1887
Volume 25, Issue 3
  • ISSN 1606-822X
  • E-ISSN: 2309-5067

Abstract

抽象的

本文分析重慶方言中七個句末語氣詞各自獨特的核心意義和功能並論證它們的結構位置。我們認為重慶方言的句末語氣詞可以分為三大類,符合Rizzi (1997)與Paul (2014)的CP分裂假說,它們在結構上分別在不同功能層中佔據中心語位置,其中重慶話的「lao」和普通話句末語氣詞「了」用法相同且佔據相同的位置,標示句子的限定性。「mai」、「ha」、「suo」三個疑問語氣詞標示疑問句,選擇陳述句為補足語構成是非問句,作為定義句子類型的Force中心語;但這三個疑問語氣詞分別表達命題和說話人預設之間不同的關聯。對於語法文獻中較少討論、與語篇相關的三個篇章語氣詞本文中也特別一併分析它們的語義及結構限制。本文主張重慶方言中篇章語氣詞在結構上受句法限制較小,因此可以運用在不同句子類型中,但語氣詞各有其核心語義:「ha」用來緩和語氣,「sa」表示確認,「dema」是提示對話雙方的共知背景信息。重慶方言的考察對於語法本體研究中較少討論的篇章語氣詞提供了豐富有趣的資料。本研究的結果為CP分裂假說提供了跨語言的一致性的支持。此外,本文對不同類型語氣詞的核心語義的判定也可為未來研究漢語其他方言之間的區別與共性,或是對其他同樣有豐富句末語氣詞的語言研究及跨語言對比研究提供一定的基礎。

Available under the CC BY 4.0 license.
Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1075/lali.00157.hsu
2024-07-02
2024-07-20
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/lali.00157.hsu.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.1075/lali.00157.hsu&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Biber, Douglas
    2004 Historical patterns for the grammatical marking of stance: A cross-register comparison. Journal of Historical Pragmatics5(1). 107–136. 10.1075/jhp.5.1.06bib
    https://doi.org/10.1075/jhp.5.1.06bib [Google Scholar]
  2. Burton-Roberts, Noel
    1989a On Horn’s dilemma: Presupposition and negation. Journal of Linguistics25(1). 95–125. 10.1017/S0022226700012111
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0022226700012111 [Google Scholar]
  3. 1989bThe limits to debate: A revised theory of semantic presupposition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Chao, Yuen Ren
    1968A grammar of spoken Chinese. Berkeley: University of California Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Cheng, Lisa Lai-Shen
    1991On the typology of wh-questions. Cambridge: MIT. (Doctoral dissertation.)
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Cheng, Lisa Lai-Shen & Huang, C.-T. James & Tang, Chih-Chen Jane
    1997 Negative particle questions: A dielectical perspective. InSun, Chaofen (ed.), Studies on the history of Chinese syntax (Journal of Chinese Linguistics Monograph Series 10), 65–112. Berkeley: Project on Linguistic Analysis, University of California.
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Chomsky, Noam
    1995The Minimalist program. Cambridge: The MIT Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Chor, Winnie
    2018 Sentence final particles as epistemic modulators in Cantonese conversations: A discourse-pragmatic perspective. Journal of Pragmatics1291. 34–47. 10.1016/j.pragma.2018.03.008
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pragma.2018.03.008 [Google Scholar]
  9. Chu, Chauncey C.
    1998A discourse grammar of Mandarin Chinese. New York: Peter Lang Publishing.
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Clark, Herbert H.
    1996Using language. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9780511620539
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511620539 [Google Scholar]
  11. Cui, Xiliang (崔希亮)
    2011 The modality meaning and function of the inter-subjective marker “ha” in Mandarin Chinese語氣詞「哈」的情態意義和功能. Yuyan Jiaoxue yu Yanjiu語言教學與研究 2011(4). 39–45.
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Ducrot, Oswald
    1972Dire et ne pas dire, principes de sémantique linguistique. Paris: Hermann.
