1887
image of The syntax of Korean reduced conditionals

Abstract

Abstract

The goal of this paper is to provide an analysis of two important aspects of conditional clauses in Korean. The first goal is to reveal the structure of the conditional clause. In investigating reduced conditionals and regular copula clausal conditionals, we suggest the right-periphery of conditional clauses based on the Split CP hypothesis (Rizzi 1997; Saito 2010). The second goal is to examine the distribution of the clausal pronoun in reduced conditionals, which, we argue, is the result of FinP ellipsis, building on the ellipsis theory of pronominalization (Baltin & Craenenbroeck 2008). In doing so, we make two empirical points: (i) the parallelism regarding argument/adjunct asymmetry indicates that reduced conditionals are derived from clausal conditionals; and (ii) various connectivity effects reveal hidden clausal structure behind the pronominal element , which means that there is a tight connection between focus constructions and conditional constructions in Korean. The implication of the present study is that we can argue against a simple-minded dichotomy of anaphora that says there are two types of anaphora, Deep and Surface, and Deep anaphora does not have syntactic structure.

Available under the CC BY 4.0 license.
Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1075/lali.00168.yoo
2024-06-27
2024-07-20
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/10.1075/lali.00168.yoo/lali.00168.yoo.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.1075/lali.00168.yoo&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Akatsuka, Noriko
    1985 Conditionals and epistemic scale. Language(). –. 10.2307/414388
    https://doi.org/10.2307/414388 [Google Scholar]
  2. Arita, Setsuko
    2007Japanese conditional clauses and their properties of tensed clauses. Tokyo: Kuroshio.
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Baltin, Mark
    2006 On so-called doubly-filled comps that are not. New York: New York University. (Manuscript.)
    [Google Scholar]
  4. 2012 Structural signature of pronouns. New York: New York University. (Manuscript.)
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Baltin, Mark & van Craenenbroeck, Jeroen
    2008 On becoming a pronoun: Towards a unified theory of ellipsis. (Paper presented at the10th CUNY/SUNY/NYU/YU Miniconference, New York, 22 November 2008.)
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Bhatt, Rajesh & Pancheva, Roumyana
    2002 A cross-constructional analysis of if-clauses. (Paper presented atthe Syntax Seminar: Interface in the CP-domain, Zentrum für Allgemeine Sprachwissenschaft, Berlin, 9 March 2002.)
    [Google Scholar]
  7. 2006 Conditionals. InEveraert, Martin & van Riemsdijk, Henk (eds.), The Blackwell companion to syntax, vol., –. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell. 10.1002/9780470996591.ch16
    https://doi.org/10.1002/9780470996591.ch16 [Google Scholar]
  8. Bresnan, Joan W.
    1976 On the form and functioning of transformations. Linguistic Inquiry(). –.
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Bruening, Benjamin & Dinh, Xuyen & Kim, Lan
    2018 Selection, idioms, and the structure of nominal phrases with and without classifiers. Glossa: A Journal of General Linguistics(). –. (Article 42.) 10.5334/gjgl.288
    https://doi.org/10.5334/gjgl.288 [Google Scholar]
  10. Cho, Sungdai & Whitman, John & Yanagida, Yuko
    2009 Clefts in Japanese and Korean. InBane, Max & Holle, Juan José Bueno & Grano, Thomas & Grotberg, April Lynn & McNabb, Yaron (eds.), CLS 44–1: Proceedings of the 44th Annual Meeting of the Chicago Linguistic Society, the main session, –. Chicago: Chicago Linguistic Society.
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Choi, Young-Sik
    2012 Sluicing is NOT in Korean. The Journal of Studies in Language(). –. 10.18627/jslg.28.2.201208.329
    https://doi.org/10.18627/jslg.28.2.201208.329 [Google Scholar]
  12. Chomsky, Noam
    1981Lectures on government and binding: The Pisa lectures. 1st edn. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Collins, Peter C.
    1991Cleft and pseudo-cleft constructions in English. London: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Fukaya, Teruhiko & Hoji, Hajime
    1999 Stripping and sluicing in Japanese and some implications. InBird, Sonya & Carnie, Andrew & Haugen, Jason D. & Norquest, Peter (eds.), WCCFL 18: Proceedings of the 18th West Coast Conference on Formal Linguistics, –. Somerville: Cascadilla Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Geis, Michael Lorenz
    1970Adverbial subordinate clauses in English. Cambridge: MIT. (Doctoral dissertation.)
