1887
Volume 18, Issue 3
  • ISSN 1606-822X
  • E-ISSN: 2309-5067
USD
Buy:$35.00 + Taxes

Abstract

北京話去聲連讀存在前去變成升調的社會變體,對於這種變體的成因,學界的看法不盡相同。本文用個案語音和文本分析的方法對北京話連去變調與詞重音之間的關係進行了研究。首先通過聲學測量和兩個聽辨實驗確定了變調樣本的重音格式,發現前去能夠變為升調的兩字組基本上都是聽感上的後重型。然後通過與若干輕音詞表的對比確認發生前去變調的雙音節詞在北京口語中不存在前重式。文章分析了北京話中兩種去聲變調格式——前去變為升調和後去變為低降調——的形成原因以及詞重音對變調格式的作用。作者認為,連去組合中的兩種變調格式實質上都是在重音保留本調原則、重讀音節同化非重讀音節原則和減少曲折原則的基礎上,相鄰音節音高同化作用的結果,同時,去聲連讀中的順向同化和逆向同化作用間接也說明了北京話的雙音節詞存在前重和後重兩種重音模式。

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1075/lali.18.3.04hig
2017-07-10
2019-12-06
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

References

  1. Boersma, Paul , & David Weenink
    2012Praat: Doing Phonetics by Computer [Computer Program] Version 5.3.35. Available atwww.praat.org (accessed8 December 2012).
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Cao, Jianfen ( 曹劍芬)
    1995 Liandu biandiao yu qingzhong duili 連續讀變調與輕重對立 [Tone sandhi and the stressed/unstressed opposition]. Zhongguo Yuwen 中國語文 [ Studies of the Chinese Language ] 1995.4: 312–320.
    [Google Scholar]
  3. (ed.) 2007Xiandai Yuyin Yanjiu yu Tansuo 現代語音研究與探索 [ Study and Exploration of Contemporary Chinese Phonetics ], ed. by Jianfen Cao ( 曹劍芬) . Beijing: The Commercial Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Cen, Qixiang ( 岑麒祥)
    2013Yuyinxue Gailun 語音學概論(修訂第二版) [ Outline of Phonetics ] (2nd edition). Beijing: The Commercial Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Chao, Yuen Ren ( 趙元任)
    1968A Grammar of Spoken Chinese. Berkeley: University of California Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Chen, Zhangtai ( 陳章太) , & Xingjian Li ( 李行健)
    1996Putonghua Jichu Fangyan Jiben Cihuiji: Yuyinjuan (Shang) 普通話基礎方言基本詞彙集: 語音卷(上) [ General Lexical Glossary of Basic Mandarin Dialects ], Vol.1. Beijing: Language and Culture Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Chinese Academy of Social Sciences (中國社會科學院語言研究所詞典編輯室)
    Chinese Academy of Social Sciences (中國社會科學院語言研究所詞典編輯室) (eds.) 2012Xiandai Hanyu Cidian 現代漢語詞典 [ Contemporary of Chinese Dictionary ] (6th edition). Beijing: The Commercial Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Chinese Dictionary Compiling Department (中國大辭典編纂處)
    Chinese Dictionary Compiling Department (中國大辭典編纂處) 2011Guoyu Cidian (Yingyin Ben) 國語辭典(影印本) [ Chinese Dictionary (Photocopy of original version) ]. Beijing: The Commercial Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Dong, Jianjiao ( 董建交)
    2010 Beijinghua qusheng liandu biandiao moshi zaitan 北京話去聲連讀變調模式再探 [Further exploration into the tone sandhi pattern of qusheng (the fourth tone) in Beijing dialect]. Yuyan Yanjiu Jikan 語言研究集刊 [ Collected Papers on Language Studies ] 2010.7: 164–172.
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Duanmu, San ( 端木三)
    1999 Zhongyin lilun he Hanyu de cichang xuanze 重音理論和漢語的詞長選擇 [The accent theory and Chinese word length priority]. Zhongguo Yuwen 中國語文 [ Studies of the Chinese Language ] 1999.4: 246–254.
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Ellis, Rod
    1997Second Language Acquisition. Oxford & New York: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Hayes, Bruce
    2009Introductory Phonology. Malden & Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell.
