1887
image of Proficiency in a second language influences processing of print-to-sound mappings
USD
Buy:$35.00 + Taxes

Abstract

Abstract

A hallmark of word naming in deep orthographies, effects of spelling-sound regularity and consistency are considered to reach stability in adulthood. We investigated whether these effects were modulated by second language (L2) proficiency in native English and native Spanish speakers. Participants named English, Spanish and language-ambiguous words, but only the English words were used in the analysis. Participants in each group named English words with irregular-inconsistent mappings (e.g., PINT) more slowly and less accurately than words with regular-consistent mappings (e.g., GATE). Higher English proficiency reduced the magnitude of the regularity-consistency effect in both groups. Critically, native English speakers revealed a U-shaped relationship between L2-Spanish proficiency and the regularity-consistency effect on naming latencies. The current findings add to a growing body of literature that considers the boundaries within which L2 proficiency can influence native language (L1) performance. Results suggest that L2 proficiency may destabilize a fundamental aspect of L1 literacy, the computation of phonology from text, which is known as a highly stable psycholinguistic effect. This suggests that the language system is dynamic, remaining plastic in early adulthood.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1075/lab.21063.bot
2022-09-06
2022-09-26
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

References

  1. Ameel, E., Malt, B. C., Storms, G., & Van Assche, F.
    (2009) Semantic convergence in the bilingual lexicon. Journal of Memory and Language, 60(2), 270–290. 10.1016/j.jml.2008.10.001
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jml.2008.10.001 [Google Scholar]
  2. Andrews, S.
    (1982) Phonological recoding: Is the regularity effect consistent?Memory and Cognition, 10, 565–575. 10.3758/BF03202439
    https://doi.org/10.3758/BF03202439 [Google Scholar]
  3. Baayen, R. H., Davidson, D. J., & Bates, D. M.
    (2008) Mixed-effects modeling with crossed random effects for subjects and items. Journal of Memory and Language, 59(4), 390–412. 10.1016/j.jml.2007.12.005
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jml.2007.12.005 [Google Scholar]
  4. Barr, D. J., Levy, R., Scheepers, C., & Tily, H. J.
    (2013) Random effects structure for confirmatory hypothesis testing: Keep it maximal. Journal of Memory and Language, 68(3), 255–278. 10.1016/j.jml.2012.11.001
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jml.2012.11.001 [Google Scholar]
  5. Bates, D., Maechler, M., Bolker, B., Walker, S., Bojesen Christensen, R. H., Singmann, H., Dai, B., Grothendieck, G., & Green, P.
    (2016) lme4: Linear mixed-effects models using Eigen and S4. R package version 1.1-11. https://cran.r-project.org/web/packages/lme4. Inhttps://cran.r-project.org/web/packages/lme4
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Baus, C., Costa, A., & Carreiras, M.
    (2013) On the effects of second language immersion on first language production. Acta Psychologica, 142(3), 402–409. 10.1016/j.actpsy.2013.01.010
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.actpsy.2013.01.010 [Google Scholar]
  7. Bice, K., & Kroll, J. F.
    (2019) English only? Monolinguals in linguistically diverse contexts have an edge in language learning. Brain and Language, 196, 104644. 10.1016/j.bandl.2019.104644
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bandl.2019.104644 [Google Scholar]
  8. (2015) Native language change during early stages of second language learning. Neuroreport, 26(16), 966–971. 10.1097/WNR.0000000000000453
    https://doi.org/10.1097/WNR.0000000000000453 [Google Scholar]
  9. Borodkin, K., & Faust, M.
    (2014) Native language phonological skills in low-proficiency second language learners. Language Learning, 64(1), 132–159. 10.1111/lang.12032
    https://doi.org/10.1111/lang.12032 [Google Scholar]
  10. Botezatu, M. R., Kroll, J. F., Trachsel, M., & Guo, T.
    (2022) Second language immersion impacts native language lexical production and comprehension. Linguistic Approaches to Bilingualism, 12(3), 347–376. 10.1075/lab.19059.bot
    https://doi.org/10.1075/lab.19059.bot [Google Scholar]
  11. Botezatu, M. R., Miller, C. A., & Misra, M.
    (2015) An ERP study of visual rhyming effects in native and non-native English speakers. Neuroreport, 26(3), 118–123. 10.1097/WNR.0000000000000311
    https://doi.org/10.1097/WNR.0000000000000311 [Google Scholar]
  12. Botezatu, M. R., Peterson, S., & Garcia, D.
    (under review) Dynamics of within-language competition in visual and spoken word recognition: Evidence from heritage and classroom learners of Spanish.
