1887
Volume 20, Issue 3
  • ISSN 1606-822X
  • E-ISSN: 2309-5067
USD
Buy:$35.00 + Taxes

Abstract

抽象

7–10 世紀的吐蕃古藏文中具有 yin 和 lags 兩個系動詞,同時兩者還語法化為表達時體功能的助動詞。語用上,前者用於統稱,後者用於敬稱。句法上,系動詞在肯定性的陳述句中並非強制性的,而是可選性的,但當處於否定句,以及含有對比焦點時,往往不可省略。lags 的敬語功能使其通常用於他稱的語境中,這種句法環境和語用功能使其逐步獲得了「敘實」的示證意義。在此基礎上,經由語用推理,yin 便獲得了「向自我」的示證意義。後世大多數藏語支語言系動詞所表達的示證系統即在此基礎上發展而來。yin和 lags 在句法上的非強制性特徵,在其他藏緬語中也有表現,可以作為分析古藏文此類句法現象的有力佐證。

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1075/lali.00039.sha
2019-06-14
2019-09-21
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

References

  1. Bielmeier, Roland
    2000 Syntactic, semantic, and pragmatic-epistemic functions of auxiliaries in Western Tibetan. Linguistics of the Tibeto-Burman Area23(2). 79–125.
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Chabvgag, Rtamgrin (ཆབ་འགག་རྟ་མགྲིན)
    2012Bodyig Rdoring Zhibvjugབོད་ཡིག་རྡོ་རིང་ཞིབ་འཇུག [A study of inscriptions of Tibetan]. Lhasa: Tibet Nationalities Publishing House.
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Chen, Kang (陳康) & Wu, Da (巫達)
    1998 Yiyu yufa (Nuosuhua)彝語語法(諾蘇話) [A grammar of Nuosu]. Beijing: Central University for Nationalities Publishing House.
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Chen, Jian (陳踐) & Wang, Yao (王堯)
    1983 Tunhong nas Thonpa’i Gna’bo’i Bodyig Shogdrilཏུན་ཧོང་ནས་ཐོན་པའི་གནའ་བོའི་བོད་ཡིག་ཤོག་དྲིལ [A selection of Tibetan manuscripts from Dunhuang]. Beijing: Nationalities Publishing Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Chen, Jian (陳踐)
    2013 P.T.1047 hao he IOL Tib J763 hao yang jiagu bu xintan P.T.1047號和IOL Tib J763號羊胛骨卜新探 [A new study of Old Tibetan divinations with sheep scapulas: P.T.1047 and IOL Tib J763]. Zhongguo Zangxue中國藏學 [China Tibetology] S1. 3–44.
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Dai, Qingxia (戴慶廈)
    2012 Jingpoyu cankao yufa景頗語參考語法 [Reference grammar of the Jinghpaw]. Beijing: China Social Sciences Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  7. de Jong, Jan Willem
    1989 The story of Rāma in Tibet: Text and translation of the Tun-huang manuscripts. Tibetan and Indo-Tibetan Studies1. 136.
    [Google Scholar]
  8. DeLancey, Scott
    1985 Lhasa Tibetan evidentials and the semantics of causation. Proceedings of the Eleventh Annual Meeting of the Berkeley Linguistics Society11.65–72.
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Denwood, Philip
    1999Tibetan. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 10.1075/loall.3
    https://doi.org/10.1075/loall.3 [Google Scholar]
  10. Genetti, Carol E.
    1986 The development of subordinators from postpositions in Bodic languages. Proceedings of the Twelfth Annual Meeting of the Berkeley Linguistics Society12. 387–400. 10.3765/bls.v12i0.1873
    https://doi.org/10.3765/bls.v12i0.1873 [Google Scholar]
  11. 1991 From postposition to subordinator in Newari. InTraugott, Elizabeth Closs & Heine, Bernd (eds.), Approaches to grammaticalization: Volume II. Types of grammatical markers, 227–255. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 10.1075/tsl.19.2.13gen
    https://doi.org/10.1075/tsl.19.2.13gen [Google Scholar]
  12. Gong, Qunhu (龔群虎)
    2007 Zhabayu yanjiu扎巴語研究 [A grammar of the Zhaba language]. Beijing: The Ethnic Publishing House.
  13. 'Gos Chos’grub (འགོས་ཆོས་འགྲུབ)
    'Gos Chos’grub (འགོས་ཆོས་འགྲུབ). Mdzangsblunམཛངས་བླུན [Wisdom and foolishness]. InDege Scripture Printing Lamasery (སྡེ་དགེའི་པར་མ།).
