1887
image of 西北漢語助詞「著」的比較研究 [The suffix -zhe in northwestern Chinese]

Abstract

抽象的

漢語的助詞「著」是一個用於表達持續性事件的非完整體標記,北京話裡它緊附於謂詞上形成「V著O」式,用例如「墻上掛畫」「他騎車上學去了」。在中國太行山以西的北方漢語方言(簡稱「西北漢語」)裡,助詞「著」有一系列迥異於北京話「著」的語法表現。首先,西北漢語的「著」在標示非完整體時經常遠離謂詞而位於賓語之後,如「<寧夏中寧> 我寫作業」。而且,這種「VO著」式可表達的非完整體意義遠多於北京話的「V著O」式,如「<烏魯木齊>路堵死」。其次,甘肅、青海、新疆的西北漢語裡助詞「著」還可以插在兩個VP之間承擔「連鎖標記」的功能,如「<西寧>家抱住娃娃餵奶著」,這種「VP1+著+VP2」式的連鎖結構偏離了漢語為「連動型語言」的基本模式。由於「著」的這些特異現象既不見於古漢語文獻,也不見於其他地區的漢語,我們便比較了中國西北民族語(蒙語、藏語、突厥語)的相應表達式,最終證實:西北漢語「著」的各種特異表現源於漢語跟西北民族語接觸引發的創新性演變,其演變機制代表了語言接觸性演變的一種新模式「妥協性創新」。簡言之,兩種語言如果類型迥異,在接觸中就偏向創造一種「各讓一步、達到雙贏」的新形式。

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2024-05-30
2024-06-20
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