1887
image of Inter-generational attrition
USD
Buy:$35.00 + Taxes

Abstract

Abstract

The phenomenon of language change in contact has been explored most significantly in speakers of a language who migrate, while fewer studies explore how language is affected across different generations. In this study, we aimed to investigate the role of inter-generational attrition on the production of clitic pronouns and clitic clusters. 86 adult speakers of Italian took part in the study: homeland residents, long-term UK residents, and heritage speakers born and living in the UK from Italian families. Participants were tested on the production of different instances of clitic pronouns including clusters, a novelty of the study, and differences in response distribution were analysed with General Additive Models. Results reveal that the homeland population shows a strong preference for the production of clitics and clitic clusters, long-term residents retain a preference for clitics but not clusters, and heritage speakers disfavour the use of both clitics and clusters across the board, preferring the use of lexical items. This neat pattern of use across generations of migrants suggests a loss of the specificity and preference of clitics through language transmission between different generations of speakers of Italian removed from the homeland and immersed in a non-clitic language.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1075/lab.23002.smi
2023-11-14
2024-07-14
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

References

  1. Adger, D., & Harbour, D.
    (2007) The syntax and syncretisms of the person case constraint. Syntax, (), –. 10.1111/j.1467‑9612.2007.00095.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9612.2007.00095.x [Google Scholar]
  2. Aikhenvald, A. Y., & Dixon, R. M.
    (2007) Grammars in contact: A cross-linguistic typology (Vol.). Oxford University Press. 10.1093/oso/9780199207831.001.0001
    https://doi.org/10.1093/oso/9780199207831.001.0001 [Google Scholar]
  3. Almor, A.
    (1999) Noun-phrase anaphora and focus: The informational load hypothesis. Psychological Review, (), . 10.1037/0033‑295X.106.4.748
    https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-295X.106.4.748 [Google Scholar]
  4. Andriani, L., D’Alessandro, R., Frasson, A., van Osch, B., Sorgini, L., & Terenghi, S.
    (2022) Adding the microdimension to the study of language change in contact: Three case studies. Glossa: A Journal of General Linguistics, (). 10.16995/glossa.5748
    https://doi.org/10.16995/glossa.5748 [Google Scholar]
  5. Arosio, F., Branchini, C., Barbieri, L., & Guasti, M. T.
    (2014) Failure to produce direct object clitic pronouns as a clinical marker of SLI in school-aged Italian speaking children. Clinical linguistics & phonetics, (), –. 10.3109/02699206.2013.877081
    https://doi.org/10.3109/02699206.2013.877081 [Google Scholar]
  6. Barr, D. J., Levy, R., Scheepers, C., & Tily, H. J.
    (2013) Random effects structure for confirmatory hypothesis testing: Keep it maximal. Journal of Memory and Language, (), –. 10.1016/j.jml.2012.11.001
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jml.2012.11.001 [Google Scholar]
  7. Bates, D., Mächler, M., Bolker, B., & Walker, S.
    (2015) Fitting linear mixed-effects models using lme4. Journal of Statistical Software, (), –. 10.18637/jss.v067.i01
    https://doi.org/10.18637/jss.v067.i01 [Google Scholar]
  8. Baum, S., & Titone, D.
    (2014) Moving toward a neuroplasticity view of bilingualism, executive control, and aging. Applied Psycholinguistics, (), –. 10.1017/S0142716414000174
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0142716414000174 [Google Scholar]
  9. Bar-Shalom, E. G., & Zaretsky, E.
    (2008) Selective attrition in Russian-English bilingual children: Preservation of grammatical aspect. International journal of bilingualism, (), –. 10.1177/1367006908098572
    https://doi.org/10.1177/1367006908098572 [Google Scholar]
  10. Bayram, F., Pascual y Cabo, D., & Rothman, J.
    (2019) Intra-generational attrition: Contributions to heritage speaker competence. InM. Schmid & B. Köpke (Eds.), The Oxford handbook of language attrition (pp.–). Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Belletti, A., Bennati, E., & Sorace, A.