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Haller, Felix
    2000 Verbal categories of Shigatse Tibetan and Themchen Tibetan. Linguistics of the Tibeto-Burman Area23(2). 175–191.
    [Google Scholar]
  15. 2004Dialekt und Erzählungen von Themchen: Sprachwissenschaftliche Beschreibung eines Nomadendialektes aus Nord-Amdo [Dialect and folktales from Themchen: Linguistic description of a nomad dialect from north Amdo] (Beiträge zur tibetischen Erzählforschung 14 [Research on Tibetan Languages 14]). Bonn: VGH Wissenschaftsverlag.
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Held, Gudrun
    1992 Politeness in linguistic research. InWatts, Ricahrd J. & Ide, Sachiko & Ehlich, Konrad (eds.), Politeness in language: Studies in its history, theory and practice, 131–153. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Hill, Nathan
    2010 Personal pronouns in Old Tibetan. Journal Asiatique298(2). 549–571.
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Hong, Bo (洪波)
    1991 Jianzhi daici de yuanshi jufa gongneng兼指代詞的原始句法功能 [The original syntactic function of concurrent demonstrative pronoun]. Guhanyu Yanjiu古漢語研究 [Research in Ancient Chinese Language] 10. 35–43.
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Hongladarom, Krisadawan
    2007 Evidentiality in Rgyalthang Tibetan. Linguistics of the Tibeto-Burman Area30 (2). 17–44.
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Hu, Tan (胡坦)
    1993 Lasa Zangyu zhong de “shi” zi ju拉薩藏語中的「是」字句 [The copula verb construction in Lhasa Tibetan]. Xinan Minzu Xueyuan Xuebao (Zangyuwen Yanjiu)西南民族學院學報(藏語文研究) [Journal of Southwest University for Nationalities: A special issue of the Tibetan Studies]. 88–102.
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Huang, Bufan (黃布凡) & Ma, De (馬德)
    2000 Dunhuang Zangwen Tuboshi wenxian yizhu敦煌藏文吐蕃史文獻譯注 [Translation and annotations on Dunhuang Tibetan manuscripts about the history of Tubo Period]. Lanzhou: Gansu Education Publishing House.
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Huang, Bufan (黃布凡)
    2007 Lawurongyu yanjiu拉塢戎語研究 [A grammar of Lavrong Language]. Beijing: The Ethnic Publishing House.
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Huang, Chenglong (黃成龍)
    2007 Puxi Qiangyu yanjiu蒲溪羌語研究 [Studies on Puxi Qiang]. Beijing: The Ethnic Publishing House.
    [Google Scholar]
  24. 2014 Zangyu yu Ximalaya yuyan zhong cunzailei dongci de gainian jiegou藏語與喜馬拉雅語言中存在類動詞的概念結構 [Conceptual structures of copulas and locative-existential verbs in Tibetan and Himalayan languages]. Yuyan Kexue語言科學 [Linguistic Sciences] 13(5). 520–534.
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Iwao, Kazushi & Hill, Nathan W. & Takeuchi, Tsuguhito
    2009Old Tibetan Inscriptions (Old Tibetan Documents Online Monograph Series 2). Tokyo: Research Institute for Languages and Cultures of Asia and Africa, Tokyo University of Foreign Studies.
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Jacques, Guillaume (向柏霖)
    2008 Jiarongyu yanjiu嘉絨語研究 [A study of the rGyalrong language]. Beijing: The Ethnic Publishing House.
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Jacques, Guillaume
    2013 On pre-Tibetan semivowels. Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies76(2). 289–300. 10.1017/S0041977X12001450
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0041977X12001450 [Google Scholar]
  28. Jäschke, Heinrich August
    1881A Tibetan-English dictionary. London: The Secretary of State for India in Council.
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Jiang, Di (江荻)
    2005 Yiduyu yanjiu義都語研究 [Studies on Yidu]. Beijing: The Ethnic Publishing House.
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Jin, Peng (金鵬)
    1958 Zangyu Lasa, Rikaze, Changduhua de bijiao yanjiu藏語拉薩、日喀則、昌都話的比較研究 [Comparative Studies of Lhasa, Gzhiskartse and Chabmdo Tibetan]. Beijing: Science Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Jin, Peng (金鵬)
    1981 Zangyu Lasahua panduan dongci he cunzai dongci de yongfa藏語拉薩話判斷動詞和存在動詞的用法 [The grammatical structure of the copula and existential verbs in Lhasa Tibetan]. Xizang Minzu Xueyuan Xuebao西藏民族學院學報 [Journal of Tibet University for Nationalities] 4. 71–82.
