Volume 19, Issue 2
  • ISSN 1606-822X
  • E-ISSN: 2309-5067



This paper presents a novel generalization of the reduplicant (henceforth ) placement in CV reduplication in Isbukun Bunun. It is shown that the variable placements cannot be explained in terms of the presence of a PF marker or merely by the syllable number of the root, as assumed in previous studies. Rather, the variable placements are argued to be simultaneously governed by the size and the syllable well-formedness of the root. The is normally prefixed to the root; however, if onsetless is generated under normal copying, the placement of the shifts one syllable rightward, except for shorter (bimoraic) roots. Thus, the variable placements of the are driven by a universal tendency for the to be unmarked and the need for the P-Root to sustain a minimal size.

Available under the CC BY 4.0 license.

Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...



  1. Blust, Robert
    1998 Ca- reduplication and Proto-Austronesian grammar. Oceanic Linguistics37(1). 29–64. doi:  10.2307/3623279
    https://doi.org/10.2307/3623279 [Google Scholar]
  2. Cassimjee, Farida
    1998Isixhosa tonology: An optimal domains theory analysis (LINCOM Studies in African Linguistics 29). Munich: LINCOM Europa.
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Crowhurst, Megan
    2004 Mora alignment. Natural Language & Linguistic Theory22(1). 127–177. doi:  10.1023/B:NALA.0000005555.61571.be
    https://doi.org/10.1023/B:NALA.0000005555.61571.be [Google Scholar]
  4. De Busser, Rik L. J.
    2009Towards a grammar of Takivatan Bunun: Selected topics. Melbourne: La Trobe University. (Doctoral dissertation.)
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Downing, Laura J.
    1994 SiSwati verbal reduplication and the theory of Generalized Alignment. In Gonzàlez, Mercè (ed.), NELS 24: Proceedings of the 24th Annual Meeting of the North East Linguistic Society, 81–95. Amherst: GLSA, University of Massachusetts Amherst.
    [Google Scholar]
  6. 1998 On the prosodic misalignment of onsetless syllables. Natural Language & Linguistic Theory16(1). 1–52. doi:  10.1023/A:1005968714712
    https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1005968714712 [Google Scholar]
  7. Gafos, Diamandis
    1998 A-templatic reduplication. Linguistic Inquiry29(3). 515–527. doi:  10.1162/002438998553851
    https://doi.org/10.1162/002438998553851 [Google Scholar]
  8. He, Ru-fen & Zeng, Si-qi & Li, Wen-shu & Lin, Qing-chuan
    (ed.) 1986Gaoshanzu yuyan jianzhi (Bunenyu) [An outline of the Formosan native languages (Bunun)] (Zhongguo Shaoshu Minzu Yuyan Jianzhi Congshu [Chinese Minority Languages Outline Series]). Beijing: Nationalities Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Healey, Alan & Isoroembo, Ambrose & Chittleborough, Martin
    1969 Preliminary notes on Orokaiva grammar. In Capell, Arthur & Healey, Alan & Wilson, Deirdre (eds.), Papers in New Guinea linguistics No. 9 (Pacific Linguistics A18), 33–64. Canberra: Pacific Linguistics, The Australian National University.
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Hendricks, Sean Q.
    1999Reduplication without template constraints: A study in bare-consonant reduplication. Tucson: The University of Arizona. (Doctoral dissertation.)
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Hendricks, Sean
    2001 Bare-consonant reduplication without prosodic templates: Expressive reduplication in Semai. Journal of East Asian Linguistics10(4). 287–306. doi:  10.1023/A:1017923215691
    https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1017923215691 [Google Scholar]
  12. Huang, Hui-chuan J.
    2002 Zhuoshe Bunongyu de huayin xingcheng guilu [Glide formation in Takituduh Bunun]. Tsing Hua Journal of Chinese Studies32(2). 441–468.
    [Google Scholar]
  13. 2005 On the status of onglides in Isbukun Bunun. Concentric: Studies in Linguistics31(1). 1–20.
    [Google Scholar]
  14. 2008 Competition between syllabic and metrical constraints in two Bunun dialects. Linguistics46(1). 1–32. doi:  10.1515/LING.2008.001
    https://doi.org/10.1515/LING.2008.001 [Google Scholar]
  15. Huang, Lillian M.
    1997 Gaoxiongxian de Bunongyu [Isbukun Bunun in Kaohsiung County]. In Li, Paul Jen-kuei (ed.), Gaoxiongxian Nandao yuyan [Formosan Austronesian languages in Kaohsiung County], 351–410. Kaohsiung: Kaohsiung County Government.
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Inkelas, Sharon
    1989Prosodic constituency in the lexicon. Stanford: Stanford University. (Doctoral dissertation.)
    [Google Scholar]
  17. 1993 Deriving cyclicity. In Hargus, Sharon & Kaisse, Ellen M. (eds.), Studies in lexical phonology: Phonetics and phonology, vol.41, 75–110. San Diego: Academic Press. 10.1016/B978‑0‑12‑325071‑1.50009‑1
    https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-325071-1.50009-1 [Google Scholar]
  18. Istanda, Tanivu