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Hou, Jingyi ( 侯精一) , & Duanzheng Wen ( 溫端政)
    1993Shanxi Fangyan Diaocha Yanjiu Baogao 山西方言調查研究報告 [ Report on Shanxi Dialect Investigation and Study ]. Taiyuan: Shanxi College Associated Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Hyman, Larry M.
    1978 Historical tonology. Tone: A Linguistic Survey, ed. by Victoria A. Fromkin , 257–269. New York: Academic Press. doi: 10.1016/B978‑0‑12‑267350‑4.50013‑3
    https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-267350-4.50013-3 [Google Scholar]
  15. Jia, Yuan ( 賈媛)
    2011 Putonghua tongyin yigou liangyinzu zhongyin leixing bianxi 普通話同音異構兩音組重音類型辨析 [Stress patterns of disyllabic words terms with identical pronunciation and different morph-syntactic structures in Standard Chinese]. Tsinghua Daxue Xuebao (Ziran Kexue Ban) 清華大學學報(自然科學版) [ Journal of Tsinghua University (Science and Technology) ] 2011.51.9: 1307–1312.
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Jiang, Ping ( 蔣平) , & Liuwen Xie ( 謝留文)
    2001 Nanchangxian (Jiangxiang) fangyan de qingzhongyin yu biandiao 南昌縣(蔣巷)方言的輕重音與變調 [Stress and tone sandhi in Nanchang (Jiangxiang) dialect]. Fangyan 方言 [ Dialect ] 2001.2: 152–160.
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Jiang, Ping ( 蔣平)
    2005 Lipu fangyan de qingzhongyin yu lianxu biandiao 荔浦方言的輕重音與連讀變調 [Stress and tone sandhi in Lipu dialect]. Fangyan 方言 [ Dialect ] 2005.3: 198–208.
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Jin, Song ( 勁松)
    2002Xiandai Hanyu Qingsheng Dongtai Yanjiu 現代漢語輕聲動態研究 [ Research on Diachronic Changes and Variations of Neutral Tone in Mandarin Chinese ]. Beijing: The Ethnic Publishing House.
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Kratochvíl, Paul ( 巴維爾)
    1987 Beijinghua zhengchang huayu li de qingsheng 北京話正常話語裡的輕聲 [Atonicity in normal Beijing dialect speech]. Zhongguo Yuwen 中國語文 [ Studies of the Chinese Language ] 1987.5: 330–345.
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Li, Weimin ( 厲為民)
    1981 Shilun qingsheng he zhongyin 試論輕聲和重音 [Tentative study of neutral tone and lexical stress]. Zhongguo Yuwen 中國語文 [ Studies of the Chinese Language ] 1981.1: 35–40.
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Li, Xiaofan ( 李小凡)
    2004 Hanyu fangyan liandu biandiao de cengji he leixing 漢語方言連讀變調的層級和類型 [Levels and classes of tone sandhi in the Chinese dialects]. Fangyan 方言 [ Dialect ] 2004.1: 16–33.
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Lin, Maocan ( 林茂燦) , Jingzhu Yan ( 顏景助) , & Guohua Sun ( 孫國華)
    1984 Beijinghua liangzizu zhengchang zhongyin de chubu shiyan 北京話兩字組正常重音的初步實驗 [Preliminary experiments on the normal stress in Beijing disyllables]. Fangyan 方言 [ Dialect ] 1984.1: 57–73.
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Lin, Maocan ( 林茂燦) , & Jingzhu Yan ( 顏景助)
    1992 Putonghua siyinjieci he duanyu zhong shengdiao xietong fayin moshi 普通話四音節詞和短語中聲調協同發音模式 [Tonal coarticulation patterns in quadrisyllabic word and phrase of Mandarin]. Shengxue Xuebao 聲學學報 [ Acta Acustica ] 1992.17.6: 456–467.
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Lin, Tao ( 林燾)
    1957 Xiandai Hanyu buzuyu li de qingyin xianxiang suo fanying chulai de yufa he yuyi wenti 現代漢語補足語裡的輕音現象所反映出來的語法和語義問題 [Grammatical and lexical problems in the neutral tone of the predicative complement in Modern Chinese]. Beijing Daxue Xuebao (Renwen Kexue) 北京大學學報(人文科學) [ Journal of Peking University (Philosophy and Social Sciences) ] 1957.2: 61–74.