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Brown, A., & Gullberg, M.
    (2008) Bidirectional crosslinguistic influence in L1-L2 encoding of manner in speech and gesture: A study of Japanese speakers of English. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 30(2), 225–251. 10.1017/S0272263108080327
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0272263108080327 [Google Scholar]
  14. Canseco-Gonzalez, E., Brehm, L., Brick, C. A., Brown-Schmidt, S., Fischer, K., & Wagner, K.
    (2010) Carpet or carcel: The effect of age of acquisition and language mode on bilingual lexical access. Language and Cognitive Processes, 25(5), 669–705. 10.1080/01690960903474912
    https://doi.org/10.1080/01690960903474912 [Google Scholar]
  15. Chang, C. B.
    (2012) Rapid and multifaceted effects of second-language learning on first-language speech production. Journal of Phonetics, 40(2), 249–268. 10.1016/j.wocn.2011.10.007
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.wocn.2011.10.007 [Google Scholar]
  16. (2013) A novelty effect in phonetic drift of the native language. Journal of Phonetics, 41(6), 520–533. 10.1016/j.wocn.2013.09.006
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.wocn.2013.09.006 [Google Scholar]
  17. Colomé, À., & Miozzo, M.
    (2010) Which words are activated during bilingual word production?Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory and Cognition, 36(1), 96–109.
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Coltheart, M., Curtis, B., Atkins, P., & Haller, M.
    (1993) Models of reading aloud: Dual-route and parallel-distributed-processing approaches. Psychological Review, 100(4), 589–608. 10.1037/0033‑295X.100.4.589
    https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-295X.100.4.589 [Google Scholar]
  19. Coltheart, M., & Rastle, K.
    (1994) Serial processing in reading aloud: Evidence for dual route models of reading. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 20, 1197–1211.
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Coltheart, M., Rastle, K., Perry, C., Langdon, R., & Ziegler, J.
    (2001) DRC: Route Cascaded model of visual word recognition and reading aloud. Psychological Review, 108, 204–256. 10.1037/0033‑295X.108.1.204
    https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-295X.108.1.204 [Google Scholar]
  21. Cortese, M. J., & Simpson, G. B.
    (2000) Regularity effects in word naming: What are they?Memory & Cognition, 28(8), 1269–1276. 10.3758/BF03211827
    https://doi.org/10.3758/BF03211827 [Google Scholar]
  22. Degani, T., Prior, A., & Tokowicz, N.
    (2011) Bidirectional transfer: The effect of sharing a translation. Journal of Cognitive Psychology, 23(1), 18–28. 10.1080/20445911.2011.445986
    https://doi.org/10.1080/20445911.2011.445986 [Google Scholar]
  23. Desmet, T., & Declercq, M.
    (2006) Cross-linguistic priming of syntactic hierarchical configuration information. Journal of Memory and Language, 54(4), 610–632. 10.1016/j.jml.2005.12.007
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jml.2005.12.007 [Google Scholar]
  24. Dussias, P. E., & Sagarra, N.
    (2007) The effect of exposure on syntactic parsing in Spanish-English bilinguals. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 10(01), 101–116. 10.1017/S1366728906002847
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S1366728906002847 [Google Scholar]
  25. Ecke, P., & Hall, C. J.
    (2012) Tracking tip-of-the-tongue states in a multilingual speaker: Evidence of attrition or instability in lexical systems?International Journal of Bilingualism, 17(6), 734–751. 10.1177/1367006912454623
    https://doi.org/10.1177/1367006912454623 [Google Scholar]
  26. Glushko, R. J.
    (1979) The organization and activation of orthographic knowledge in reading aloud. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 5(4), 674–691.
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Gollan, T. H., & Acenas, L.-A. R.
    (2004) What is a TOT? Cognate and translation effects on tip-of-the-tongue states in Spanish-English and tagalog-English bilinguals. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 30(1), 246–269.
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Hoshino, N., & Kroll, J. F.
