1887
image of School, age, and exposure effects in the child heritage language acquisition of the Spanish volitional
subjunctive
USD
Buy:$35.00 + Taxes

Abstract

Abstract

The present study investigated the production and receptive knowledge of the Spanish subjunctive mood in volitional clauses by 57 English-dominant heritage speakers in fifth, seventh, and eighth grades (ages 10–14), some of whom were enrolled in a dual-language immersion program. Children’s self-reported frequency of use of Spanish affected command of this structure, and participants showed more consistent selection of the subjunctive than production of this form. There were no differences in production or selection between children in the dual-language immersion and monolingual English schools, but older children produced and selected the subjunctive more than younger participants. The lexical frequency of individual subordinate verbs did not affect subjunctive use. The role for frequency of use and asymmetrical performance between tasks support Putnam and Sánchez’s (2013) activation approach to heritage language acquisition. However, the absence of an effect for bilingual schooling or lexical frequency and the increased use of subjunctive mood with age do not strictly align with theories of a reassembly of features in heritage language acquisition, and argue for a protracted development of subjunctive mood in heritage Spanish.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1075/lab.23057.tha
2024-05-31
2024-06-19
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

References

  1. Aguirre, C.
    (2003) Early verb development in one Spanish-speaking child. InD. Bittner (Ed.), Development of verb inflection in first language acquisition: A cross-linguistic perspective (pp.–). De Gruyter. 10.1515/9783110899832.1
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110899832.1 [Google Scholar]
  2. Anderson, R. T.
    (2001) Lexical morphology and verb use in child first language loss: A preliminary case study investigation. International Journal of Bilingualism, (), –. 10.1177/13670069010050040101
    https://doi.org/10.1177/13670069010050040101 [Google Scholar]
  3. Ballinger, S., & Lyster, R.
    (2011) Student and teacher oral language use in a two-way Spanish/English immersion school. Language Teaching Research, (), –. 10.1177/1362168811401151
    https://doi.org/10.1177/1362168811401151 [Google Scholar]
  4. Bates, D., Mächler, M., Bolker, B., & Walker, S.
    (2015) Fitting linear mixed-effects models using lme4. Journal of Statistical Software, (), –. 10.18637/jss.v067.i01
    https://doi.org/10.18637/jss.v067.i01 [Google Scholar]
  5. Biber, D., Davies, M., Jones, J. K., & Tracy-Ventura, N.
    (2006) Spoken and written register variation in Spanish: A multi-dimensional analysis. Corpora, (), –. 10.3366/cor.2006.1.1.1
    https://doi.org/10.3366/cor.2006.1.1.1 [Google Scholar]
  6. Blake, R.
    (1983) Mood selection among Spanish-speaking children, ages 4 to 12. The Bilingual Language Review, , –.
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Bosque, I.
    (2012) Mood: Indicative vs. subjunctive. InJ. I. Hualde, A. Olarrea, & E. O’Rourke (Eds.), The Handbook of Hispanic Linguistics (pp.–). John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. 10.1002/9781118228098.ch19
    https://doi.org/10.1002/9781118228098.ch19 [Google Scholar]
  8. Castilla-Earls, A., Francis, D., Iglesias, A., & Davidson, K.
    (2019) The impact of the Spanish-to-English proficiency shift on the grammaticality of English learners. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, (), –. 10.1044/2018_JSLHR‑L‑18‑0324
    https://doi.org/10.1044/2018_JSLHR-L-18-0324 [Google Scholar]
  9. Castilla-Earls, A., Ronderos, J., & Fitton, L.
    (2022) Can bilingual children self-report their bilingual experience and proficiency? The Houston Questionnaire. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, (), –. 10.1044/2022_JSLHR‑21‑00675
    https://doi.org/10.1044/2022_JSLHR-21-00675 [Google Scholar]
  10. Cinque, G., & Rizzi, L.
    (2012) The cartography of syntactic structures. InB. Heine & H. Narrog (Eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Linguistic Analysis (1st ed., pp.–). Oxford University Press. 10.1093/oxfordhb/9780199544004.013.0003
    https://doi.org/10.1093/oxfordhb/9780199544004.013.0003 [Google Scholar]
