1887
Volume 25, Issue 3
  • ISSN 1606-822X
  • E-ISSN: 2309-5067

Abstract

抽象的

本文討論朱德熙先生的名詞性標記「的」,並對他提出的轉指和自指概念作更為深入的形式語意分析。文章首先釐清結構轉指與語境刪略分屬兩類不同語法現象。前者是在「X的」結構裡,對X裡的缺位成分抽象化為個體特徵後,再以iota算子把個體特徵轉化成為個體的語法過程,轉指過程不涉任何中心語名詞或空號代詞,是「X的」結構本身把陳述轉為稱代的語法操作。語境刪略則是「X的N」結構中,中心語名詞N因為語境可復原而將N刪略的現象,此時X可能有缺位成分或是沒有缺位成分。無缺位成分的是自指結構的「X的」,其偽轉指現象牽涉的是中心語名詞的語境刪略。此外,本文提出自指的「X的」與事件屬性名詞N組合時,是透過施用操作來做語意運算,將N的個體論元角色加進X所指稱的事件,同時「X的」透過修飾N的事件論元限制了N的個體指稱範圍,因而是修飾語而不是補語。「X的」和內容名詞的組合則是透過函項運用,把「X的」所表達的命題指定為內容名詞的內容,「X的」的功能是內容名詞的補語。不管是哪種分析下的自指「X的」,「X的」都不表個體特徵,所以無法轉指個體。最後本文也探討施用操作後所產生的新增施用論元在轉指用法上的限制。

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