    [Google Scholar]
  25. 1985 Beijinghua qusheng lianxu biandiao xintan 北京話去聲連讀續變調新探 [A re-examination of tone sandhi in connection with the going tone (去聲) in the Beijing dialect]. Zhongguo Yuwen 中國語文 [ Studies of the Chinese Language ] 1985.2: 99–104.
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Lin, Tao ( 林燾) , & William S. -Y. Wang ( 王士元)
    1985 Shengdiao ganzhi wenti 聲調感知問題 [The perception of tones]. Zhongguo Yuyan Xuebao 中國語言學報 [ The Journal of Linguistic Society of China ] 1985.2: 59–69.
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Lin, Tao
    1987 A “new” phenomenon of tone sandhi in Beijing Mandarin. Phonologica 1984: Proceedings of the Fifth International Phonology Meeting, Eisenstadt, 25–28 June, 1984, ed. by Wolfgang U. Dressier , Hans C. Luschützky , Oskar E. Pfeiffer & John R. Rennison , 175–180. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Lin, Tao ( 林燾)
    1991 Beijing dongjiao yinyangping diaozhi de zhuanhua 北京東郊陰陽平調值的轉化 [The transfer of the tone value between 陰平 (even) and 陽平 (rising) in the eastern suburb of Beijing]. Zhongguo Yuwen 中國語文 [ Studies of the Chinese Language ] 1991.1: 21–26.
    [Google Scholar]
  29. 1992 “Rupai sansheng” bushi 「入派三聲」補釋 [Additional interpretation of the ‘redistribution of entering tone among other tones’]. Yuyanxue Luncong 語言學論叢 [ Essays on Linguistics ] 1992.17: 3–18.
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Lin, Tao ( 林燾) , & Lijia Wang ( 王理嘉)
    1992Yuyinxue Jiaocheng 語音學教程 [ A Course in Phonetics ]. Beijing: Peking University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Liu, Lili ( 劉俐李)
    2005 Hanyu shengdiao de qugong tezheng he jiangshi yin’gao 漢語聲調的曲拱特徵和降勢音高 [The contour features and fall pitch of Chinese tones]. Zhongguo Yuwen 中國語文 [ Studies of the Chinese Language ] 2005.3: 255–268.
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Lu, Xun ( 魯迅)
    2005Luxun Quanji 魯迅全集 [ Complete Works of Lu Xun ], Vol.5. Beijing: People’s Literature Publishing House.
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Lu, Yunzhong ( 魯允中)
    2001Qingsheng he Erhua 輕聲和兒化 [ Neutral Tone and Erhua ]. Beijing: The Commercial Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Luo, Changpei ( 羅常培) , & Jun Wang ( 王均)
    1957Putonghua Yuyinxue Gangyao 普通語音學綱要 [ Outline of General Phonetics ]. Beijing: Science Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Ni, Jiyu ( 倪寄予)
    1957 Zhang Xunru : Beijinghua Qingsheng Cihui (shukan pingjie) 張洵如:《北京話輕聲詞彙》 (書刊評介) [Zhang Xunru: Dictionary Collection of Beijing Mandarin Neutral Tone Words (book review)]. Zhongguo Yuwen 中國語文 [ Studies of the Chinese Language ] 1957.12: 47.
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Qing, Wei ( 卿瑋)
    2014Cong Cizhongyin ji Xietong Fayin Kan Chongqinghua Liangzizu Liandu Biandiao 從詞重音及協同發音看重慶話兩字組連讀變調 [ An Analysis on the Disyllabic Tone Sandhi of Chongqing Dialect from the Perspectives of Word Stress and Tonal Coarticulation ]. Beijing: Peking University MA thesis.
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Research Group of Mandarin Phonetics of Chinese Character Reform Commission (中國文字改革委員會普通話語音研究班)
    Research Group of Mandarin Phonetics of Chinese Character Reform Commission (中國文字改革委員會普通話語音研究班) 1963Putonghua Qingshengci Huibian 普通話輕聲詞彙編 [ Dictionary Collection Neutral Tone Words in Mandarin ]. Beijing: The Commercial Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Shen, Xiaonan Susan
    1990 Tonal coarticulation in Mandarin. Journal of Phonetics18.2: 281–295.
    [Google Scholar]
  39. Shih, Chi-lin
    1986The Prosodic Domain of Tone Sandhi in Chinese. San Diego: University of California, San Diego dissertation.