  11. Corbet, J., & Domínguez, L.
    (2020) The comprehension of tense–aspect morphology by Spanish heritage speakers in the United Kingdom. Languages, (), –. 10.3390/languages5040046
    https://doi.org/10.3390/languages5040046 [Google Scholar]
  12. Cunnings, I.
    (2012) An overview of mixed-effects statistical models for second language researchers. Second Language Research, (), –. 10.1177/0267658312443651
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0267658312443651 [Google Scholar]
  13. Cuza, A., & Miller, L.
    (2015) The protracted acquisition of past tense aspectual values in child heritage Spanish. InR. Klassen, J. M. Liceras, & E. Valenzuela (Eds.), Issues in Hispanic and Lusophone linguistics (Vol., pp.–). John Benjamins. 10.1075/ihll.4.11cuz
    https://doi.org/10.1075/ihll.4.11cuz [Google Scholar]
  14. Cuza, A., & Solano-Escobar, L.
    (2023) Protracted development in child heritage Spanish: Evidence from inalienable possession. Second Language Research, 02676583231202608. 10.1177/02676583231202608
    https://doi.org/10.1177/02676583231202608 [Google Scholar]
  15. Davies, M.
    (2016) Corpus del español. Available online. www.corpusdelespanol.org/web-dial/
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Domínguez, L., & Hicks, G.
    (2024) Feature Reassembly is concerned with syntax, but its main goal is to account for the (second) language acquisition process. Linguistic Approaches to Bilingualism, (), –. 10.1075/lab.23059.dom
    https://doi.org/10.1075/lab.23059.dom [Google Scholar]
  17. Dracos, M., & Requena, P. E.
    (2022) Child heritage speakers’ acquisition of the Spanish subjunctive in volitional and adverbial clauses. Language Acquisition, (), –. 10.1080/10489223.2022.2071156
    https://doi.org/10.1080/10489223.2022.2071156 [Google Scholar]
  18. Dracos, M., Requena, P., & Miller, K.
    (2019) Acquisition of mood selection in Spanish-speaking children. Language Acquisition, (), –. 10.1080/10489223.2018.1464006
    https://doi.org/10.1080/10489223.2018.1464006 [Google Scholar]
  19. Fábregas, A.
    (2014) A guide to subjunctive and modals in Spanish: Questions and analyses. Borealis – An International Journal of Hispanic Linguistics, (), –. 10.7557/1.3.2.3064
    https://doi.org/10.7557/1.3.2.3064 [Google Scholar]
  20. Faulkner, T.
    (2021) A systematic investigation of the Spanish subjunctive: Mood variation in subjunctive clauses [Doctoral dissertation]. Georgetown University.
  21. Flores, C., Santos, A. L., Jesus, A., & Marques, R.
    (2017) Age and input effects in the acquisition of mood in Heritage Portuguese. Journal of Child Language, (), –. 10.1017/S0305000916000222
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0305000916000222 [Google Scholar]
  22. Gathercole, V. C.
    (2002) Grammatical gender in bilingual and monolingual children: A Spanish morphosyntactic distinction. InK. Oller & R. Eilers (Eds.), Language and literacy in bilingual children (pp.–). Multilingual Matters. 10.21832/9781853595721‑010
    https://doi.org/10.21832/9781853595721-010 [Google Scholar]
  23. Giancaspro, D.
    (2019) The late(r) bird gets the verb? Effects of age of acquisition of English on adult heritage speakers’ knowledge of subjunctive mood in Spanish. Languages, (), –. 10.3390/languages4030069
    https://doi.org/10.3390/languages4030069 [Google Scholar]
  24. (2020) Not in the mood: Frequency effects in heritage speakers’ subjunctive knowledge. InB. Brehmer & J. Treffers-Daller (Eds.), Studies in bilingualism (Vol., pp.–). John Benjamins. 10.1075/sibil.59.03gia
    https://doi.org/10.1075/sibil.59.03gia [Google Scholar]