    (2007) Theoretical and developmental issues in the syntax of subjects: Evidence from near-native Italian. Natural Language & Linguistic Theory, , –. 10.1007/s11049‑007‑9026‑9
    https://doi.org/10.1007/s11049-007-9026-9 [Google Scholar]
  12. Bianchi, V.
    (2006) On the syntax of personal arguments. Lingua, (), –. 10.1016/j.lingua.2005.05.002
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lingua.2005.05.002 [Google Scholar]
  13. Bishop, D.
    (2003) Test of Reception of Grammar (Trog-2). Harcourt Assessment.
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Bialystok, E.
    (2016) The signal and the noise: Finding the pattern in human behavior. Linguistic Approaches to Bilingualism, (), –. 10.1075/lab.15040.bia
    https://doi.org/10.1075/lab.15040.bia [Google Scholar]
  15. Bolibaugh, C., Vanek, N., & Marsden, E.
    (2021) Towards a credibility revolution in bilingualism research: Open data and materials as stepping stones to more reproducible and replicable research. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, (), –. 10.1017/S1366728921000535
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S1366728921000535 [Google Scholar]
  16. Bonet, E.
    (1994) The person-case constraint: A morphological approach. MIT working papers in linguistics, (), –.
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Bortolini, U., Caselli, C. M., Deevy, P., & Leonard, L. B.
    (2002) Specific language impairment in Italian: The first steps in the search for a clinical marker. International Journal of Language & Communication Disorders, (): –. 10.1080/13682820110116758
    https://doi.org/10.1080/13682820110116758 [Google Scholar]
  18. Bortolini, U., Arfé, B., Caselli, C. M., Degasperi, L., Deevy, P., & Leonard, L. B.
    (2006) Clinical markers for specific language impairment in Italian: the contribution of clitics and non-word repetition. International Journal of Language & Communication Disorders, (): –. 10.1080/13682820600570831
    https://doi.org/10.1080/13682820600570831 [Google Scholar]
  19. Camblin, C. C., Ledoux, K., Boudewyn, M., Gordon, P. C., & Swaab, T. Y.
    (2007) Processing new and repeated names: Effects of coreference on repetition priming with speech and fast RSVP. Brain Research, , –. 10.1016/j.brainres.2006.07.033
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brainres.2006.07.033 [Google Scholar]
  20. Caprin, C., & Guasti, M. T.
    (2009) The acquisition of morphosyntax in Italian: A cross-sectional study. Applied Psycholinguistics, (), –. 10.1017/S0142716408090024
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0142716408090024 [Google Scholar]
  21. Cardinaletti, A.
    (2007) On different types of clitic clusters. Working Papers in Linguistics, , pp.–.
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Cardinaletti, A., & Starke, M.
    (1999) The typology of structural deficiency: A case study of the three classes of pronouns. InJ. van Riemsdijk (Ed.), Clitics in languages of Europe (pp.–). Mouton de Gruyter. 10.1515/9783110804010.145
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110804010.145 [Google Scholar]
  23. Cecchetto, C., Di Domenico, A., Garraffa, M., & Papagno, C.
    (2012) Comprendo. Batteria per la Comprensione di frasi negli adulti. Raffaello Cortina Editore.
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Chamorro, G., Sorace, A., & Sturt, P.
    (2016) What is the source of L1 attrition? The effect of recent L1 re-exposure on Spanish speakers under L1 attrition. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, (), –. 10.1017/S1366728915000152
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S1366728915000152 [Google Scholar]
  25. Chamorro, G., & Sorace, A.
    (2019) The Interface Hypothesis as a Framework for Studying L1 Attrition. InM. S. Schmid and B. Köpke (Eds.), The Oxford Handbook of language attrition (pp.–). Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Chondrogianni, V., & Schwartz, R.
    (2020) Case marking and word order in Greek heritage children. Journal of Child Language, (), –. 10.1017/S0305000919000849
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0305000919000849 [Google Scholar]
  27. Coco, M. I., Smith, G., Spelorzi, R., & Garraffa, M.
    (submitted). Moving to continuous classifications of bilingualism through machine learning trained on production data.
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Davies, A.
    (2013) Native speakers and native users: Loss and gain. Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  29. D’Alessandro, R.
    (2021) Syntactic Change in Contact: Romance. Annual Review of Linguistics, , –. 10.1146/annurev‑linguistics‑011619‑030311
    https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-linguistics-011619-030311 [Google Scholar]
  30. de Bruin, A.