    [Google Scholar]
  40. Song, Dandan ( 宋丹丹)
    2007Xingfu Shenchu 幸福深處 [ The Secrets of Happiness ]. Hubei: Changjiang Literature and Art Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  41. Sun, Dejin ( 孫德金)
    1989Beijing Xijiao Huoqiying Manren de Beijinghua Diaocha 北京西郊火器營滿人的北京話調查 [ Research of the Beijing Dialect by Manchurians from Huoqiying of Beijing’s Western Suburbs ]. Beijing: Renmin University of China MA thesis.
    [Google Scholar]
  42. 1992 Jingxi Huoqiying manren de Beijinghua diaocha 京西火器營滿人的北京話調查 [Research of the Beijing dialect by Manchurians from Huoqiying of Beijing’s western suburbs]. Beijinghua Yanjiu 北京話研究 [ Study of the Beijing Dialect ], ed. by Mingyang Hu ( 胡明揚) , 68–142. Beijing: Beijing Yanshan Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  43. 2005 Beijinghua qusheng liandu biandiao diaocha 北京話去聲連讀變調調查 [Studies of tone 4 sandhi in Beijing dialect]. Miaoxie yu Shizheng–Hanyu Yaosu de Duoshijiao Kaocha 描寫與實證—漢語要素的多視角考察 [ A Descriptive and Empirical Study of the Elements of Chinese—A Multi-Perspective Investigation ], ed. by Dejin Sun ( 孫德金) , 221–231. Beijing: Beijing Language and Culture University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  44. Sun, Jingtao ( 孫景濤)
    2002 Shilun “yu” zi shengdiao de buguize yanbian 試論「於」字聲調的不規則演變 [A discussion on the irregular tonal change of the word yu (於)]. Yuyanxue Luncong 語言學論叢 [ Essays on Linguistics ] 2002.26: 44–58.
    [Google Scholar]
  45. Tong, Sheng-qiang ( 童盛強)
    2002 Lieju zhuci “zheyang” 列舉助詞「這樣」 [The enumerative auxiliary word–“zheyang”]. Xibei Shida Xuebao (Shehui Kexue Ban) 西北師大學報(社會科學版) [ Journal of Northwest Normal University (Social Sciences) ] 2002.39.5: 83–86.
    [Google Scholar]
  46. Wang, Hongjun ( 王洪君)
    2008Hanyu Feixianxing Yinxixue 漢語非線性音系學 [ Non-linear Phonology of Chinese ] (Revised edition). Beijing: Peking University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  47. Wang, Yunjia ( 王韞佳)
    1993Beijinghua Shengdiao Weiguan Bianhua de Shiyan Yanjiu 北京話聲調微觀變化的實驗研究 [ Micro-variation of Mandarin Tones ]. Beijing: Peking University dissertation.
    [Google Scholar]
  48. Wang, Yunjia ( 王韞佳) , Min Chu ( 初敏) , Lin He ( 賀琳) , & Yongqiang Feng ( 馮勇強)
    2003 Lianxu huayu zhong shuangyinjie yunlüci de zhongyin ganzhi 連續話語中雙音節韻律詞的重音感知 [The perception of disyllabic word stress of Chinese speech in utterance]. Shengxue Xuebao 聲學學報 [ Acta Acustica ] 2003.28.6: 534–539.
    [Google Scholar]
  49. Wang, Yunjia ( 王韞佳) , Min Chu ( 初敏) , & Lin He ( 賀琳)
    2006 Hanyu jiaodian zhongyin he yuyi zhongyin fenbu de chubu shiyan yanjiu 漢語焦點重音和語義重音分佈的初步實驗研究 [An experimental study on the distribution of the focus-related and semantic accent in Chinese]. Shijie Hanyu Jiaoxue 世界漢語教學 [ Chinese Teaching in the World ] 2006.2: 86–98.