  25. Giancaspro, D., Perez-Cortes, S., & Higdon, J.
    (2022) (Ir)regular mood swings: Lexical variability in heritage speakers’ oral production of subjunctive mood. Language Learning, (), –. 10.1111/lang.12489
    https://doi.org/10.1111/lang.12489 [Google Scholar]
  26. Giancaspro, D., & Sánchez, L.
    (2021) Me, mi, my: Innovation and variability in heritage speakers’ knowledge of inalienable possession. Glossa: A Journal of General Linguistics, (). 10.5334/gjgl.1240
    https://doi.org/10.5334/gjgl.1240 [Google Scholar]
  27. Goldin, M.
    (2021) Language activation in dual language schools: The development of subject-verb agreement in the English and Spanish of heritage speaker children. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, (), –. 10.1080/13670050.2021.2005529
    https://doi.org/10.1080/13670050.2021.2005529 [Google Scholar]
  28. Goldin, M., López Otero, J. C., & Hur, E.
    (2023) How frequent are these verbs?: An exploration of lexical frequency in bilingual children’s acquisition of subject-verb agreement morphology. Isogloss. Open Journal of Romance Linguistics, (), –. 10.5565/rev/isogloss.194
    https://doi.org/10.5565/rev/isogloss.194 [Google Scholar]
  29. Hamman, L.
    (2018) Translanguaging and positioning in two-way dual language classrooms: A case for criticality. Language and Education, (), –. 10.1080/09500782.2017.1384006
    https://doi.org/10.1080/09500782.2017.1384006 [Google Scholar]
  30. Hiebert, L., & Rojas, R.
    (2021) A longitudinal study of Spanish language growth and loss in young Spanish-English bilingual children. Journal of Communication Disorders, , –. 10.1016/j.jcomdis.2021.106110
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcomdis.2021.106110 [Google Scholar]
  31. Hur, E.
    (2020) Verbal lexical frequency and DOM in heritage speakers of Spanish. InA. Mardale & S. Montrul (Eds.), Trends in language acquisition research (Vol., pp.–). John Benjamins. 10.1075/tilar.26.hur08
    https://doi.org/10.1075/tilar.26.hur08 [Google Scholar]
  32. Hur, E., López Otero, J. C., & Sánchez, L.
    (2020) Gender agreement and assignment in Spanish heritage speakers: Does frequency matter?Languages, (), Article 48. 10.3390/languages5040048
    https://doi.org/10.3390/languages5040048 [Google Scholar]
  33. Iverson, M., Kempchinsky, P., & Rothman, J.
    (2008) Interface vulnerability and knowledge of the subjunctive/indicative distinction with negated epistemic predicates in L2 Spanish. EUROSLA Yearbook, , –. 10.1075/eurosla.8.09ive
    https://doi.org/10.1075/eurosla.8.09ive [Google Scholar]
  34. Kempchinsky, P.
    (2009) What can the subjunctive disjoint reference effect tell us about the subjunctive?Lingua, (), –. 10.1016/j.lingua.2008.11.009
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lingua.2008.11.009 [Google Scholar]
  35. Kupisch, T., & Rothman, J.
    (2018) Terminology matters! Why difference is not incompleteness and how early child bilinguals are heritage speakers. International Journal of Bilingualism, (), –. 10.1177/1367006916654355
    https://doi.org/10.1177/1367006916654355 [Google Scholar]
  36. Kuznetsova, A., Brockhoff, P. B., & Christensen, R. H. B.
    (2017) lmerTest package: Tests in linear mixed effects models. Journal of Statistical Software, (). 10.18637/jss.v082.i13
    https://doi.org/10.18637/jss.v082.i13 [Google Scholar]
  37. Leal, T., & Shimanskaya, E.
    (2024) The power paradox in bilingualism: Weighing what we gain and what we lose by espousing and eschewing hypotheses. Linguistic Approaches to Bilingualism, (), –. 10.1075/lab.23052.lea
    https://doi.org/10.1075/lab.23052.lea [Google Scholar]