    (2019) Not all bilinguals are the same: A call for more detailed assessments and descriptions of bilingual experiences. Behavioral Sciences, (), . 10.3390/bs9030033
    https://doi.org/10.3390/bs9030033 [Google Scholar]
  31. Flores, C., Rinke, E., & Wagner, C.
    (2022) To hón ich imma insistieat: Syntactic stability in heritage Hunsrückisch German spoken in Brazil. Linguistic Approaches to Bilingualism, (), –. 10.1075/lab.20041.flo
    https://doi.org/10.1075/lab.20041.flo [Google Scholar]
  32. Gargiulo, C. & van de Weijer, J.
    (2020) Anaphora resolution in L1 Italian in a Swedish-speaking environment before and after L1 re-immersion: A study on attrition. Lingua, , . 10.1016/j.lingua.2019.102746
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lingua.2019.102746 [Google Scholar]
  33. Gavarró, A. & Mosella, M.
    (2009) Testing syntactic and pragmatic accounts of clitic omission. InProceedings of the 3rd Conference on Generative Approaches to Language Acquisition North America [GALANA 3] (pp.–). Cascadilla Proceedings Project.
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Gordon, P. C., Grosz, B. J., & Gilliom, L. A.
    (1993) Pronouns, names, and the centering of attention in discourse. Cognitive Science, (), –. 10.1207/s15516709cog1703_1
    https://doi.org/10.1207/s15516709cog1703_1 [Google Scholar]
  35. Grenoble, L. A., & Osipov, B.
    (2023) The dynamics of bilingualism in language shift ecologies. Linguistic Approaches to Bilingualism, (), –. 10.1075/lab.22035.gre
    https://doi.org/10.1075/lab.22035.gre [Google Scholar]
  36. Guasti, M. T.
    (1993/1994) Verb syntax in Italian child grammar: Finite and non-finite verbs. Language Acquisition, , –. 10.1207/s15327817la0301_1
    https://doi.org/10.1207/s15327817la0301_1 [Google Scholar]
  37. Guasti, M. T., Palma, S., Genovese, E., Stagi, P., Saladini, G., & Arosio, F.
    (2016) The production of direct object clitics in pre-school–and primary school–aged children with specific language impairments. Clinical Linguistics and Phonetics, (), –. 10.3109/02699206.2016.1173100
    https://doi.org/10.3109/02699206.2016.1173100 [Google Scholar]
  38. Gullifer, J. W., Chai, X. J., Whitford, V., Pivneva, I., Baum, S., Klein, D., & Titone, D.
    (2018) Bilingual experience and resting-state brain connectivity: Impacts of L2 age of acquisition and social diversity of language use on control networks. Neuropsychologia, , –. 10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2018.04.037
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2018.04.037 [Google Scholar]
  39. Gullifer, J. W., & Titone, D.
    (2020) Characterizing the social diversity of bilingualism using language entropy. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, (), –. 10.1017/S1366728919000026
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S1366728919000026 [Google Scholar]
  40. Hamann, C., & Belletti, A.
    (2006) Developmental patterns in the acquisition of the complement clitic pronouns. Rivista di Grammatica Generativa, , –.
    [Google Scholar]
  41. Heine, B., & Kuteva, T.
    (2006) The changing languages of Europe. Oxford University Press on Demand. 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199297337.001.0001
    https://doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199297337.001.0001 [Google Scholar]
  42. Kayne, R. S.
    (1975) French syntax: The transformational cycle. PhD thesis, MIT press.
    [Google Scholar]
  43. (1991) Romance clitics, verb movement, and PRO. Linguistic Inquiry, (), –.