    (2008) Cognate effects in picture naming: Does cross-language activation survive a change of script?Cognition, 106(1), 501–511. 10.1016/j.cognition.2007.02.001
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2007.02.001 [Google Scholar]
  29. Ivanova, I., & Costa, A.
    (2007) Does bilingualism hamper lexical access in speech production?Acta Psychologica, 127(2), 277–288. 10.1016/j.actpsy.2007.06.003
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.actpsy.2007.06.003 [Google Scholar]
  30. Jared, D.
    (2002) Spelling-sound consistency and regularity effects in word naming. Journal of Memory and Language, 46, 723–750. 10.1006/jmla.2001.2827
    https://doi.org/10.1006/jmla.2001.2827 [Google Scholar]
  31. Jared, D., & Kroll, J. F.
    (2001) Do bilinguals activate phonological representations in one or both of their languages when naming words?Journal of Memory and Language, 44(1), 2–31. 10.1006/jmla.2000.2747
    https://doi.org/10.1006/jmla.2000.2747 [Google Scholar]
  32. Jorm, A. F., & Share, D. L.
    (1983) Phonological recoding and reading acquisition. Applied Psycholinguistics, 4, 103–147. 10.1017/S0142716400004380
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0142716400004380 [Google Scholar]
  33. Kasparian, K., Vespignani, F., & Steinhauer, K.
    (2016) First language attrition induces changes in online morphosyntactic processing and re-analysis: An ERP study of number agreement in complex Italian sentences. Cognitive Science, 41(7), 1760–1803. 10.1111/cogs.12450
    https://doi.org/10.1111/cogs.12450 [Google Scholar]
  34. Katz, L., & Feldman, L. B.
    (1983) Relation between pronunciation and recognition of printed words in deep and shallow orthographies. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 9, 157–166. 10.1037//0278‑7393.9.1.157
    https://doi.org/10.1037//0278-7393.9.1.157 [Google Scholar]
  35. Katz, L., & Frost, R.
    (1992) The reading process is different for different orthographies: The orthographic depth hypothesis. InR. Frost & L. Katz (Eds.), Orthography, phonology, morphology, and meaning (pp.67–84). Elsevier. 10.1016/S0166‑4115(08)62789‑2
    https://doi.org/10.1016/S0166-4115(08)62789-2 [Google Scholar]
  36. Kaushanskaya, M.
    (2012) Cognitive mechanisms of word learning in bilingual and monolingual adults: The role of phonological memory. Bilingualism, 15(3), 470–489. 10.1017/S1366728911000472
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S1366728911000472 [Google Scholar]
  37. Kay, J., & Bishop, D.
    (1987) Anatomical differences between nose, palm, and foot, or, the body in question: Further dissection of the processes of sub-lexical spelling-sound translation. InM. Coltheart (Ed.), Attention and Performance XII: The psychology of reading (pp.449–469). Erlbaum.
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Kroll, J. F., Bice, K., Botezatu, M. R., & Zirnstein, M.
    (2022) On the dynamics of lexical access in two or more languages. InL. Gleitman, A. Papafragou, & J. Trueswell (Eds.), Handbook of the Mental Lexicon. Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  39. Kroll, J. F., Bobb, S. C., & Hoshino, N.
    (2014) Two languages in mind: Bilingualism as a tool to Iinvestigate language, cognition, and the brain. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 23(3), 159–163. 10.1177/0963721414528511
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0963721414528511 [Google Scholar]
  40. Kroll, J. F., & Gollan, T. H.
    (2014) Speech planning in two languages: What bilinguals tell us about language production. InM. Goldrick, V. Ferreira, & M. Miozzo (Eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Language Production. Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  41. Kroll, J. F., Michael, E., Tokowicz, N., & Dufour, R.
    (2002) The development of lexical fluency in a second language. Second Language Research, 18(2), 137–171. 10.1191/0267658302sr201oa
    https://doi.org/10.1191/0267658302sr201oa [Google Scholar]
  42. Lacruz, I., & Folk, J. R.
    (2004) Feedforward and feedback consistency effects for high-and low-frequency words in lexical decision and naming. The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology A: Human Experimental Psychology, 57A, 1261–1284. 10.1080/02724980343000756
    https://doi.org/10.1080/02724980343000756 [Google Scholar]
  43. Lagrou, E., Hartsuiker, R. J., & Duyck, W.
    (2011) Knowledge of a second language influences auditory word recognition in the native language. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 37(4), 952–965. 10.1037/a0023217
    https://doi.org/10.1037/a0023217 [Google Scholar]
  44. Lemhöfer, K., Spalek, K., & Schriefers, H.
    (2008) Cross-language effects of grammatical gender in bilingual word recognition and production. Journal of Memory and Language, 59(3), 312–330. 10.1016/j.jml.2008.06.005
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jml.2008.06.005 [Google Scholar]
  45. Linck, J. A., Kroll, J. F., & Sunderman, G.
    (2009) Losing access to the native language while immersed in a second language: Evidence for the role of inhibition in second-language learning. Psychological Science, 20(12), 1507–1515. 10.1111/j.1467‑9280.2009.02480.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9280.2009.02480.x [Google Scholar]
  46. Marian, V., & Kaushanskaya, M.
    (2004) Mapping written input onto orthographic representations: The case of bilinguals with partially overlapping orthographies. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Cognitive Science Society.
