Volume 22, Issue 2
  • ISSN 1606-822X
  • E-ISSN: 2309-5067



In this paper, I describe the morphology as well as the uses of the basic motion verbs, ‘to come’ and ‘to go’, in Khroskyabs based on two of its varieties, Siyuewu and Wobzi, before analyzing the evolutionary pathways of their stem alternation patterns. The meanings of the basic motion verbs in Khroskyabs originally were not ‘to come’ or ‘to go’; instead, these verbs denoted Goal-oriented motion and Source-oriented motion. The choice of the deictic center is the key to the semantic change toward ‘to come’ and ‘to go’ in the modern language.

Available under the CC BY 4.0 license.

Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...



  1. Bybee, Joan L.
    1985Morphology: A study of the relation between meaning and form. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 10.1075/tsl.9
    https://doi.org/10.1075/tsl.9 [Google Scholar]
  2. DeLancey, Scott
    1980Deictic categories in the Tibeto-Burman verb. Bloomington: Indiana Universtiy. (Doctoral dissertation.)
    [Google Scholar]
  3. 1985 The analysis-synthesis-lexis cycle in Tibeto-Burman: A case study in motivated change. InHaiman, John (ed.), Iconicity in syntax: Proceedings of a Symposium on Iconicity in Syntax, Stanford, 24–26 June 1983 (Typological Studies in Language 6), 367–389. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 10.1075/tsl.6.18del
    https://doi.org/10.1075/tsl.6.18del [Google Scholar]
  4. Huang, Bufan
    2007 Lawurongyu yanjiu [A study of the Lavrung language]. Beijing: Nationalities Press.
  5. Jacques, Guillaume
    2004Phonologie et morphologie du Japhug (rGyalrong). Paris: Université Paris VII – Denis Diderot. (Doctoral dissertation.)
    [Google Scholar]
  6. (ed.) 2015Dictionnaire Japhug-Chinois-Français (Version 1.0). Paris: Projet HimalCo.
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Jacques, Guillaume & Lai, Yunfan & Antonov, Anton & Nima, Lobsang
    2017 Stau (Ergong, Horpa). InThurgood, Graham & LaPolla, Randy J. (eds.), The Sino-Tibetan languages, 597–613. 2nd edn.New York: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Jacques, Guillaume & Michaud, Alexis
    2011 Approaching the historical phonology of three highly eroded Sino-Tibetan languages: Naxi, Na and Laze. Diachronica28(4). 468–498. 10.1075/dia.28.4.02jac
    https://doi.org/10.1075/dia.28.4.02jac [Google Scholar]
  9. Juge, Matthew L.
    2000 On the rise of suppletion in verbal paradigms. InChang, Steve S. & Liaw, Lily & Ruppenhofer, Josef (eds.), Proceedings of the 25th Annual Meeting of the Berkeley Linguistics Society: General session and parasession on loan word phenomena, 183–194. Berkeley: Berkeley Linguistics Society.
    [Google Scholar]
  10. 2013 Analogy as a source of suppletion. InKikusawa, Ritsuko & Reid, Lawrence A. (eds.), Historical linguistics 2011: Selected papers from the 20th International Conference on Historical Linguistics, Osaka, 25–30 July 2011 (Current Issues in Linguistic Theory 326), 175–197. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 10.1075/cilt.326.14jug
    https://doi.org/10.1075/cilt.326.14jug [Google Scholar]
  11. Lai, Yunfan
    2015 The person agreement system of Wobzi Lavrung (Rgyalrongic, Tibeto-Burman). Transactions of the Philological Society113(3). 271–285. 10.1111/1467‑968X.12051
    https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-968X.12051 [Google Scholar]
  12. 2017Grammaire du khroskyabs de Wobzi. Paris: Université Paris 3 – Sorbonne Nouvelle. (Doctoral dissertation.)
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Lamarre, Christine
    2008 The linguistic categorization of deictic direction in Chinese – with reference to Japanese. InXu, Dan (ed.), Space in languages of China: Cross-linguistic, synchronic and diachronic perspectives, 69–97. Dordrecht: Springer. 10.1007/978‑1‑4020‑8321‑1_4
    https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4020-8321-1_4 [Google Scholar]
  14. LaPolla, Randy J.