    [Google Scholar]
  44. (2000) Person morphemes and reflexives in Italian, French, and related languages. InR. S. Kayne, Parameters and Universals (pp.–). Oxford University Press. 10.1093/oso/9780195102352.003.0008
    https://doi.org/10.1093/oso/9780195102352.003.0008 [Google Scholar]
  45. Kupisch, T., Polinsky, M.
    (2022) Language history on fast forward: Innovations in heritage languages and diachronic change. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, , –. 10.1017/S1366728921000997
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S1366728921000997 [Google Scholar]
  46. Kupisch, T., & Rothman, J.
    (2018) Terminology matters! Why difference is not incompleteness and how early child bilinguals are heritage speakers. International Journal of Bilingualism, (), –. 10.1177/1367006916654355
    https://doi.org/10.1177/1367006916654355 [Google Scholar]
  47. Laleko, O., & Kisselev, O.
    (2023) Embracing linguistic variation in shift ecologies. The dominant language varies too. Linguistic Approaches to Bilingualism, (), –. 10.1075/lab.22073.lal
    https://doi.org/10.1075/lab.22073.lal [Google Scholar]
  48. Laleko, O., & Polinsky, M.
    (2016) Between syntax and discourse: Topic and case marking in heritage speakers and L2 learners of Japanese and Korean. Linguistic Approaches to Bilingualism, (), –. 10.1075/lab.14018.lal
    https://doi.org/10.1075/lab.14018.lal [Google Scholar]
  49. Leonini, C.
    (2006a) Object clitics and determiners in the acquisition of Italian as L1 and L2. InM. Watorek, S. Benazzo, & M. Hickmann (Eds.), Language Acquisition and Development: Proceedings of GALA 2005 (pp.–). Cambridge Scholars Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  50. (2006b) The acquisition of object clitics and definite articles. University of Siena, PhD dissertation.
  51. Mantione, F., Vender, M., Melloni, C., & Delfitto, D.
    (2017, April). Effects of dyslexia on the production of complex constructions [Conference presentation]. PRIN workshop. Theory, Experimentation, Applications: Long distance dependencies in forms of linguistic diversity, Siena, Italy.
    [Google Scholar]
  52. (in preparation). Clitic cluster production in children with dyslexia.
    [Google Scholar]
  53. Marian, V., Blumenfeld, H. K., & Kaushanskaya, M.
    (2007) The Language Experience and Proficiency Questionnaire (LEAP-Q): Assessing Language Profiles in Bilinguals and Multilinguals. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, (), –. 10.1044/1092‑4388(2007/067)
    https://doi.org/10.1044/1092-4388(2007/067) [Google Scholar]
  54. Marian, V., & Hayakawa, S.
    (2021) Measuring bilingualism: The quest for a “bilingualism quotient”. Applied Psycholinguistics, (), –. 10.1017/S0142716420000533
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0142716420000533 [Google Scholar]
  55. Nagy, N.
    (2016) Heritage languages as new dialects. InM. Jones, E. Smith, & R. Brown (Eds.), The future of dialects: Selected papers from Methods in Dialectology (pp.–). Language Science Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  56. Nevins, A.
    (2007) The representation of third person and its consequences for person-case effects. Natural Language and Linguistic Theory, , –. 10.1007/s11049‑006‑9017‑2
    https://doi.org/10.1007/s11049-006-9017-2 [Google Scholar]
  57. Pascual y Cabo, D.
    (2020) Examining the role of cross-generational attrition in the development of Spanish as a heritage language: Evidence from gustar-like verbs. Linguistic Approaches to Bilingualism, (), –. 10.1075/lab.15057.pas
    https://doi.org/10.1075/lab.15057.pas [Google Scholar]
  58. Pascual y Cabo, D., & Rothman, J.
    (2012) The (il)logical problem of heritage speaker bilingualism and incomplete acquisition. Applied Linguistics, (), –. 10.1093/applin/ams037
    https://doi.org/10.1093/applin/ams037 [Google Scholar]
  59. Pescarini, D.
    (2017) Clitic clusters. InM. Everaert & H. C. Riemsdijk (Eds.) The Blackwell Companion to Syntax. Second edition. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 10.1002/9781118358733.wbsyncom018
    https://doi.org/10.1002/9781118358733.wbsyncom018 [Google Scholar]
  60. Pires, A., & Rothman, J.
    (2009) Disentangling sources of incomplete acquisition: An explanation for competence divergence across heritage grammars. International Journal of Bilingualism, (), –. 10.1177/1367006909339806
    https://doi.org/10.1177/1367006909339806 [Google Scholar]
  61. Polinsky, M.
    (2006) Incomplete acquisition: American Russian. Journal of Slavic Linguistics, (), –.