    2009Bunongyu chongdieci de cihui jiegou ji zai jiaoxue shang de yingyung~Gaoxiong Junshequn [Word formation in Bunun reduplication and its application in teaching~Kaohsiung Isbukun Bunun]. Kaohsiung: National Kaohsiung Normal University. (Master’s thesis.)
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Jeng, Hengsyung
    (ed.) 2010An Isbukun Bunun dictionary. Taipei: Council of Indigenous Peoples. (e-dictionary.apc.gov.tw/bnn/Search.htm) (Accessed2016-09-09.)
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Kager, René
    1999Optimality Theory. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. doi:  10.1017/CBO9780511812408
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511812408 [Google Scholar]
  21. Li, Paul Jen-kuei
    1988 A comparative study of Bunun dialects. Bulletin of the Institute of History and Philology59(2). 479–508.
    [Google Scholar]
  22. 1997 Nantouxian Xinyixiang de Bunong nanbu fangyan [Isbukun Bunun in Hsinyi Township, Nantou County]. In Li, Paul Jen-kuei (ed.), Gaoxiongxian Nandao yuyan [Formosan Austronesian languages in Kaohsiung County], 300–350. Kaohsiung: Kaohsiung County Government.
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Lin, Hsiu-Hsu
    1996Isbukun phonology: A study of its segments, syllable structure, and phonological processes. Hsinchu: National Tsing Hua University. (Master’s thesis.)
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Lin, Hui-shan
    2010 Disyllabic verbal reduplication in Pazih – Leftward or rightward?Language and Linguistics11(4). 679–733.
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Lin, Tai & Zeng, Si-qi & Li, Wen-su & Ismahasan Islituan, Bukun
    2001Isbukun Bunongyu goucifa yanjiu [A study on the morphology of Isbukun Bunun]. Taipei: Duce Wenhua.
    [Google Scholar]
  26. McCarthy, John J.
    2007 What is Optimality Theory?Language and Linguistics Compass1(4). 260–291. doi:  10.1111/j.1749‑818X.2007.00018.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1749-818X.2007.00018.x [Google Scholar]
  27. 2008Doing Optimality Theory: Applying theory to data. Oxford: Blackwell. doi:  10.1002/9781444301182
    https://doi.org/10.1002/9781444301182 [Google Scholar]
  28. McCarthy, John J. & Prince, Alan
    1993Prosodic morphology I: Constraint interaction and satisfaction (Linguistics Department Faculty Publication Series 14). Amherst: University of Massachusetts Amherst. (scholarworks.umass.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1013&context=linguist_faculty_pubs) (Accessed2016-09-12.)
    [Google Scholar]
  29. 1995 Faithfulness and reduplicative identity. In Beckman, Jill & Dickey, Laura Walsh & Urbanczyk, Suzanne (eds.), University of Massachusetts occasional papers in linguistics 18: Papers in Optimality Theory, 249–384. Amherst: GLSA, University of Massachusetts Amherst.
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Mutaka, Ngessimo & Hyman, Larry M.
    1990 Syllables and morpheme integrity in Kinande reduplication. Phonology7(1). 73–119. doi:  10.1017/S0952675700001123
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0952675700001123 [Google Scholar]
  31. Prentice, D. J.
    1971The Murut languages of Sabah (Pacific Linguistics Series C18). Canberra: The Australian National University.
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Prince, Alan & Smolensky, Paul
    1993/2004Optimality Theory: Constraint interaction in generative grammar. Malden: Blackwell.
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Spring, Cari Louise
    1990Implications of Axininca Campa for prosodic morphology and reduplication. Tucson: The University of Arizona. (Doctoral dissertation.)
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Tseng, Meylysa
    2003Reduplication as affixation in Paiwan. Chiayi: National Chung Cheng University. (Master’s thesis.)
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Weimer, Harry & Weimer, Natalia
    1975 A short sketch of Yareba grammar. In Dutton, T. E. (ed.), Studies in languages of Central and South-East Papua (Pacific Linguistics Series C29), 667–729. Canberra: The Australian National University.
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Yeh, Marie M.
    2000 Bunongyu yu Saixiayu de chongdie jiegou [Reduplication in Bunun and Saisiyat]. Taiwan Renwen [Taiwan Humanity] 51. 359–384.
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Zeitoun, Elizabeth
    2000Bunongyu cankao yufa [A reference grammar of Bunun]. Taipei: Yuan-Liou Publishing Co., Ltd.
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Zeitoun, Elizabeth & Wu, Chen-huei
    2006 An overview of reduplication in Formosan languages. In Chang, Henry Y. & Huang, Lillian M. & Ho, Dah-an (eds.), Streams converging into an ocean: Festschrift in honor of Professor Paul Jen-kuei Li on his 70th birthday, 97–142. Taipei: Institute of Linguistics, Academia Sinica.
    [Google Scholar]

Data & Media loading...

  • Article Type: Research Article
Keyword(s): CV reduplication; Isbukun Bunun; Optimality Theory; red placement
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error