1887
Volume 22, Issue 1
  • ISSN 1606-822X
  • E-ISSN: 2309-5067
USD
Buy:$35.00 + Taxes

Abstract

Abstract

The voiced onsets and associated tonal reflexes of Northern Mǐn (NM), motivation for Norman’s (19731974) proto-Mǐn “softened” stops and affricates, remain a subject of controversy. Following a brief introduction (§ 1), I begin by reviewing the various apparent sources of voiced onsets in NM, including old complex onsets, non-Sinitic substrate, voicing alternations, and late koine material (§ 2). I then take up Akitani’s (2008) colloquial glossary of Shíbēi 石陂 and Norman’s (1969) of Jiànyáng 建陽, outlining on this basis an adjusted account of the subgroup’s development: pre-PNM preserved early Sinitic voiced onsets in Tone A2, with a conditioned split isolating voiced stops in so-called 陽平乙, here “A2+” (§ 3). It was this conservative feature which allowed items in § 2 to take on voiced onsets across tonal categories, at times leading to further splits. A conclusion considers Mǐn more generally, proposing that the voicing alternants of Huang Chin-wen (2001a) may be NM reflections of group-wide tone sandhi processes (§ 4).

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1075/lali.00078.smi
2020-12-16
2021-01-23
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

References

  1. Akitani, Hiroyuki
    2008 Minbeiqu san xianshi fangyan yanjiu [Study of the dialects of three districts of the Northern Min area]. Taipei: Institute of Linguistics, Academia Sinica.
  2. 2013 Minbeiqu Pucheng Linjiang fangyan he Shao-Jiang qu Guangze Zhaili fangyan de gu zhuopingsheng fenhua [Historical voiced level tone splits in the Northern Min-area dialect of Linjiang, Pucheng County and in the Shao–Jiang-area dialect of Zhaili, Guangze County]. InEditorial Committee of Essays on Chinese linguistics in honor of the sixtieth birthdays of Professors Itsuku Ōta and Akihiro Furuya (ed.), Ōta Itsuku, Furuya Akihiro ryō kyōju kanreki kinen Chūgoku gogaku ronshū [Essays on Chinese linguistics in honor of the sixtieth birthdays of Professors Itsuku Ōta and Akihiro Furuya], 310–319. Tokyo: Kōbun.
  3. 2017 Minbeiqu fangyan de yindiao zhuo shengmu zi de kaocha – jian ping Bai–Sha shanggu xin xitong [A study of the historical upper register voiced onset words of the Northern Min dialects, with remarks on the new Old Chinese system of Baxter & Sagart]. InEditorial Committee ofYuyanxue luncong, Center for Chinese Linguistics PKU (ed.), Yuyanxue luncong [Essays on linguistics], vol.56, 20–75. Beijing: The Commercial Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Akitani, Hiroyuki & Handel, Zev
    2012 Lishi bijiaofa he cengci fenxifa [The comparative method and stratification analysis]. InEditorial Committee ofYuyanxue luncong, Center for Chinese Linguistics PKU (ed.), Yuyanxue luncong [Essays on linguistics], vol.45, 277–335. Beijing: The Commercial Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Baxter, William H.
    1992A handbook of Old Chinese phonology. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. 10.1515/9783110857085
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110857085 [Google Scholar]
  6. 2014 Northern Min ‘softened’ initials in borrowed vocabulary. In VanNess Simmons, Richard & Van Auken, Newell Ann (eds.), Studies in Chinese and Sino-Tibetan linguistics: Dialect, phonology, transcription and text, 53–72. Taipei: Institute of Linguistics, Academia Sinica.
