1887
Volume 19, Issue 3
  • ISSN 1606-822X
  • E-ISSN: 2309-5067
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Abstract

河北邢臺話的動後時體詞「了」有兩個語音形式:強變體「咾 [lau]」和弱變體「囒 [læ͊]」,二者在很大程度上是條件變體。經考察,漢語「了」的使用受制於謂語的整體屬性(現實性狀況、話語地位)和謂語的構件屬性(賓語類型、動詞類型)兩大類語法因素,而邢臺話「了」兩變體的分佈同樣受制於這些因素:謂語的整體屬性決定「了」兩變體分佈的基本格局,謂語的構件屬性決定既定的「咾」或「囒」可換為另一變體的特殊情況。各項語法因素制約「了」變體的作用強度存在一個優先等級「現實性狀況>話語地位>賓語類型>動詞類型」。最重要的是,「了」兩變體的分佈呈現出一個顯著的態勢:某語法環境中「了」的句法自由度越高,則越排斥強變體「咾」、越接受弱變體「囒」。由此可對其他方言「了」變體的分佈態勢提出多項理論預測,該現象也反映出北方漢語的「了」是一個複雜的語法異質語素。本文「了」的語法分析範式應有助於深入發掘漢語方言「了」語素的事實,並推進對多項理論問題的認識。

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2018-06-04
2019-12-07
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