    [Google Scholar]
  47. Marian, V., & Spivey, M.
    (2003) Competing activation in bilingual language processing: Within- and between-language competition. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 6(2), 97–115. 10.1017/S1366728903001068
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S1366728903001068 [Google Scholar]
  48. Martensen, H., Maris, E., & Dijkstra, T.
    (2000) When does inconsistency hurt? On the relation between phonological consistency effects and the reliability of sublexical units. Memory and Cognition, 28, 648–656. 10.3758/BF03201254
    https://doi.org/10.3758/BF03201254 [Google Scholar]
  49. McLaughlin, J., Osterhout, L., & Kim, A.
    (2004) Neural correlates of second-language word learning: minimal instruction produces rapid change. Nat Neurosci, 7(7), 703–704. 10.1038/nn1264
    https://doi.org/10.1038/nn1264 [Google Scholar]
  50. Miller, J. F., Heilmann, J., Nockerts, A., Iglesias, A., Fabiano, L., & Francis, D. J.
    (2006) Oral language and reading in bilingual children. Learning Disabilities Research & Practice, 21, 30–41. 10.1111/j.1540‑5826.2006.00205.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-5826.2006.00205.x [Google Scholar]
  51. Nosarti, C., Mechelli, A., Green, D. W., & Price, C. J.
    (2010) The impact of second language learning on semantic and nonsemantic first language reading. Cerebral Cortex, 20(2), 315–327. 10.1093/cercor/bhp101
    https://doi.org/10.1093/cercor/bhp101 [Google Scholar]
  52. Pakulak, E., & Neville, H. J.
    (2010) Proficiency differences in syntactic processing of monolingual native speakers indexed by event-related potentials. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 22(12), 2728–2744. 10.1162/jocn.2009.21393
    https://doi.org/10.1162/jocn.2009.21393 [Google Scholar]
  53. Peereman, R.
    (1995) Naming regular and exception words: Further examination of the effect of phonological dissension among lexical neighbours. European Journal of Cognitive Psychology, 7(3), 307–330. 10.1080/09541449508402451
    https://doi.org/10.1080/09541449508402451 [Google Scholar]
  54. Plaut, D. C., McClelland, J. L., Seidenberg, M. S., & Patterson, K.
    (1996) Understanding normal and impaired word reading: computational principles in quasi-regular domains. Psychological Review, 103(1), 56–115. 10.1037/0033‑295X.103.1.56
    https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-295X.103.1.56 [Google Scholar]
  55. Psychology Software Tools Incorporated
    Psychology Software Tools Incorporated (2012) E-Prime. Inwww.pstnet.com
    [Google Scholar]
  56. R Development Core Team
    R Development Core Team (2016) R: A language and environment for statistical computing. InR Foundation for Statistical Computing. https://www.R-project.org/
    [Google Scholar]
  57. Schwartz, A. I., Kroll, J. F., & Diaz, M.
    (2007) Reading words in Spanish and English: Mapping orthography to phonology in two languages. Language and Cognitive Processes, 22(1), 106–129. 10.1080/01690960500463920
    https://doi.org/10.1080/01690960500463920 [Google Scholar]
  58. Seidenberg, M. S., & McClelland, J.
    (1989) A distributed, developmental model of word recognition and naming. Psychological Review, 96, 523–568. 10.1037/0033‑295X.96.4.523
    https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-295X.96.4.523 [Google Scholar]
  59. Seymour, P. H. K.
    (2008) Continuity and discontinuity in the development of single-word reading: Theoretical speculations. InE. Grigorenko & A. J. Naples (Eds.), Single-Word Reading: Behavioral and Biological Perspectives (pp.1–24). Laurence Erlbaum Associates.