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Baxter, William & Sagart, Laurent
    2014Old Chinese: A new reconstruction. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199945375.001.0001
    https://doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199945375.001.0001 [Google Scholar]
  8. Branner, David Prager
    2000Problems in comparative Chinese dialectology: The classification of Miin and Hakka. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. 10.1515/9783110802849
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110802849 [Google Scholar]
  9. Chen, Matthew Y.
    2000Tone sandhi: Patterns across Chinese dialects. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9780511486364
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511486364 [Google Scholar]
  10. Downer, G. B.
    1967 Tone-change and tone-shift in White Miao. Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies30(3). 589–599. 10.1017/S0041977X00132069
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0041977X00132069 [Google Scholar]
  11. Handel, Zev
    2003 Northern Min tone values and the reconstruction of “softened initials”. Language and Linguistics4(1). 47–84.
    [Google Scholar]
  12. 2009 Lun Minbei fangyan ruohua shengmu de lishi laiyuan [Reflections on the historical origin of the Northern Min ‘softened initials’]. Language and Linguistics10(1). 1–16.
    [Google Scholar]
  13. 2010a Old Chinese and Mǐn. Chūgoku Gogaku [Bulletin of the Chinese Linguistics Society of Japan] 257. 34–68.
  14. 2010b Competing methodologies of Chinese dialect fieldwork, and their implications for the study of the history of the Northern Mǐn dialects. In Coblin, W. South & Yue, Anne O. (eds.), Studies in honor of Jerry Norman, 19–46. Hong Kong: T.T. Ng Chinese Language Research Centre, The Chinese University of Hong Kong.
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Hirata, Shōji
    1988 Minbei fangyan “di jiu diao” de xingzhi [The nature of “Tone Nine” in the Northern Min dialects]. Fangyan [Dialect] 1988(1). 12–24.
  16. Ho, Dah-An
    1996 Stages and strata in dialectal history – Case studies of Heng County, Da County, and Shipo. In Huang, C.-T. James & Li, Y.-H. Audrey (eds.), New horizons in Chinese linguistics, 215–234. Dordrecht: Kluwer. (Translated by George Hayden ). 10.1007/978‑94‑009‑1608‑1_7
    https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-009-1608-1_7 [Google Scholar]
  17. Huang, Chin-wen
    2001aFangyan jiechu yu Minbei fangyan yanbian [Language contact and the phonological changes in North Min]. Taipei: National Taiwan University.
    [Google Scholar]
  18. 2001b “Fangyan bianti” jian de jingzheng – Lun Minbei fangyan yangping yi diao qinghua bu songqi yin [Competition between variants: Formation of the second unaspirated Yang-Ping in Northern Min]. Hanxue Yanjiu漢學研究 [Chinese Studies] 19(1). 355–374.
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Jacques, Guillaume
    2015 The origin of the causative prefix in Rgyalrong languages and its implication for proto-Sino-Tibetan reconstruction. Folia Linguistica49 (Historica vol.36). 165–198.
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Jianyang xian difangzhi bianzuan weiyuanhui [Jianyang County Local Gazetteer Editorial Committee] 1994 Jianyang xian zhi [Jianyang local gazeteer]. Beijing: Qunzhong Chubanshe.
  21. Li, Rulong
    1991 Minbei fangyan [The Northern Min dialects]. In Chen, Zhangtai & Li, Rulong (eds.), Minyu yanjiu [Studies on Min], 139–190. Beijing: Language and Culture Press.
  22. Li, Rulong (李如龍)
    2011 Cong tezhengci kan Puxian hua he Yue–Qiong Minyu de guanxi從特徵詞看莆仙話和粵瓊閩語的關係 [The relationship between Puxianese and Yue–Qiong Min in light of characteristic dialect words]. (Paper presented at theEighth Annual Workshop on Migration and the Distribution of Languages and Cultures, Xiamen, 28 February 2011.)
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Li, Rulong & Deng, Xiangzhang
    2006 Zhonggu quanzhuo shengmu zi Min fangyan jindu de lishi cengci [On the diachronic levels of the pronunciations of the ancient voiced initial consonants in Min dialects nowadays]. Jinan Xuebao (zhexue shehui kexue ban) [Journal of Jinan University (Philosophy and Social Sciences)] 28(3). 152–158.