    [Google Scholar]
  62. (2011) Reanalysis in adult heritage language: New evidence in support of attrition. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, (), –. 10.1017/S027226311000077X
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S027226311000077X [Google Scholar]
  63. (2018) Bilingual children and adult heritage speakers: The range of comparison. International Journal of Bilingualism, (), –. 10.1177/1367006916656048
    https://doi.org/10.1177/1367006916656048 [Google Scholar]
  64. Polinsky, M., & Scontras, G.
    (2020) Understanding heritage languages. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, (), –. 10.1017/S1366728919000245
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S1366728919000245 [Google Scholar]
  65. (2020) A roadmap for heritage language research. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, (), –. 10.1017/S1366728919000555
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S1366728919000555 [Google Scholar]
  66. Posit team
    Posit team (2022) RStudio: Integrated development environment for R. Posit Software, PBC, Boston, MA. URLwww.posit.co/
    [Google Scholar]
  67. Rinke, E. & Flores, C.
    (2014) Morphosyntactic knowledge of clitics by Portuguese heritage bilinguals. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, (), –. 10.1017/S136672891300076X
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S136672891300076X [Google Scholar]
  68. Romano, F.
    (2020) Ultimate attainment in heritage language speakers: Syntactic and morphological knowledge of Italian accusative clitics. Applied Psycholinguistics, (). –. 10.1017/S0142716419000559
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0142716419000559 [Google Scholar]
  69. (2021) L1 versus dominant language transfer effects in L2 and heritage speakers of Italian: A structural priming study. Applied Linguistics, (), –. 10.1093/applin/amaa056
    https://doi.org/10.1093/applin/amaa056 [Google Scholar]
  70. (2023) Ultimate attainment of gender in heritage and L2 Italian. InF. Romano (Ed.), Studies in Italian as a heritage language (pp.). De Gruyter Mouton. 10.1515/9783110759587‑005
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110759587-005 [Google Scholar]
  71. Rothman, J.
    (2007) Heritage speaker competence differences, language change, and input type: Inflected infinitives in Heritage Brazilian Portuguese. International Journal of Bilingualism, (), –. 10.1177/13670069070110040201
    https://doi.org/10.1177/13670069070110040201 [Google Scholar]
  72. Rothman, J., Bayram, F., DeLuca, V., Di Pisa, G., Duñabeitia, J., Gharibi, K., . . . Wulff, S.
    (2023a) Monolingual comparative normativity in bilingualism research is out of “control”: Arguments and alternatives, Applied Psycholinguistics, (), –. 10.1017/S0142716422000315
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0142716422000315 [Google Scholar]
  73. Rothman, J., Bayram, F., DeLuca, V., Alonso, J. G., Kubota, M., & Puig-Mayenco, E.
    (2023b) Defining bilingualism as a continuum. InG. Luk, J. G. Grundy, J. A. E. Anderson (Eds.) Understanding language and cognition through bilingualism: In honor of Ellen Bialystok (pp.). John Benjamins. 10.1075/sibil.64.03rot
    https://doi.org/10.1075/sibil.64.03rot [Google Scholar]
  74. Schmid, M. S.
    (2009) On L1 attrition and the linguistic system. EuroSLA yearbook, (), –. 10.1075/eurosla.9.11sch
    https://doi.org/10.1075/eurosla.9.11sch [Google Scholar]
  75. Schmid, M. S.
    (2013) First language attrition. Linguistic Approaches to Bilingualism, (), –. 10.1075/lab.3.1.05sch
    https://doi.org/10.1075/lab.3.1.05sch [Google Scholar]
  76. Schmid, M. S., & Jarvis, S.
    (2014) Lexical access and lexical diversity in first language attrition. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, (), –. 10.1017/S1366728913000771
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S1366728913000771 [Google Scholar]
  77. Serratrice, L., Sorace, A., Filiaci, F., & Baldo, M.
    (2012) Pronominal objects in English–Italian and Spanish–Italian bilingual children. Applied Psycholinguistics, (), –. 10.1017/S0142716411000543
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0142716411000543 [Google Scholar]
  78. Smith, G.
    (2021) Patterns in clitic pronouns: Assessment of clitics in Italian typical and non-typical populations. PhD dissertation, University of Trento.