  38. Lindholm-Leary, K.
    (2018) Developing Spanish in dual language programs: Preschool through twelfth grade. InK. Potowski (Ed.), The Routledge handbook of Spanish as a heritage language (pp.–). Routledge. 10.4324/9781315735139‑28
    https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315735139-28 [Google Scholar]
  39. Lindholm-Leary, K., & Genesee, F.
    (2014) Student outcomes in one-way, two-way, and indigenous language immersion education. Journal of Immersion and Content-Based Language Education, (), –. 10.1075/jicb.2.2.01lin
    https://doi.org/10.1075/jicb.2.2.01lin [Google Scholar]
  40. Lohndal, T., & Putnam, M. T.
    (2021) The tale of two lexicons: Decomposing complexity across a distributed lexicon. Heritage Language Journal, (), –. 10.1163/15507076‑12340010
    https://doi.org/10.1163/15507076-12340010 [Google Scholar]
  41. (2024) The importance of features and exponents: Dissolving Feature Reassembly. Linguistic Approaches to Bilingualism. 10.1075/lab.23023.loh
    https://doi.org/10.1075/lab.23023.loh [Google Scholar]
  42. López Ornat, S., Fernández, A., Gallo, P., & Mariscal, S.
    (1994) La adquisición de la lengua española (1. ed). Siglo Veintiuno de España Editores.
    [Google Scholar]
  43. López Otero, J. C.
    (2023) Imperatives in heritage Spanish: Lexical access and lexical frequency effects. Languages, (), –. 10.3390/languages8030218
    https://doi.org/10.3390/languages8030218 [Google Scholar]
  44. López Otero, J. C., Cuza, A., & Jiao, J.
    (2023) Object clitic use and intuition in the Spanish of heritage speakers from Brazil. Second Language Research, 026765832110176. 10.1177/02676583211017603
    https://doi.org/10.1177/02676583211017603 [Google Scholar]
  45. López Otero, J. C., Hur, E., & Goldin, M.
    (2023) Syntactic optionality in heritage Spanish: How patterns of exposure and use affect clitic climbing. International Journal of Bilingualism, 136700692311706. 10.1177/13670069231170691
    https://doi.org/10.1177/13670069231170691 [Google Scholar]
  46. Lüdecke, D., Ben-Shachar, M., Patil, I., Waggoner, P., & Makowski, D.
    (2021) performance: An R package for Assessment, comparison and testing of statistical models. Journal of Open Source Software, (), . 10.21105/joss.03139
    https://doi.org/10.21105/joss.03139 [Google Scholar]
  47. Mariscal, S.
    (2009) Early acquisition of gender agreement in the Spanish noun phrase: Starting small. Journal of Child Language, (), –. 10.1017/S0305000908008908
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0305000908008908 [Google Scholar]
  48. Martinez-Nieto, L., & Restrepo, M. A.
    (2022) Production and comprehension of grammatical gender by Spanish heritage speakers: Evidence from accusative clitic pronouns. International Journal of Bilingualism, 136700692110573. 10.1177/13670069211057318
    https://doi.org/10.1177/13670069211057318 [Google Scholar]
  49. Merino, B. J.
    (1983) Language loss in bilingual Chicano children. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, (), –. 10.1016/0193‑3973(83)90023‑0
    https://doi.org/10.1016/0193-3973(83)90023-0 [Google Scholar]
  50. Montrul, S.
    (2008) Incomplete acquisition in bilingualism: Re-examining the age factor (Vol.). John Benjamins Publishing Company. 10.1075/sibil.39
    https://doi.org/10.1075/sibil.39 [Google Scholar]
  51. (2009) Knowledge of tense-aspect and mood in Spanish heritage speakers. International Journal of Bilingualism, (), –. 10.1177/1367006909339816
    https://doi.org/10.1177/1367006909339816 [Google Scholar]
  52. (2013) Incomplete L1 acquisition. InJ. Herschensohn & M. Young-Scholten (Eds.), The Cambridge handbook of second language acquisition (pp.–). Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9781139051729.022
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781139051729.022 [Google Scholar]
  53. (2018) Heritage language development: Connecting the dots. International Journal of Bilingualism, (), –. 10.1177/1367006916654368
    https://doi.org/10.1177/1367006916654368 [Google Scholar]