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Jin, Peng (金鵬)
    1983 Zangyu jianzhi藏語簡志 [Outline of the Tibetan language]. Beijing: The Ethnic Publishing House.
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Jones, Eunice
    2009Evidentiality and mirativity in Balti. London: SOAS. (Master’s thesis.)
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Kitamura, Hajime & Namgyal, Kalsang & Lhawang, Kalsang & Hoshi, Michiyo
    1977Glo skad: A material of a Tibetan dialect in the Nepal Himalayas. Tokyo: Institute for the Study of Languages and Cultures of Asia and Africa.
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Konow, Sten
    1909Linguistic survey of India, Volume 3: Tibeto-Burman family, part 1: General introduction, specimens of the Tibetan dialects, the Himalaya dialects, and the North Assam group. Calcutta: Superintendent of Government Printing, India.
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Li, Daqin (李大勤)
    2002 Gemanyu yanjiu格曼語研究 [Research on the Geman language]. Beijing: The Ethnic Publishing House.
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Michailovsky, Boyd & Mazaudon, Martine
    1994 Preliminary notes on the languages of the Bumthang group. InKværne, Per (ed.), Tibetan studies: Proceedings of the 6th Seminar of the International Association for Tibetan Studies, Fagernes 1992, 545–557. Oslo: The Institute for Comparative Research in Human Culture.
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Nishida, Tatsuo (西田龍雄)
    1987 Chibettogo no hensen to mojiチベット語の変遷と文字 [History of the Tibetan language and its alphabet]. InNagano, Yasuhiko (長野泰彥) & Tachikawa, Musashi (立川武藏) (eds.), Chibetto no gengo to bunkaチベットの言語と文化 [The Tibetan language and culture], 108–169. Tokyo: Tojusha.
    [Google Scholar]
  39. Ouyang, Jueya (歐陽覺亞)
    (ed.) 1985 Luobazu yuyan jianzhi珞巴族語言簡志 [Outline of Lhopa languages]. Beijing: The Ethnic Publishing House.
    [Google Scholar]
  40. Saxena, Anju
    1997 Aspect and evidential morphology in standard Lhasa Tibetan: A diachronic study. Cahiers de Linguistique-Asia Orientale26(2). 281–306. 10.3406/clao.1997.1517
    https://doi.org/10.3406/clao.1997.1517 [Google Scholar]
  41. Shao, Mingyuan (邵明園)
    2014 Anduo Zangyu Arouhua de shizheng fanchou安多藏語阿柔話的示證範疇 [Evidentiality in A-rig dialect of A-mdo Tibetan]. Tianjin: Universtiy of Nankai. (Doctoral dissertation.)
  42. 2016 Zangyuzu xidongci red de yufahua藏語組系動詞red的語法化 [The grammaticalization of the copula verb “red” in Tibetic languages]. Language and Linguistics17(5). 679–715.
    [Google Scholar]
  43. Simon, Walter
    1942 Tibetan “tang”, “cing”, “kyin”, “yin”, and” 'am”. Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies10(4). 954–975. 10.1017/S0041977X00090145
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0041977X00090145 [Google Scholar]
  44. Simonsson, Nils
    1960 Sanskrit “na” and Tibetan “ma-yin”. Orientalia Suecana9. 11–27.
    [Google Scholar]
  45. Skalbzang ‘Gyurmed (格桑居冕) & Skalbzang Dbyangscan (格桑央京)
    Skalbzang ‘Gyurmed (格桑居冕) & Skalbzang Dbyangscan (格桑央京) 2002 Zangyu fangyan gailun藏語方言概論 [Outline of Tibetan dialects]. Beijing: The Ethnic Publishing House.
    [Google Scholar]
  46. Sumbha Dongrub Tshering (སུམ་བྷ་དོན་གྲུབ་ཚེ་རིང)
    Sumbha Dongrub Tshering (སུམ་བྷ་དོན་གྲུབ་ཚེ་རིང) 2013 Bod kyi Yulskad la Dpyadpavi Gtam Mutig Phrengba zhes byaba Bzhugs soབོད་ཀྱི་ཡུལ་སྐད་ལ་དཔྱད་པའི་གཏམ་མུ་ཏིག་ཕྲེང་བ་ཞེས་བྱ་བ་བཞུགས་སོ [Studies of Tibetan dialects]. Beijing: The Ethnic Publishing House.