  24. Li, Fang-Kuei
    1977A handbook of comparative Tai. Honolulu: University of Hawai‘i Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Mei, Zulin & Norman, Jerry
    1971 Shi lun jige Minbei fangyan zhong de laimu s- sheng zi [Examination of a few Middle Chinese l- onset words with s- onset in Minbei dialects]. Qinghua Xuebao [Tsing Hua Journal of Chinese Studies] 9(1–2). 96–105.
  26. Norman, Jerry
    1969The Kienyang dialect of Fukien. Berkeley: University of California. (Doctoral dissertation.)
    [Google Scholar]
  27. 1971A guide to the Chien-yang dialect. Washington, D.C.: Office of Education, Department of Health, Education, and Welfare.
    [Google Scholar]
  28. 1973 Tonal development in Min. Journal of Chinese Linguistics1(2). 222–238.
    [Google Scholar]
  29. 1974 The initials of Proto-Min. Journal of Chinese Linguistics2(1). 27–36.
    [Google Scholar]
  30. 1981 The Proto-Min finals. InEditorial Committee of Proceedings of the International Conference on Sinology (ed.), Proceedings of the International Conference on Sinology: Section on linguistics and paleography, 35–73. Taipei: Academia Sinica.
    [Google Scholar]
  31. 1986 The origins of the Proto-Min softened stops. In McCoy, John & Light, Timothy (eds.), Contributions to Sino-Tibetan studies, 375–384. Leiden: E. J. Brill.
    [Google Scholar]
  32. 1996 Tonal development in the Jennchyan dialect. The Yuen Ren Society Treasury of Chinese dialect data2. 7–41.
    [Google Scholar]
  33. 2000 Voiced initials in Shyrbei. In Yue-Hashimoto, Anne O. & Ting, Pang-Hsin (eds.), In memory of Professor Li Fang-kuei: Essays on linguistic change and the Chinese dialects, 271–280. Taipei: Institute of Linguistics, Academia Sinica.
    [Google Scholar]
  34. 2014 A model for Chinese dialect evolution. In VanNess Simmons, Richard & Van Auken, Newell Ann (eds.), Studies in Chinese and Sino-Tibetan linguistics: Dialect, phonology, transcription and text, 1–26. Taipei: Institute of Linguistics, Academia Sinica.
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Ostapirat, Weera
    2011 Linguistic interaction in South China: The case of Chinese, Tai and Miao-Yao. (Paper presented at thesymposium on Historical Linguistics in the Asia-Pacific Region and the Position of Japanese, 20th International Conference on Historical Linguistics, Osaka, 30 July 2011.)
    [Google Scholar]
  36. 2016 Issues in the reconstruction and affiliation of Proto-Miao-Yao. Language and Linguistics17(1). 133–145.
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Purnell, Herbert
    1970Toward a reconstruction of proto-Miao-Yao. Ithaca: Cornell University. (Doctoral dissertation.)
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Ratliff, Martha
    1992Meaningful tone: A study of tonal morphology in compounds, form classes, and expressive phrases in White Hmong. Dekalb: Center for Southeast Asian Studies, Northern Illinois University.
    [Google Scholar]
  39. 2010Hmong-Mien language history. Canberra: Pacific Linguistics.
    [Google Scholar]
  40. Schuessler, Axel
    2007ABC etymological dictionary of Old Chinese. Honolulu: University of Hawai’i Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  41. Shen, Ruiqing
    2016Tonal variation: A quantitative study of Jianyang Min Chinese. Hong Kong: Hong Kong University of Science and Technology. (Doctoral dissertation.)
    [Google Scholar]
  42. Solnit, David B.
    1985 Introduction to the Biao Mien Yao language. Cahiers de Linguistique Asie Orientale14(2). 175–191. 10.3406/clao.1985.1175
    https://doi.org/10.3406/clao.1985.1175 [Google Scholar]
  43. Strecker, David
    1987 Some comments on Benedict’s Miao-Yao Enigma: The Na-e Language Addendum . Linguistics of the Tibeto-Burman Area10(2). 43–53.