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Erlewine, Michael Yoshitaka
    2017 Low sentence-final particles in Mandarin Chinese and the Final-over-Final Constraint. Journal of East Asian Linguistics26(1). 37–75. 10.1007/s10831‑016‑9150‑9
    https://doi.org/10.1007/s10831-016-9150-9 [Google Scholar]
  14. Fiengo, Robert & Huang, C.-T. James & Lasnik, Howard & Reinhart, Tanya
    1988 The syntax of wh-in-situ. InBorer, Hagit (ed.), WCCFL 7: The Proceedings of the 7th West Coast Conference on Formal Linguistics, 81–98. Stanford: CSLI Publications.
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Fung, Roxana Suk-Yee
    2000Final particles in standard Cantonese: Semantic extension and pragmatic inference. Columbus: The Ohio State University. (Doctoral dissertation.)
    [Google Scholar]
  16. He, Yang (賀陽)
    1994 Beijinghua de yuqici “ha” zi北京話的語氣詞「哈」字. Fangyan方言 1994(1). 60–63.
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Hole, Daniel
    2011 The deconstruction of Chinese shì...de clefts revisited. Lingua121(11). 1707–1733. 10.1016/j.lingua.2011.07.004
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lingua.2011.07.004 [Google Scholar]
  18. Horn, Laurence R.
    1985 Metalinguistic negation and pragmatic ambiguity. Language61(1). 121–174. 10.2307/413423
    https://doi.org/10.2307/413423 [Google Scholar]
  19. Hsu, Yu-Yin
    2019 Information structure in Chinese discourse. InShei, Chris (ed.), The Routledge handbook of Chinese discourse analysis, 130–144. London: Routledge. 10.4324/9781315213705‑9
    https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315213705-9 [Google Scholar]
  20. 2023 Modal raising and focus marking in Chinese. Journal of Linguistics, 1–32. 10.1017/S0022226723000142
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0022226723000142 [Google Scholar]
  21. Huang, C.-T. James
    1988Wǒ pǎo de kuàiand Chinese Phrase Structure. Language64(2). 274–311. 10.2307/415435
    https://doi.org/10.2307/415435 [Google Scholar]
  22. 1991 Modularity and Chinese A-not-A questions. InGeorgopoulos, Carol & Ishihara, Roberta (eds.), Interdisciplinary approaches to language: Essays in honor of S.-Y. Kuroda, 305–332. Dordrecht: Springer. 10.1007/978‑94‑011‑3818‑5_16
    https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-011-3818-5_16 [Google Scholar]
  23. Huang, C.-T. James & Li, Yen-hui Audrey & Li, Yafei
    2009The syntax of Chinese. New York: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9781139166935
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781139166935 [Google Scholar]
  24. Huang, Rui-heng Ray
    2010Disjunction, coordination, and question: a comparative study. Taipei: National Taiwan Normal Universiy. (Doctoral dissertation.)
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Krifka, Manfred
    2008 Basic notions of information structure. Acta Linguistica Hungarica55(3–4). 243–276. 10.1556/ALing.55.2008.3‑4.2
    https://doi.org/10.1556/ALing.55.2008.3-4.2 [Google Scholar]
  26. Law, Ann
    2002 Cantonese sentence-final particles and the CP domain. UCL Working Papers in Linguistics. 141(April 2002), 375–398.
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Lee, Hun-Tak Thomas
    1986Studies on quantification in Chinese. Los Angeles: UCLA. (Doctoral dissertation.)
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Leech, Geoffrey N.
    1983Principles of pragmatics. London: Longman.
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Li, Boya
    2006Chinese final particles and the syntax of the periphery. Leiden: Leiden University. (Doctoral dissertation.)
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Li, Charles N. & Thompson, Sandra A.
