1887
Volume 23, Issue 3
  • ISSN 1606-822X
  • E-ISSN: 2309-5067

Abstract

抽象的

本文詳細分析香港粵語的體助詞「咗」的語法特點。較之北京話的「了」,「咗」在現實句裡使用範圍更大,在非現實句裡使用範圍更小,在複雜短語裡須緊附於首個謂詞上,更容易用來表達持續性事件。我們推測,「咗」異於「了」的這些特點主要有三個動因。第一,粵語是語序最偏VO型的漢語方言,「動後限制」較弱,它不懼動詞後帶複雜成分,相對地抗拒句末時體詞。第二,「咗」很可能源自附著義動詞「著」,這導致它排斥作表示客體損失義的動相補語,更容易用於表述持續性事件的謂語中。第三,「咗」的時體義略異於「了」,這也會造成二者的使用差異。這項比較研究在漢語方言的整體格局方面亦有兩項發現。一方面,漢語的完整體標記分為「著」系和「了」系兩大組,它們有成系統的語法差異;另一方面,南北漢語在語序類型和時體範疇上的差異導致不同方言的完句條件有區別,漢語的完句研究不該集中於普通話,應該回歸到方言口語中。

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