    [Google Scholar]
  16. 1975 English time and place adverbials. OSU Working Papers in Linguistics. –.
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Haegeman, Liliane
    2003 Conditional clauses: External and internal syntax. Mind & Language(). –. 10.1111/1468‑0017.00230
    https://doi.org/10.1111/1468-0017.00230 [Google Scholar]
  18. 2010 The movement derivation of conditional clauses. Linguistic Inquiry(). –. 10.1162/LING_a_00014
    https://doi.org/10.1162/LING_a_00014 [Google Scholar]
  19. Haiman, John
    1978 Conditionals are topics. Language(). –. 10.1353/lan.1978.0009
    https://doi.org/10.1353/lan.1978.0009 [Google Scholar]
  20. Han, Chung-hye
    2006 Variation in form-meaning mapping between Korean and English counterfactuals. Journal of East Asian Linguistics(). –. 10.1007/s10831‑005‑4914‑7
    https://doi.org/10.1007/s10831-005-4914-7 [Google Scholar]
  21. Han, Chung-hye & Hedberg, Nancy
    2008 Syntax and semantics of it-clefts: A tree adjoining grammar analysis. Journal of Semantics(). –. 10.1093/jos/ffn007
    https://doi.org/10.1093/jos/ffn007 [Google Scholar]
  22. Hiraiwa, Ken & Shinichiro Ishihara
    2002 Missing links: Cleft, sluicing, and “no da” construction in Japanese. InIonin, Tania & Ko, Heejeong & Nevins, Andrew (eds.), Proceedings of the 2nd HUMIT Student Conference in Language Research (HUMIT 2001), –. Cambridge: The MIT Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Hoshi, Koji
    1995Structural and interpretive aspects of head-internal and head-external relative clauses. New York: University of Rochester. (Doctoral dissertation.)
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Jacobson, Pauline
    1995 On the quantificational force of English free relatives. InBach, Emmon & Jelinek, Eloise & Kratzer, Angelika & Partee, Barbara H. (eds.), Quantification in natural languages, –. Dordrecht: Kluwer.
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Kim, Jieun
    2012 What sluicing comes from in Korean is pseudo-cleft. Korean Journal of Linguistics(). –. 10.18855/lisoko.2012.37.1.004
    https://doi.org/10.18855/lisoko.2012.37.1.004 [Google Scholar]
  26. Kim, Jong-Bok
    2008 Two types of cleft constructions in Korean: A constraint-based approach. Language and Information(). –. 10.29403/LI.12.1.4
    https://doi.org/10.29403/LI.12.1.4 [Google Scholar]
  27. 2013 The Korean sluicing: As a family of constructions. Studies in Generative Grammar(). –. 10.15860/sigg.23.1.201302.103
    https://doi.org/10.15860/sigg.23.1.201302.103 [Google Scholar]
  28. Kim, Jong-Bok & Sells, Peter
    2013 Interactions between (pseudo-) cleft and copular constructions in Korean. Linguistic Research(). –. 10.17250/khisli.30.1.201304.006
    https://doi.org/10.17250/khisli.30.1.201304.006 [Google Scholar]
  29. Kim, Jooyoung
    2018Embedding without a license?: Typology of unselected embedded clauses. Newark: University of Delaware. (Doctoral dissertation.)
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Kim, Soowon
    1999 Sloppy/strict identity, empty objects, and NP ellipsis. Journal of East Asian Linguistics(). –. 10.1023/A:1008354600813
    https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1008354600813 [Google Scholar]
  31. Kim, Sun-Woong
    2010 The syntax of specification and predication: (Kes-) clefts in Korean and English. The Linguistic Society of Korea Journal(). –.
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Kizu, Mika
    1997 Sluicing in Wh-in-situ languages. InSinger, Kora & Eggert, Randall & Anderson, Gregory (eds.), CLS 33–1: Proceedings of the 33rd Regional Meeting of the Chicago Linguistic Society, papers from the main session, –. Chicago: Chicago Linguistic Society.
    [Google Scholar]
  33. 2005Cleft constructions in Japanese syntax. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. 10.1057/9780230503618
    https://doi.org/10.1057/9780230503618 [Google Scholar]
  34. Ko, Suk-Joo
    2000Hangugeo josaui yeongu. Seoul: Yonsei University. (Doctoral dissertation.)