  79. Smith, G., Spelorzi, R., Sorace, A., & Garraffa, M.
    (2022) Language Competence in Italian Heritage Speakers: The Contribution of Clitic Pronouns and Nonword Repetition. Languages, (), . 10.3390/languages7030180
    https://doi.org/10.3390/languages7030180 [Google Scholar]
  80. (2023) The grammatical competence of adult heritage speakers of Italian compared to adult immigrants on linguistic markers, InF. Romano (Ed.) Studies in Italian as heritage language. (pp.). De Gruyter. 10.1515/9783110759587‑004
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110759587-004 [Google Scholar]
  81. Sorace, A.
    (2005) Selective optionality in language development. InK. P. Corrigan & L. Cornips (Eds.), Syntax and Variation: Reconciling the Biological and the Social (pp.–). John Benjamins. 10.1075/cilt.265.04sor
    https://doi.org/10.1075/cilt.265.04sor [Google Scholar]
  82. Sorace, A., & Filiaci, F.
    (2006) Anaphora resolution in near-native speakers of Italian. Second language research, (), –. 10.1191/0267658306sr271oa
    https://doi.org/10.1191/0267658306sr271oa [Google Scholar]
  83. Sorace, A.
    (2011) Pinning down the concept of “interface” in bilingualism. Linguistic Approaches to Bilingualism, (), –. 10.1075/lab.1.1.01sor
    https://doi.org/10.1075/lab.1.1.01sor [Google Scholar]
  84. (2016) Referring expressions and executive functions in bilingualism. Linguistic Approaches to Bilingualism, (), –. 10.1075/lab.15055.sor
    https://doi.org/10.1075/lab.15055.sor [Google Scholar]
  85. Spelorzi, R., Sturt, P., & Sorace, A.
    (in preparation). BE or HAVE: where is the trick? English-Italian bilingual populations on the selection of the auxiliary in a semi-spontaneous production.
    [Google Scholar]
  86. Thomason, S. G., & Kaufman, T.
    (1988) Language contact, creolization and genetic linguistics. University of California Press. 10.1525/9780520912793
    https://doi.org/10.1525/9780520912793 [Google Scholar]
  87. Torregrossa, J., Flores, C., & Rinke, E.
    (2023) What modulates the acquisition of difficult structures in a heritage language? A study on Portuguese in contact with French, German and Italian. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, (), –. 10.1017/S1366728922000438
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S1366728922000438 [Google Scholar]
  88. Tsimpli, I. M.
    (2014) Early, late or very late?: Timing acquisition and bilingualism. Linguistic Approaches to Bilingualism, (), –. 10.1075/lab.4.3.01tsi
    https://doi.org/10.1075/lab.4.3.01tsi [Google Scholar]
  89. Tsimpli, I., Sorace, A., Heycock, C., & Filiaci, F.
    (2004) First language attrition and syntactic subjects: A study of Greek and Italian near-native speakers of English. International journal of bilingualism, (), –. 10.1177/13670069040080030601
    https://doi.org/10.1177/13670069040080030601 [Google Scholar]
  90. Vender, M., Guasti, M. T., Garraffa, M., & Sorace, A.
    (2016) How early L2 children perform on Italian clinical markers of SLI: a study of clitic production and nonword repetition. Clinical Linguistics and Phonetics, (). –. 10.3109/02699206.2015.1120346
    https://doi.org/10.3109/02699206.2015.1120346 [Google Scholar]
  91. Vender, M., Hu, S., Mantione, F., Delfitto, D., & Melloni, C.
    (2018) The production of clitic pronouns: A study on bilingual and monolingual dyslexic children. Frontiers in Psychology, , . 10.3389/fpsyg.2018.02301
    https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2018.02301 [Google Scholar]
  92. Wood, S. N.
    (2011) Fast stable restricted maximum likelihood and marginal likelihood estimation of semiparametric generalized linear models. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society (B), (), –. 10.1111/j.1467‑9868.2010.00749.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9868.2010.00749.x [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.1075/lab.23002.smi
Loading
/content/journals/10.1075/lab.23002.smi
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Article Type: Research Article
Keywords: intergenerational attrition ; heritage speakers ; attrition ; Italian ; clitics
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error