Eds.), Selected Proceedings of the 14th Hispanic Linguistics Symposium (pp. 308–318). Cascadilla Proceedings Project.
    [Google Scholar]
  84. Preminger, O.
    (2012) The absence of an implicit object in unergatives: New and old evidence from Basque. Lingua, 122(3), 278–288. 10.1016/j.lingua.2011.04.007
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lingua.2011.04.007 [Google Scholar]
  85. R Core Team
    R Core Team (2021) R: A language and environment for statistical computing. R: A Language and Environment for Statistical Computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria.
    [Google Scholar]
  86. Rinke, E., & Flores, C.
    (2014) Morphosyntactic knowledge of clitics by Portuguese heritage bilinguals. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 17(4), 681–699. 10.1017/S136672891300076X
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S136672891300076X [Google Scholar]
  87. Rodríguez-Ordóñez, I.
    (2016) Differential object marking in Basque: Grammaticalization, attitudes and ideological representations. [Doctoral dissertation, University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign]. ProQuest.
  88. (2017) Reexamining differential object marking as a linguistic contact-phenomenon in Gernika Basque. Journal of Language Contact, 10(2), 318–352. 10.1163/19552629‑01002004
    https://doi.org/10.1163/19552629-01002004 [Google Scholar]
  89. (2019) Changes in the pitch-accent system of Gernika Basque. Fontes Linguae Vasconum, 127(1), 123–151. 10.35462/FLV.4
    https://doi.org/10.35462/FLV.4 [Google Scholar]
  90. (2020) The acquisition of Differential Object Marking in Basque as a sociolinguistic variable. InA. Mardale, & S. Montrul (Eds.), The acquisition of differential object marking (pp. 105–131). John Benjamins. 10.1075/tilar.26.04rod
    https://doi.org/10.1075/tilar.26.04rod [Google Scholar]
  91. Rodríguez-Ordóñez, I., & Sainzmaza-Lecanda, L.
    (2018) Bilingualism effects in Basque subject pronoun expression: Evidence from L2 Basque. Linguistic Approaches to Bilingualism, 8(5), 523–560. 10.1075/lab.16024.rod
    https://doi.org/10.1075/lab.16024.rod [Google Scholar]
  92. Ross, M.
    (2013) Diagnosing contact processes from their outcomes: The importance of life stages. Journal of Language Contact, 6(1), 5–47. 10.1163/19552629‑006001002
    https://doi.org/10.1163/19552629-006001002 [Google Scholar]
  93. Rothman, J.
    (2009) Understanding the nature and outcomes of early bilingualism: Romance languages as heritage languages. International Journal of Bilingualism, 13(2), 155–163. 10.1177/1367006909339814
    https://doi.org/10.1177/1367006909339814 [Google Scholar]
  94. Russell, L.
    (2022) Emmeans: estimated marginal means, aka least-squares means. R package version 1.7.2.
    [Google Scholar]
  95. Santazilia, E.
    (2009) Luzaideko hizkuntz bariazioa. Fontes Linguae Vasconum: Studia et documenta, 41(111), 219–248.
    [Google Scholar]
  96. Shin, N. L.
    (2014) Grammatical complexification in Spanish in New York: 3sg pronoun expression and verbal ambiguity. Language Variation and Change, 26(3), 303–330. 10.1017/S095439451400012X
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S095439451400012X [Google Scholar]
  97. Silva-Corvalán, C.
    (1994) Language contact and change: Spanish in Los Angeles. Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  98. Sorace, A.
    (2006) Gradience and optionality in mature and developing grammars. InG. Fanselow, C. Féry, M. Schlesewsky, & R. Vogel (Eds.), Gradience in Grammar: Generative Perspective (pp. 106–123). Oxford University Press. 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199274796.003.0006
    https://doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199274796.003.0006 [Google Scholar]
  99. (2011) Pinning down the concept of “interface” in bilingualism. Linguistic Approaches to Bilingualism, 1(1), 1–33. 10.1075/lab.1.1.01sor
    https://doi.org/10.1075/lab.1.1.01sor [Google Scholar]
  100. Sorace, A., & Filiaci, F.
    (2006) Anaphora resolution in near-native speakers of Italian. Second Language Research, 22(3), 339–368. 10.1191/0267658306sr271oa
    https://doi.org/10.1191/0267658306sr271oa [Google Scholar]
  101. Thomason, S. G., & Kaufman, T.
    (1988) Language contact, creolization, and genetic linguistics. University of California Press. 10.1525/9780520912793
    https://doi.org/10.1525/9780520912793 [Google Scholar]
  102. Thomas, E. M., Williams, N., Jones, L. A., Davies, S., & Binks, H.
    (2014) Acquiring complex structures under minority language conditions: Bilingual acquisition of plural morphology in Welsh. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 17(3), 478–494. 10.1017/S1366728913000497
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S1366728913000497 [Google Scholar]
  103. Tomasello, M.
    (2008) Origins of human communication. Institute of Technology Press. 10.7551/mitpress/7551.001.0001
    https://doi.org/10.7551/mitpress/7551.001.0001 [Google Scholar]
  104. (2003) Constructing a language: A usage-based theory of language acquisition. Harvard University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  105. Trudgill, P.
    (2011) Sociolinguistic typology: Social determinants of linguistic complexity. Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  106. Tsimpli, I., & Sorace, A.
    (2006) Differentiating interfaces: L2 performance in syntax–semantics and syntax–discourse phenomena. InD. Bamman, T. Magnitskaia, & C. Zaller (Eds.) BUCLD Proceedings, 301 (pp. 653–664). Cascadilla Proceedings Project.
    [Google Scholar]
  107. Unamuno, L., & Aurrekoetxea, G.
    (2013) Dialect levelling in the Basque Country. Newcastle Working Papers in Linguistics, 19(1), 152–167.
    [Google Scholar]
  108. Urla, J.
    (2012) Reclaiming Basque: Language, nation, and cultural activism. University of Nevada Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  109. Urla, J., Amorrortu, E., Ortega, A., & Goirigolzarri, J.
    (2018) Basque standardization and the new speaker: Political praxis and the shifting dynamics of authority and value. InLane, P., Costa, J., & De Korne, H. (Eds.), Standardizing minority languages (pp. 24–46). Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  110. Viswanath, A.
    (2013) Heritage English in Israeli children. [Undergraduate Honors thesis, Harvard University]. Harvard Dataverse.
    [Google Scholar]
  111. Zalbide, M., & Cenoz, J.
    (2008) Bilingual education in the Basque Autonomous Community: Achievements and challenges. Language, Culture and Curriculum, 21(1), 5–20. 10.2167/lcc339.0
    https://doi.org/10.2167/lcc339.0 [Google Scholar]
  112. Zapata, G. C., Sánchez, L., & Toribio, A. J.
    (2005) Contact and contracting Spanish. International Journal of Bilingualism, 9(3–4), 377–395. 10.1177/13670069050090030501
    https://doi.org/10.1177/13670069050090030501 [Google Scholar]
  113. Zubizarreta, M. L.
    (1998) Prosody, focus, and word order. MIT Press.
    [Google Scholar]

Data & Media loading...

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error