  54. Montrul, S., & Perpiñán, S.
    (2011) Assessing differences and similarities between instructed heritage language learners and L2 learners in their knowledge of Spanish tense-aspect and mood (TAM) morphology. Heritage Language Journal, (), –. 10.46538/hlj.8.1.5
    https://doi.org/10.46538/hlj.8.1.5 [Google Scholar]
  55. Montrul, S., & Potowski, K.
    (2007) Command of gender agreement in school-age Spanish-English bilingual children. International Journal of Bilingualism, (), –. 10.1177/13670069070110030301
    https://doi.org/10.1177/13670069070110030301 [Google Scholar]
  56. Montrul, S., & Sánchez-Walker, N.
    (2013) Differential object marking in child and adult Spanish heritage speakers. Language Acquisition, (), –. 10.1080/10489223.2013.766741
    https://doi.org/10.1080/10489223.2013.766741 [Google Scholar]
  57. Peña, E. D., Gutiérrez-Clellen, V. F., Iglesias, A., Goldstein, B. A., & Bedore, L. M.
    (2014) Bilingual English-Spanish Assessment (BESA). BROOKES Publishing CO. https://brookespublishing.com/wp-content/uploads/2021/01/BESA-excerpt.pdf
    [Google Scholar]
  58. Perez-Cortes, S.
    (2016) Acquiring obligatory and variable mood selection: Spanish heritage speakers’ and L2 learners’ performance in desideratives and reported speech contexts. [Doctoral dissertation]. Rutgers University – New Brunswick.
  59. (2022) Lexical frequency and morphological regularity as sources of heritage speaker variability in the acquisition of mood. Second Language Research, (), –. 10.1177/0267658320918620
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0267658320918620 [Google Scholar]
  60. Perez-Cortes, S., Putnam, M., & Sánchez, L.
    (2019) Differential access: Asymmetries in accessing features and building representations in heritage language grammars. Languages, (), –. 10.3390/languages4040081
    https://doi.org/10.3390/languages4040081 [Google Scholar]
  61. Pérez-Leroux, A. T.
    (1998) The acquisition of mood selection in Spanish relative clauses. Journal of Child Language, (), –. 10.1017/S0305000998003614
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0305000998003614 [Google Scholar]
  62. Potowski, K.
    (2004) Student Spanish use and investment in a dual immersion classroom: Implications for second language acquisition and heritage language maintenance. The Modern Language Journal, (), –. 10.1111/j.0026‑7902.2004.00219.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.0026-7902.2004.00219.x [Google Scholar]
  63. (2007a) Characteristics of the Spanish grammar and sociolinguistic proficiency of dual immersion graduates. Spanish in Context, (), –. 10.1075/sic.4.2.04pot
    https://doi.org/10.1075/sic.4.2.04pot [Google Scholar]
  64. (2007b) Language and identity in a dual immersion school. Multilingual Matters Limited. 10.21832/9781853599453
    https://doi.org/10.21832/9781853599453 [Google Scholar]
  65. Putnam, M., Kupisch, T., & Pascual y Cabo, D.
    (2018) Different situations, similar outcomes: Heritage grammars across the lifespan. InD. Miller, F. Bayram, J. Rothman, & L. Serratrice (Eds.), Bilingual cognition and language: The state of the science across its subfields (pp.–). John Benjamins Publishing Company. 10.1075/sibil.54.12put
    https://doi.org/10.1075/sibil.54.12put [Google Scholar]
  66. Putnam, M. T., & Sánchez, L.
    (2013) What’s so incomplete about incomplete acquisition?: A prolegomenon to modeling heritage language grammars. Linguistic Approaches to Bilingualism, (), –. 10.1075/lab.3.4.04put
    https://doi.org/10.1075/lab.3.4.04put [Google Scholar]
  67. Putnam, M. T., Sánchez, L., & Perez-Cortes, S.
    (2019) Language attrition and the Feature Reassembly Hypothesis. InM. S. Schmid & B. Kopke (Eds.), Oxford handbook of language attrition (pp.–). Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  68. R Core Team
    R Core Team (2022) R: A language and environment for statistical computing [Computer software]. R Foundation for Statistical Computing. https://www.R-project.org/
    [Google Scholar]
  69. Rodríguez-Mondoñedo, M.
    (2008) The acquisition of Differential Object Marking in Spanish. Probus, (). 10.1515/PROBUS.2008.004
    https://doi.org/10.1515/PROBUS.2008.004 [Google Scholar]
  70. Rojas, D. M.
    (1998) The situation of the subjunctive: Perception and comprehension of subjunctive forms in English. The SECOL Review, (), .