    [Google Scholar]
  47. Sun, Hongkai (孫宏開) & Huang, Chenglong (黃成龍) & Brugmo Mtsho (周毛草)
    2002 Rouruoyu yanjiu柔若語研究 [Studies on Rouruo]. Beijing: Central University for Nationalities Publishing House.
    [Google Scholar]
  48. Suzuki, Hiroyuki (鈴木博之)
    2014 Shilun dongfang zangqu Zangyu tuhua de yufa ditu: Yi panduan dongci yu cunzai dongci weili試論東方藏區藏語土話的語法地圖:以判斷動詞與存在動詞為例 [Analysis of the linguistic geography of Eastern Tibetic languages: Take the copula and existential verbs as an example]. (Paper presented at the3th International Symposium on Chinese Geographical Linguistics, Foshan, August 7–10 2014.)
    [Google Scholar]
  49. Takeuchi, Tsuguhito (武內紹人)
    1990 Chibetto-go no jutsubu ni okeru jodōshi no kinō to sono hattatsu kateチベット語の述部における助動詞の機能とその発達過程 [The function of auxiliary verbs in Tibetan predicates and their historical development]. InSakiyama, Osamu (崎山理) & Sato, Akihiro (佐藤昭裕) (eds.), Asia no syo-gengo to ippann-gengogakuアジアの諸言語と一般言語學 [Asian languages and general linguistics], 6–16. Tokyo: Sanseido. (English version availables inRevue d'Etudes Tibétaines [Journal of Tibetan Studies] 31. 401–415.)
    [Google Scholar]
  50. 2002 Ki gigun ki kara seika jidai no chibetto go bunsho to chibetto go shiyō 帰義軍期から西夏時代のチベット語文書とチベット語使用 [The Tibetan language and Tibetan texts from the end of Tibetan domination over East Turkestan through the Tangut period (9th–12th century)]. Tohogaku東方学 [Eastern Studies] 104. 106–124.
    [Google Scholar]
  51. Thomas, Frederick William
    1951Tibetan literary texts and documents concerning Chinese Turkestan. vol.2, London: Royal Asiatic Society.
    [Google Scholar]
  52. Toumadre, Nicolas
    1991 The rhetorical use of the Tibetan ergative. Linguistics of the Tibeto-Burman Area14(1). 93–107.
    [Google Scholar]
  53. Tournadre, Nicolas & Konchok Jiatso
    2001 Final auxiliary verbs in literary Tibetan and in the dialects. Linguistics of the Tibeto-Burman Area24(1). 49–111.
    [Google Scholar]
  54. Tournadre, Nicolas
    2008 Arguments against the concept of “conjunct”/”disjunct” in Tibetan. InHuber, Brigitte & Volkart, Marianne & Widmer, Paul & Schwieger, Peter (eds.), Chomolangma, Demawend und Kasbek: Festschrift für Roland Bielmeier zu seinem 65 Geburtstag [Qomolangma, Demawend and Kasbek: Commemorative volume for the 65th birthday of Roland Bielmeier], vol.1, 281–308. Halle (Saale): International Institute for Tibetan and Buddhist Studies GmbH.
    [Google Scholar]
  55. Tournadre, Nicolas & Lhakpa Norbu Sherpa & Gyurme Chodrak & Oisel, Guillaume
    2009Sherpa-English and English-Sherpa dictionary with literary Tibetan and Nepali equivalents. Kathmandu: Vajra Publication.
    [Google Scholar]
  56. Tournadre, Nicolas
    2010 The classical Tibetan cases and their transcategoriality: From sacred grammar to modern linguistics. Himalayan Linguistics9(2). 86–125.
    [Google Scholar]
  57. 2014 The Tibetic languages and their classification. InHill, Nathan W. & Owen-Smith, Thomas (eds.), Trans-Himalayan linguistics, 105–130. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
    [Google Scholar]
  58. Ui, Hakuju (宇井伯壽) & Suzuki, Munetada (鈴木宗忠) & Kanakura, Yensho (金倉圓照) & Tada, Tokan (多田等觀)
    (eds.) 1985 Degeban Xizang Dazangjing zongmulu德格版•西藏大藏經總目錄 [A complete catalogue of the Tibetan Buddhist Sdedge (Bka’-’gyur and Bstan-’gyur)]. Taipei: Huayu press.
  59. Wang, Guoxu (王國旭)
    2011 Xinping Yiyu Laluhua yanjiu新平彝語臘魯話研究 [A grammar of Lalu dialect of Yi language in Xinping]. Beijing: Minzu University of China. (Doctoral dissertation.)