    [Google Scholar]
  44. Sun, Shun
    2016Yuanshi Minbeiyu de chongxin gouni ji yanbian [A new reconstruction and the evolution of proto-Northern Min]. Beijing: Peking University. (Doctoral dissertation.)
    [Google Scholar]
  45. Ting, Pang-Hsin
    1999 Shangguyin shengmu *g- he *ɣ- zai Minyu zhong de yanbian [Reflexes of Archaic Chinese *g and *ɣ in the Min dialects]. In Ting, Pang-Hsin (ed.), Contemporary studies on the Min dialects (Journal of Chinese Linguistics Monograph Series 14), 247–261. Berkeley: Project on Linguistic Analysis, University of California.
    [Google Scholar]
  46. Tu, Chia-lun
    2013 Minyu gu quanzhuo shenglei de cengci fenxi [A stratification analysis of the ancient voiced onset category in Min]. Language and Linguistics14(2). 409–456.
    [Google Scholar]
  47. Wang, Futang
    1994 Minbei fangyan ruohua shengmu he “di jiu diao” zhi wo jian [My views on the softened onsets and “Tone Nine” of the Minbei dialects]. Zhongguo Yuwen [Studies of the Chinese Language] 1994(6). 430–433.
  48. 2005 Yuanshi Minyu gouni wenti de yanjiu guocheng [An exploration of proto-Min reconstruction]. Language and Linguistics6(3). 473–481.
    [Google Scholar]
  49. Wang, Weihui & Akitani, Hiroyuki
    2014 Hanyu “wen/xiu” yi ci de xianzhuang yu lishi [Synchronic distribution and diachronic development of words encoding “to smell” in Chinese]. Language and Linguistics15(5). 699–732.
    [Google Scholar]
  50. Yue, Anne O.
    1976 Kodai Chūgokugo tōshiin no on’in tairitsu [Phonemic contrasts of syllable onsets in Old Chinese]. Chūgoku Gogaku [Bulletin of the Chinese Linguistics Society of Japan] 223. 2–5.
  51. 2013 Tone 9 of the Jianyang dialect. Bulletin of Chinese Linguistics7(1). 49–133. 10.1163/2405478X‑90000110
    https://doi.org/10.1163/2405478X-90000110 [Google Scholar]
  52. Zhengzhang, Shangfang
    1985 Pucheng fangyan de nanbei qufen [A north-south division in the Pucheng dialects]. Fangyan [Dialect] 1985(1). 39–45.
  53. 1995 Gan, Min, Yueyu li gu quanzhuo shengmu jin du zhuoyin de fangyan [Gan, Min and Yue dialects in which historical voiced onsets have voiced reflexes]. In Anonymous (ed.), Wuyu he Minyu de bijiao yanjiu [Comparative studies among Wu and Min dialects], 13–17. Shanghai: Shanghai Educational Publishing House.
  54. 2002 Minyu yu Zhenan Wuyu de shenceng lianxi [Min and its deep connections with southern Zhejiang Wu]. In Ting, Pang-hsin & Chang, Songhing (eds.), Minyu yanjiu ji qi yu zhoubian fangyan de guanxi [Studies of Min and its relationships with neighboring dialects], 17–26. Hong Kong: The Chinese University of Hong Kong Press.
  55. Zhonghua Minguo Jiaoyubu Guoyu Tuixing Weiyuanhui [National Languages Committee, Ministry of Education, Republic of China] 2011 Taiwan Minnanyu changyong cidian [Dictionary of basic vocabulary of Taiwanese Minnan]. (twblg.dict.edu.tw/holodict_new) (Accessed2018-05-01.)
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.1075/lali.00078.smi
Loading
/content/journals/10.1075/lali.00078.smi
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Article Type: Research Article
Keyword(s): dialect contact , Northern Mǐn , softened onsets , tone 9 and tone sandhi
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error