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Koizumi, Masatoshi
    1995Phrase structure in minimalist syntax. Cambridge: MIT. (Doctoral dissertation.)
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Koopman, Hilda & Sportiche, Dominique
    1991 The position of subjects. Lingua(). –. 10.1016/0024‑3841(91)90022‑W
    https://doi.org/10.1016/0024-3841(91)90022-W [Google Scholar]
  37. Kuno, Susumu
    1973The structure of the Japanese language. Cambridge: The MIT Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  38. 1976 Subject raising. InShibatani, Masayoshi (ed.), Syntax and semantics, volume 5: Japanese generative grammar, –. New York: Academic Press. 10.1163/9789004368835_003
    https://doi.org/10.1163/9789004368835_003 [Google Scholar]
  39. 1988 Blended quasi-direct discourse in Japanese. InPoser, William J. (ed.), Papers from the Second International Workshop on Japanese Syntax, –. Stanford: CSLI.
    [Google Scholar]
  40. Kuwabara, Kazuki
    1996 Multiple wh-phrases in elliptical clauses and some aspects of clefts with multiple foci. InKoizumi, Masatoshi & Oishi, Masayuki & Sauerland, Uli (eds.), Formal approaches to Japanese linguistics (FAJL 2), –. Cambridge: MIT Working Papers in Linguistics.
    [Google Scholar]
  41. Lee, Jeong-Shik
    2012 Resurrecting sluicing from clefting. Studies in Generative Grammar(). –. 10.15860/sigg.22.2.201205.359
    https://doi.org/10.15860/sigg.22.2.201205.359 [Google Scholar]
  42. Marantz, Alec P.
    1984On the nature of grammatical relations. Cambridge: The MIT Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  43. Marantz, Alec
    1996 “Cat” as a phrasal idiom: Consequences of late insertion in distributed morphology. Cambridge: MIT. (Manuscript.)
    [Google Scholar]
  44. Masuoka, Takashi & Takubo, Yukinori
    1992Kiso nihongo bumpo. Tokyo: Kuroshio.
    [Google Scholar]
  45. Merchant, Jason
    1998 Pseudosluicing: Elliptical clefts in Japanese and English. InAlexiadou, Artemis & Fuhrhop, Nanna & Law, Paul & Kleinhenz, Ursula (eds.), ZAS working papers in linguistics, –. Berlin: Zertrum für Allgemeine Sprachwissenschaft.
    [Google Scholar]
  46. 2001The syntax of silence: Sluicing, islands, and the theory of ellipsis. New York: Oxford University Press. 10.1093/oso/9780199243730.001.0001
    https://doi.org/10.1093/oso/9780199243730.001.0001 [Google Scholar]
  47. 2006 Sluicing. InEveraert, Martin & van Riemsdijk, Henk (eds.), The Blackwell companion to syntax, vol., –. London: Blackwell. 10.1002/9780470996591.ch60
    https://doi.org/10.1002/9780470996591.ch60 [Google Scholar]
  48. Mihara, Kenichi & Hiraiwa, Ken
    2006Shin nihongo no tougokouzou. Tokyo: Shohakusha.
    [Google Scholar]
  49. Mikami, Akira
    1960Zoo-wa hana-ga nagai. Tokyo: Kuroshio.
    [Google Scholar]
  50. Morgan, Jerry L.
    1989 Sentence fragments revisited. InMusic, Bradley & Graczyk, Randolph & Wiltshire, Caroline (eds.), CLS 25-2: Papers from the 25th Annual Regional Meeting of the Chicago Linguistic Society, part two: Parasession on language in context, –. Chicago: Chicago Linguistic Society.
    [Google Scholar]
  51. Nakao, Chizuru & Yoshida, Masaya
    2005 Japanese sluicing as a specificational pseudo-cleft. (Paper presented atTokyo Conference on Psycholinguistics, Tokyo, 18–19 March 2005.)
    [Google Scholar]
  52. Nishiyama, Kunio & Whitman, John & Yi, Eun-Young
    1996 Syntactic movement of overt Wh-phrases in Japanese and Korean. InAkatsuka, Noriko & Iwasaki, Shoichi & Strauss, Susan (eds.), Japanese/Korean linguistics, vol., –. Stanford: CSLI Publications.
    [Google Scholar]
  53. Noda, Harumi
    1997‘No(da)’ no kinoo. Tokyo: Kuroshio.