    1981Mandarin Chinese: A functional reference grammar. University of California Press. 10.1525/9780520352858
    https://doi.org/10.1525/9780520352858 [Google Scholar]
  31. Li, Yen-hui Audrey
    1992 Indefinite wh in Mandarin Chinese. East Asian Linguistics1(2). 125–155. 10.1007/BF00130234
    https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00130234 [Google Scholar]
  32. Lin, Jo-wang
    2000 On the temporal meaning of the verbal -le in Chinese. Language and Linguistics1(2). 109–133.
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Liu, Hongxi (劉紅曦)
    2000 An analysis of the monosyllabic mood words in Chongqing dialect試析重慶方言的單音節語氣詞. Sichuan Sanxia Xueyuan Xuebao四川三峽學院學報 2000(4). 43–47.
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Liu, Ligang (劉黎崗)
    2012The structure and function of topic in oral Chongqing dialect重慶話口語中話題的結構與功能. Shanghai: Shanghai International Studies University. (Doctoral dissertation.)
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Moeschler, Jacques
    2019Non-lexical pragmatics: Time, causality and logical words. Berlin: De Gruyter. 10.1515/9783110218497
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110218497 [Google Scholar]
  36. Myers, Ethan C.
    2015Sentence final particles in Shanghainese: Navigating the left periphery. West Lafayette: Purdue University. (Master’s thesis.)
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Pan, Victor Junnan
    2018 Derivation of the apparent narrow scope of sentence-final particles in Chinese: A reply to Erlewine (2017). Studies in Chinese Linguistics39(2). 99–126. 10.2478/scl‑2018‑0004
    https://doi.org/10.2478/scl-2018-0004 [Google Scholar]
  38. Pan, Victor Junnan & Paul, Waltraud
    2016 Why Chinese SFPs are neither optional nor disjunctors. Lingua1701. 23–34. 10.1016/j.lingua.2015.10.005
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lingua.2015.10.005 [Google Scholar]
  39. Paul, Waltraud
    2014 Why particles are not particular: Sentence-final particles in Chinese as heads of a split CP. Studia Linguistica68(1). 77–115. 10.1111/stul.12020
    https://doi.org/10.1111/stul.12020 [Google Scholar]
  40. Paul, Waltraud & Whitman, John
    2008Shi...de focus clefts in Mandarin Chinese. The Linguistic Review25(3–4). 413–451. 10.1515/TLIR.2008.012
    https://doi.org/10.1515/TLIR.2008.012 [Google Scholar]
  41. Peng, Jinwei (彭錦維)
    2001 Chongqinghua yuqici de tedian重慶話語氣詞的特點. Xi’nan Minzu Xueyuan Xuebao (Zhexue Shehui Kexue Ban)西南民族學院學報(哲學社會科學版) 2001(S2). 55–57.
    [Google Scholar]
  42. Peng, Yongzhao (彭永昭)
    1988 Chongqing fangyan zhong de jige yuqici重慶方言中的幾個語氣詞. Chongqing Shiyuan Xuebao (Shehui Kexue Ban)重慶師院學報(社會科學版) 1988(2). 69–72.
    [Google Scholar]
  43. Qiang, Xingna (強星娜)
    2008Knowledge status and the Chinese indicative sentence final particle ma知情狀態與直陳語氣詞「嘛」. Chinese Teaching in the World世界漢語教學 2008(2). 54–63.
    [Google Scholar]
  44. Qu, Chengxi (屈承熹)
    2008 Guanlian lilun yu Hanyu jumo xuci de yupian gongneng關聯理論與漢語句末虛詞的語篇功能. Huadong Shifan Daxue Xuebao (Zhexue Shehui Kexue Ban)華東師範大學學報(哲學社會科學版) 2008(3). 12–18.
    [Google Scholar]
  45. Rizzi, Luigi
    1997 The fine structure of the left periphery. InHaegeman, Liliane (ed.), Elements of grammar: Handbook in generative syntax, 281–337. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers. 10.1007/978‑94‑011‑5420‑8_7
    https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-011-5420-8_7 [Google Scholar]
  46. Shao, Jingmin (邵敬敏) & Wang, Yiguang (王宜廣)
    2010 The functional value of pseudo-denial of the pattern bushi A, ershi B「不是A,而是B」句式假性否定的功能價值. Shijie Hanyu Jiaoxue世界漢語教學 2010(3). 325–333.
