Volume 22, Issue 4
  • ISSN 1606-822X
  • E-ISSN: 2309-5067



The Mandarin is similar to the English in terms of polarity sensitivity (Wang 1993Wang & Hsieh 1996Kuo 2003Cheng & Giannakidou 2013Shyu 2016). However, the following phenomena regarding in relative clause environments have not been surveyed with respect to (a) the NPI illusion effect reported in studies like Parker & Phillips (20112016); (b) the subtrigging effect discussed in LeGrand (1975) and Dayal (19982004). We conducted two untimed, offline acceptability judgment experiments and the results suggest that: (i) NPI illusion does not appear in Mandarin in untimed offline processing, (ii) the subtrigging effect of holds, and (iii) can be licensed by certain types of declarative verbs like ‘agree’ and ‘approve’. The results confirm the strict structural requirement of the c-commanding relation between a negation licensor and (Wang 1993) and the licensing of in non-veridical contexts (Cheng & Giannakidou 2013), and further suggest additional licensing environments for : relative clauses and declarative verbs. This requires reconsideration of positing non-veridicality as a necessary licensing condition for and calls for future research on how is licensed under these two licensing environments.

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  • Article Type: Research Article
Keyword(s): free choice; locality; NPI; relative clause; subtrigging
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