    2017 An overview of Sino-Tibetan morphosyntax. InThurgood, Graham & LaPolla, Randy J. (eds.), The Sino-Tibetan languages, 40–69. 2nd edn.New York: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Lin, You-Jing
    2002 A dimension missed: East and west in Situ rGyalrong orientation marking. Language and Linguistics3(1). 27–42.
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Matisoff, James A.
    1988The dictionary of Lahu. Berkeley: University of California Press. 10.1525/9780520327139
    https://doi.org/10.1525/9780520327139 [Google Scholar]
  17. Nakazawa, Tsuneko
    2007 A typology of the ground of deictic motion verbs as path-conflating verbs: The speaker, the addressee, and beyond. Poznań Studies in Contemporary Linguistics43(2). 59–82. 10.2478/v10010‑007‑0014‑3
    https://doi.org/10.2478/v10010-007-0014-3 [Google Scholar]
  18. Prins, Maria Clazina
    2011A grammar of rGyalrong Jiǎomùzú (Kyom-kyo) dialects: A web of relations. Leiden: Leiden University. (Doctoral dissertation.)
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Skeat, Walter W.
    2005An etymological dictionary of the English language. New York: Dover Publications. (Reprint of the 1910 edn. by Clarendon Press.)
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Sun, Jackson T.-S.
    2000a Parallelisms in the verb morphology of Sidaba rGyalrong and Lavrung in rGyalrongic. Language and Linguistics1(1). 161–190.
    [Google Scholar]
  21. 2000b Stem alternations in Puxi verb inflection: Toward validating the rGyalrongic subgroup in Qiangic. Language and Linguistics1(2). 211–232.
    [Google Scholar]
  22. 2004 Verb-stem variations in Showu rGyalrong. InLin, Ying-chin & Hsu, Fang-min & Lee, Chun-chih & Sun, Jackson T.-S. & Yang, Hsiu-fang & Ho, Dah-an (eds.), Studies on Sino-Tibetan languages: Papers in honor of Professor Hwang-cherng Gong on his seventieth birthday (Language and Linguistics Monograph Series W4), 269–296. Taipei: Institute of Linguistics, Academia Sinica.
    [Google Scholar]
  23. 2017 Tshobdun Rgyalrong. InThurgood, Graham & LaPolla, Randy J. (eds.), The Sino-Tibetan languages, 557–571. 2nd edn.New York: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Talmy, Leonard
    1985 Lexicalization patterns: Semantic structure in lexical forms. InShopen, Timothy (ed.), Language typology and syntactic description, volume 3: Grammatical categories and the lexicon, 57–149. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  25. 1991 Path to realization: A typology of event conflation. InSutton, Laurel A. & Johnson, Christopher & Shields, Ruth (eds.), Proceedings of the 17th Annual Meeting of the Berkeley Linguistics Society: General session and parasession on the grammar of event structure, 480–519. Berkeley: Berkeley Linguistics Society.
    [Google Scholar]
  26. 2000aToward a cognitive semantics, volume 1: Concept structuring systems. Cambridge: The MIT Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  27. 2000bToward a cognitive semantics, volume 2: Typology and process in concept structuring. Cambridge: The MIT Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Veselinova, Ljuba N.
    2006Suppletion in verb paradigms: Bits and pieces of the puzzle (Typological Studies in Language 67). Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 10.1075/tsl.67
    https://doi.org/10.1075/tsl.67 [Google Scholar]
  29. Wilkins, David P. & Hill, Deborah
    1995 When “go” means “come”: Questioning the basicness of basic motion verbs. Cognitive Linguistics6(2–3). 209–260. 10.1515/cogl.1995.6.2‑3.209
    https://doi.org/10.1515/cogl.1995.6.2-3.209 [Google Scholar]
  30. Yin, Weibin
    2007 Yelong Lawurongyu yanjiu [Study on the ’Jorogs Lavrung language]. Beijing: Nationalities Press.
  31. Zhang, Shuya
    2016La phonologie et la morphologie du dialecte de Brag-dbar du Rgyalrong Situ. Paris: INALCO. (Master’s thesis.)
    [Google Scholar]

Data & Media loading...

  • Article Type: Research Article
Keyword(s): Khroskyabs; motion verbs; orientation; Rgyalrongic; stem alternation
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error