    [Google Scholar]
  47. Soh, Hooi Ling
    2009 Speaker presupposition and Mandarin Chinese sentence-final -le: A unified analysis of the “change of state” and the “contrary to expectation” reading. Natural Language and Linguistic Theory27(3). 623–657. 10.1007/s11049‑009‑9074‑4
    https://doi.org/10.1007/s11049-009-9074-4 [Google Scholar]
  48. 2018 Mandarin Chinese sentence final de as a marker of private evidence. Proceedings of the Linguistic Society of America3. 22: 1–14. 10.3765/plsa.v3i1.4307
    https://doi.org/10.3765/plsa.v3i1.4307 [Google Scholar]
  49. Soh, Hooi Ling & Gao, Meijia
    2006 Perfective aspect and transition in Mandarin Chinese: An analysis of double -le sentences. InDenis, Philippe (ed.), Proceedings of the 2004 Texas Linguistics Society Conference: Issues at the semantics-pragmatics interface, 107–122. Somerville: Cascadilla Proceedings Project.
    [Google Scholar]
  50. Sperber, Dan & Wilson, Deirdre
    1986Relevance: Communication and cognition. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  51. Sundaresan, Sandhya
    2014 Making sense of silence: Finiteness and the (OC) pro vs. pro distinction. Natural Language and Linguistic Theory32(1). 59–85. 10.1007/s11049‑013‑9216‑6
    https://doi.org/10.1007/s11049-013-9216-6 [Google Scholar]
  52. Tang, Sze-Wing (鄧思穎)
    2010 A syntactic analysis of clause types and mood in Chinese漢語句類和語氣的句法分析. Hanyu Xuebao漢語學報 2010(1). 59–63.
    [Google Scholar]
  53. 2014 Predicative utterance particles in Cantonese粵語謂詞性語氣詞. In Ho, Che-wah (何志華) & Feng, Shengli (馮勝利) (eds.), Moving forward – Studies on Chinese linguistics and philology繼承與拓新:漢語語言文字學研究, 427–444. Hong Kong: The Commercial Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  54. 2015 Yueyu yufa jiangyi粵語語法講義. Hong Kong: The Commercial Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  55. 2016 Sentence-final particles as conjuncts under the Cartographic Approach製圖理論與助詞的聯合結構說. Yuyan Yanjiu Jikan語言研究集刊 2016(1).1–10.
    [Google Scholar]
  56. Teng, Shou-hsin
    1978 Negation in Chinese: Mandarin and Amoy. Journal of the American Oriental Society98(1). 50–60. 10.2307/600150
    https://doi.org/10.2307/600150 [Google Scholar]
  57. Yang, Xiaodong & Wiltschko, Martina
    2016 The confirmational marker ha in Northern Mandarin. Journal of Pragmatics1041. 67–82. 10.1016/j.pragma.2016.09.004
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pragma.2016.09.004 [Google Scholar]
  58. Yeh, Ling-hsia
    1995 Focus, metalinguistic negation and contrastive negation. Journal of Chinese Linguistics23(2). 42–75.
    [Google Scholar]
  59. Yin, Shichao (尹世超)
    1999 Shuo yuqici “ha” he “ha” zi ju說語氣詞「哈」和「哈」字句. Fangyan方言 1999(2). 95–103.
    [Google Scholar]
  60. Zhang, Niina Ning
    2019 Sentence-final aspect particles as finite markers in Mandarin Chinese. Linguistics57(5). 967–1023. 10.1515/ling‑2019‑0020
    https://doi.org/10.1515/ling-2019-0020 [Google Scholar]
  61. Zhao, Chunli (趙春利) & Yang Caiying (楊才英)
    2016 On the relevance between cognition and emotion of the sentence-final particle “MA”句末助詞「嘛」的認知與情感的關聯性研究. Waiguoyu外國語 2016(5). 32–45.
    [Google Scholar]
  62. Zhu, Dexi (朱德熙)
    1982 Yufa jiangyi語法講義. Beijing: The Commercial Press.
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.1075/lali.00157.hsu
Loading
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error