  60. Wang, Yao (王堯)
    1982 Tufan jinshi lu吐蕃金石錄 [A collection of inscriptions on bronzes and stone tablets]. Beijing: Cultural Relics Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  61. Wang, Yao (王堯) & Chen, Jian (陳踐)
    1989 Tubo zhiguan kaoxinlu吐蕃職官考信錄 [An annotated translation of political official system of the Tibetan empire]. Zhongguo Zangxue中國藏學 [China Tibetology] 1. 102–117.
    [Google Scholar]
  62. 2008 Dunhuang guzangwen wenxian tansuoji敦煌古藏文文獻探索集 [A collection of Old Tibetan documents of Dunhuang]. Shanghai: Shanghai Ancient Books Publishing House.
    [Google Scholar]
  63. Wang, Zhijing (王志敬)
    2012 Dūnhuáng Zàngwén yǔfǎ yánjīu敦煌藏文語法研究 [A study on the grammar of Dunhuang Tibetan]. Beijing: China Tibetology Publishing House.
    [Google Scholar]
  64. Xie, Guanghua (謝廣華)
    1982 Zangyu dongci yufa fanchou藏語動詞語法範疇 [The grammatical categories of the Tibetan verb]. Minzu Yuwen民族語文 [Minority Languages of China] 4. 35–47.
    [Google Scholar]
  65. Yamaguchi, Zuihō (山口瑞鳳)
    1986Rdzogs tshig no hataraki to youhou no hensen rdzogs tshigの働きと用法の変遷 [A historical account of the functions of rdzogs tshig]. InYamaguchi, Zuihō (山口瑞鳳) (ed.), Chibetto no bukkyou to syakaiチベットの仏教と社会 [Buddhism and society in Tibet], 697–736. Tokyo: Shunjusha Publishing Company.
    [Google Scholar]
  66. Yamaguchi, Zuiho (山口瑞鳳)
    1998 Chibettogo bungo bunpōチベット語文語文法 [A grammar of written-Tibetan]. Tokyo: Shunjusha Publishing Company.
    [Google Scholar]
  67. 2002 Gaisetsu Chibettogo bungo bunten概説チベット語文語文典 [An outline of written-Tibetan grammar]. Tokyo: Shunjusha Publishing Company.
    [Google Scholar]
  68. Yasutoshi, Yukawa (湯川恭敏)
    1971 Chibettogo no jyutubu no rinkakuチベット語の述部の輪郭 [Outline of Tibetan predicates]. InYasutoshi, Yukawa (ed.), Genngogaku no kihonmondai言語学の基本問題 [Basic problems in linguistics], 178–204. Tokyo: Taishūkan Publishing.
    [Google Scholar]
  69. 1975 Chibettogo no jyutugoチベット語の述語 [The predicates of Tibetan], Ajia Afurika Bunnpoukennkyuuアジア・アフリカ文法硏究 [Asian & African Linguistics] 4. 1–14.
    [Google Scholar]
  70. Yu, Min (俞敏)
    1949 Hanyu de “qi” gen Zangyu de “gyi”漢語的「其」跟藏語的gji [A comparative study of Chinese “qi其” and Tibetan “gyi”]. Yanjing Xuebao燕京學報 [Yenching Journal of Chinese Studies] 37. 75–94.
    [Google Scholar]
  71. Zadoks, Abel
    2002 The Tibetan connection: Switch evidence and direct-inverse marking from old to middle Tibetan. (Paper presented at the8th Himalayan Languages Symposium, Berne, 19–22, September 2002.)
    [Google Scholar]
  72. Zeisler, Bettina
    2000 Narrative conventions in Tibetan languages: The issue of mirativity. Linguistics of the Tibeto-Burman Area23(2). 39–77.
    [Google Scholar]
  73. 2012 Evidentiality and inferentiality: Overlapping and contradictory functions of the so-called evidential markers in Ladakhi (West Tibetan). (Paper presented at TheNature of Evidentiality conference, Leiden, 14–16 June 2012.)
    [Google Scholar]
  74. Zhai, Huifeng (翟會鋒)
    2011 Sanguanzhai Yiyu cankao yufa三官寨彝語參考語法 [A grammar of Sanguan Yi language]. Beijing: Minzu University of China. (Doctoral dissertation.)
  75. Zhang, Jichuan (張濟川)
    1986 Cangluo Menbayu jianzhi倉洛門巴語簡志 [Outline of Cangluo Menba language]. Beijing: The Ethnic Publishing House.
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.1075/lali.00039.sha
Loading
/content/journals/10.1075/lali.00039.sha
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Article Type: Research Article
Keyword(s): copula , egophoric , evidentiality , grammaticalization , Old Tibetan , 古藏文 , 向自我 , 示證範疇 , 系動詞 and 語法化
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error