    [Google Scholar]
  50. Wang, Yunjia ( 王韞佳) , & Min Chu ( 初敏)
    2008 Guanyu putonghua cizhongyin de ruogan wenti 關於普通話詞重音的若干問題 [Aspects of lexical stress in Mandarin]. Zhongguo Yuyin Xuebao 中國語音學報 [ Chinese Journal of Phonetics ] 2008.1: 141–147.
    [Google Scholar]
  51. Wang, Zhijie ( 王志潔) , & Shengli Feng ( 馮勝利)
    2006 Shengdiao duibifa yu Beijinghua shuangyinzu de zhongyin leixing 聲調對比法與北京話雙音組的重音類型 [Tonal contrast and disyllabic stress patterns in Beijing Mandarin]. Yuyan Kexue 語言科學 [ Linguistic Sciences ] 2006.5.1: 3–22.
    [Google Scholar]
  52. Wei, Gangqiang ( 魏鋼強)
    (ed.) 1998Pingxiang Fangyan Cidian 萍鄉方言詞典 [ Pingxiang Dialect Dictionary ]. Nanjing: Jiangsu Educational Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  53. Wu, Jiansheng ( 吳建生) , & Hongyin Zhao ( 趙宏因)
    1997Wanrong Fangyan Cidian 萬榮方言詞典 [ Wanrong Dialect Dictionary ]. Nanjing: Jiangsu Educational Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  54. Wu, Zongji ( 吳宗濟)
    1985 Putonghua sanzizu biandiao guilü 普通話三字組變調規律 [Tone sandhi of trisyllabic combinations in Putonghua]. Zhongguo Yuyan Xuebao 中國語言學報 [ The Journal of Linguistic Society of China ] 1985.2: 70–92.
    [Google Scholar]
  55. Xu, Shirong ( 徐世榮)
    1990Beijing Tuyu Cidian 北京土語辭典 [ Beijing Dialect Dictionary ]. Beijing: Beijing Publishing House.
    [Google Scholar]
  56. Ye, Jun ( 葉軍)
    1999Hanyu Yuju Yunlü de Yufa Gongneng 漢語語句韻律的語法功能 [ The Grammatical Function of Prosody in Contemporary Chinese ]. Shanghai: Fudan University dissertation.
    [Google Scholar]
  57. Yin, Zuoyan ( 殷作炎)
    1982 Guanyu putonghua shuangyin changyongci qingzhongyin de chubu kaocha 關於普通話雙音常用詞輕重音的初步考察 [A preliminary study of accents and atonics in disyllabic words in common use]. Zhongguo Yuwen 中國語文 [ Studies of the Chinese Language ] 1982.3: 168–173.
    [Google Scholar]
  58. Zhang, Hongnian ( 張洪年)
    1985 Zhenjiang fangyan de liandu biandiao 鎮江方言的連讀變調 [Tone sandhi in the Zhenjiang dialect]. Fangyan 方言 [ Dialect ] 1985.3: 191–204.
    [Google Scholar]
  59. Zhang, Xunru ( 張洵如)
    (ed.) 1957Beijinghua Qingsheng Cihui 北京話輕聲詞彙 [ Dictionary Collection of Beijing Mandarin Neutral Tone Words ]. Beijing: Zhonghua Book Company
    [Google Scholar]
  60. Zhu, Qing ( 朱青)
    2009Zhishi Daici “Zheyang” jiqi Zupei Xingshi de Duojiaodu Yanjiu 指示代詞「這樣」及其組配形式的多角度研究 [ A Multiple Perspective of Demonstrative Pronoun “Zheyang” and Its Collocations ]. Shanghai: Shanghai Normal University MA thesis.
    [Google Scholar]
  61. Zhu, Xiaonong ( 朱曉農)
    2004 Hanyu yuanyin de gaoding chuwei 漢語元音的高頂出位 [Sound changes of high vowels in Chinese dialects]. Zhongguo Yuwen 中國語文 [ Studies of the Chinese Language ] 2004.5: 440–451.
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.1075/lali.18.3.04hig
Loading
/content/journals/10.1075/lali.18.3.04hig
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Article Type: Research Article
Keyword(s): Beijing Mandarin , lexical stress , Tone 4 , tone sandhi , 北京話 , 去聲 , 詞重音 and 連讀變調
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error