    [Google Scholar]
  71. Rothman, J., Bayram, F., DeLuca, V., Di Pisa, G., Duñabeitia, J. A., Gharibi, K., Hao, J., Kolb, N., Kubota, M., Kupisch, T., Laméris, T., Luque, A., van Osch, B., Pereira Soares, S. M., Prystauka, Y., Tat, D., Tomić, A., Voits, T., & Wulff, S.
    (2023) Monolingual comparative normativity in bilingualism research is out of “control”: Arguments and alternatives. Applied Psycholinguistics, (), –. 10.1017/S0142716422000315
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0142716422000315 [Google Scholar]
  72. Sánchez, L., Goldin, M., Hur, E., Jimenez, A., López Otero, J. C., Thane, P., Austin, J., & Markovits Rojas, J.
    (2023) Dominance, language experience, and increased interaction effects on the development of pragmatic knowledge in heritage bilingual children: Acceptance of null and overt subjects in Spanish and English. Heritage Language Journal, , –. 10.1163/15507076‑bja10012
    https://doi.org/10.1163/15507076-bja10012 [Google Scholar]
  73. Seco, R.
    (1990) Manual de gramática española (11th ed.). Aguilar.
    [Google Scholar]
  74. Silva-Corvalán, C.
    (2014) Bilingual language acquisition: Spanish and English in the first six years. Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9781139162531
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781139162531 [Google Scholar]
  75. Swain, M.
    (1993) The Output Hypothesis: Just speaking and writing aren’t enough. The Canadian Modern Language Review, (), –. 10.3138/cmlr.50.1.158
    https://doi.org/10.3138/cmlr.50.1.158 [Google Scholar]
  76. Thane, P. D.
    (2023a) Frequency effects and aspect morphology with state verbs in heritage Spanish. Linguistic Approaches to Bilingualism. 10.1075/lab.22025.tha
    https://doi.org/10.1075/lab.22025.tha [Google Scholar]
  77. (2023b) On the explanatory validity of proxies of frequency in heritage language acquisition research. Heritage Language Journal, (), –. 10.1163/15507076‑bja10013
    https://doi.org/10.1163/15507076-bja10013 [Google Scholar]
  78. (2024a) Acquiring differential object marking in heritage Spanish: Late childhood to adulthood. International Journal of Bilingualism, 13670069241229396. 10.1177/13670069241229396
    https://doi.org/10.1177/13670069241229396 [Google Scholar]
  79. (2024b) On the acquisition of differential object marking in child heritage Spanish: Bilingual education, exposure, and age effects (in memory of Phoebe Search). Languages, (), . 10.3390/languages9010026
    https://doi.org/10.3390/languages9010026 [Google Scholar]
  80. Vannest, J., Newport, E. L., Newman, A. J., & Bavelier, D.
    (2011) Interplay between morphology and frequency in lexical access: The case of the base frequency effect. Brain Research, , –. 10.1016/j.brainres.2010.12.022
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brainres.2010.12.022 [Google Scholar]
  81. Wickham, H., Averick, M., Bryan, J., Chang, W., McGowan, L., François, R., Grolemund, G., Hayes, A., Henry, L., Hester, J., Kuhn, M., Pedersen, T., Miller, E., Bache, S., Müller, K., Ooms, J., Robinson, D., Seidel, D., Spinu, V., … Yutani, H.
    (2019) Welcome to the Tidyverse. Journal of Open Source Software, (), . 10.21105/joss.01686
    https://doi.org/10.21105/joss.01686 [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.1075/lab.23057.tha
Loading
/content/journals/10.1075/lab.23057.tha
Loading

Data & Media loading...

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error