    [Google Scholar]
  54. Ok, Sung-Soo & Kim, Soo-Yeon
    2012 An analysis of sluicing-like constructions in Korean: A non-movement approach. Journal of Language Sciences(). –.
    [Google Scholar]
  55. Park, Bum-Sik
    2005 Island-insensitive fragment answers in Korean. InAlderete, John & Han, Chung-hye & Kochetov, Alexei (eds.), Proceedings of the 24th West Coast Conference on Formal Linguistics, –. Somerville: Cascadilla Proceedings Project.
    [Google Scholar]
  56. Park, Myung-Kwan
    2001 Subject-less clefts in Korean: Towards a deletion analysis. Language Research(). –.
    [Google Scholar]
  57. Percus, Orin
    1997 Prying open the cleft. InKusumoto, Kiyomi (ed.), Proceedings of the North East Linguistic Society, –. Amherst: GLSA.
    [Google Scholar]
  58. Perlmutter, David M.
    1970 The two verbs begin. InRoderick A. Jacobs, & Rosenbaum, Peter S. (eds.), Readings in English transformational grammar, –. Waltham: Ginn & Co.
    [Google Scholar]
  59. Plann, Susan
    1982 Indirect questions in Spanish. Linguistic Inquiry(). –.
    [Google Scholar]
  60. Rizzi, Luigi
    1997 The fine structure of the left periphery. InHaegeman, Liliane (ed.), Elements of grammar: Handbook in generative syntax, –. Dordrecht: Kluwer. 10.1007/978‑94‑011‑5420‑8_7
    https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-011-5420-8_7 [Google Scholar]
  61. Rottman, Isaac & Yoshida, Masaya
    2013 Sluicing, idioms, and island repair. Linguistic Inquiry(). –. 10.1162/LING_a_00142
    https://doi.org/10.1162/LING_a_00142 [Google Scholar]
  62. Saito, Mamoru
    1982 Case marking in Japanese: A preliminary study. Cambridge: MIT. (Manuscript.)
    [Google Scholar]
  63. 1985Some asymmetries in Japanese and their theoretical implications. Cambridge: MIT. (Doctoral dissertation.)
    [Google Scholar]
  64. 2004 Ellipsis and pronominal reference in Japanese clefts. Nanzan Linguistics. –.
    [Google Scholar]
  65. 2010 Sentence types and the Japanese right periphery. (Paper presented at theInternational Conference on Sentence Types: Ten Years After, Frankfurt am Main, 26–28 June 2009.)
    [Google Scholar]
  66. Sakai, Hiromu
    1998 Raising asymmetry and improper movement. InAkatsuka, Noriko & Hoji, Hajime & Iwasaki, Shoichi & Sohn, Sung-Ock & Strauss, Susan (eds.), Japanese/Korean linguistics, vol., –. Stanford: CSLI Publications.
    [Google Scholar]
  67. Sohn, Keun-Won
    2000 A non-sluicing, non-clefting approach to copula construction. Studies in Generative Grammar. –.
    [Google Scholar]
  68. Takahashi, Daiko
    1994 Sluicing in Japanese. Journal of East Asian Linguistics(). –. 10.1007/BF01733066
    https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01733066 [Google Scholar]
  69. Takezawa, Koichi
    1987A configurational approach to case marking in Japanese. Seattle: University of Washington. (Doctoral dissertation.)
    [Google Scholar]
  70. Yeom, Jae-Il
    2005 The semantics of -ketun in Korean. Language Research(). –.
    [Google Scholar]
  71. Yoon, James Hye-Suk
    2004 Non-nominative (major) subjects and case stacking in Korean. InBhaskararao, Peri & Subbarao, Karumuri Venkata (eds.), Non-nominative subjects, vol., –. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 10.1075/tsl.61.15yoo
    https://doi.org/10.1075/tsl.61.15yoo [Google Scholar]
  72. Yoon, Jeong-Me
    1989 ECM and multiple subject constructions in Korean. InKuno, Susumu (ed.), Harvard studies in Korean linguistics III, –. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  73. Yoshida, Masaya
    2006Constraints and mechanisms in long-distance dependency formation. College Park: University of Maryland, College Park. (Doctoral dissertation.)
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.1075/lali.00168.yoo
Loading
/content/journals/10.1075/lali.00168.yoo
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Article Type: Research Article
Keywords: Korean ; conditional adverb ; reduced conditional ; pronominalization ; right periphery ; ellipsis
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error