    [Google Scholar]
  60. Seymour, P. H. K., Aro, M., & Erskine, J. M.
    (2003) Foundation literacy acquisition in European orthographies. British Journal of Psychology, 94, 143–174. 10.1348/000712603321661859
    https://doi.org/10.1348/000712603321661859 [Google Scholar]
  61. Share, D. L.
    (1995) Phonological recoding and self-teaching: Sine qua non of reading acquisition. Cognition, 55(2), 151–218. 10.1016/0010‑0277(94)00645‑2
    https://doi.org/10.1016/0010-0277(94)00645-2 [Google Scholar]
  62. Shin, J.-A., & Christianson, K.
    (2009) Syntactic processing in Korean–English bilingual production: Evidence from cross-linguistic structural priming. Cognition, 112(1), 175–180. 10.1016/j.cognition.2009.03.011
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2009.03.011 [Google Scholar]
  63. Spivey, M. J., & Marian, V.
    (1999) Cross talk between native and second languages: Partial activation of an irrelevant lexicon. Psychological Science, 10(3), 281–284. 10.1111/1467‑9280.00151
    https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-9280.00151 [Google Scholar]
  64. Stanovich, K. E., & Bauer, D. W.
    (1978) Experiments on the spelling-to-sound regularity effect in word recognition. Memory and Cognition, 6(4), 410–415. 10.3758/BF03197473
    https://doi.org/10.3758/BF03197473 [Google Scholar]
  65. Stein, M., Dierks, T., Brandeis, D., Wirth, M., Strik, W., & Koenig, T.
    (2006) Plasticity in the adult language system: A longitudinal electrophysiological study on second language learning. Neuroimage, 33(2), 774–783. 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2006.07.008
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroimage.2006.07.008 [Google Scholar]
  66. Tice, M., & Woodley, M.
    (2012) Paguettes & Bastries: Novice French Learners Show Shifts in Native Phoneme. UC Berkeley Phonology Lab Annual Reports, (pp.72–75). 10.5070/P79H18T4RZ
    https://doi.org/10.5070/P79H18T4RZ [Google Scholar]
  67. Torgesen, J. K., Wagner, R. K., & Rashotte, C. A.
    (1999) Test of word reading efficiency. PRO-ED.
    [Google Scholar]
  68. Van Hell, J., & Dijkstra, T.
    (2002) Foreign language knowledge can influence native language performance in exclusively native contexts. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 9(4), 780–789. 10.3758/BF03196335
    https://doi.org/10.3758/BF03196335 [Google Scholar]
  69. Van Leerdam, M., Bosman, A. M., & de Groot, A. M.
    (2009) When MOOD rhymes with ROAD: Dynamics of phonological coding in bilingual visual word perception. The Mental Lexicon, 4(3), 303–335. 10.1075/ml.4.3.01van
    https://doi.org/10.1075/ml.4.3.01van [Google Scholar]
  70. Waters, G. S., Seidenberg, M. S., & Bruck, M.
    (1984) Children’s and adults’ use of spelling-sound information in three reading tasks. Memory and Cognition, 12, 293–305. 10.3758/BF03197678
    https://doi.org/10.3758/BF03197678 [Google Scholar]
  71. Weekes, B. S., Castles, A. E., & Davies, R. A.
    (2006) Effects of consistency and age of acquisition on reading and spelling among developing readers. Reading and Writing, 19, 133–169. 10.1007/s11145‑005‑2032‑6
    https://doi.org/10.1007/s11145-005-2032-6 [Google Scholar]
  72. Yum, Y. N., Law, S., Su, I., Lau, K., An, E. R. P., & Mo, K. N.
    (2014) An ERP study of effects of regularity and consistency in delayed naming and lexicality judgment in a logographic writing system. Frontiers in Psychology, 5, 315–326. 10.3389/fpsyg.2014.00315
    https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2014.00315 [Google Scholar]
  73. Ziegler, J. C., & Goswami, U.
    (2005) Reading acquisition, developmental dyslexia, and skilled reading across languages: A psycholinguistic grain size theory. Psychological Bulletin, 131(1), 3–29. 10.1037/0033‑2909.131.1.3
    https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.131.1.3 [Google Scholar]
  74. Ziegler, J. C., Perry, C., Jacobs, A. M., & Braun, M.
    (2001) Identical words are read differently in different languages. Psychological Science, 12(5), 379–384. 10.1111/1467‑9280.00370
    https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-9280.00370 [Google Scholar]
  75. Zorzi, M., Houghton, G., & Butterworth, B.
    (1998) Two routes or one in reading aloud? A connectionist dual-process model. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 24(4), 1131–1161.
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.1075/lab.21063.bot
Loading
/content/journals/10.1075/lab.21063.bot
Loading

Data & Media loading...

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error