Volume 2, Issue 2
  • ISSN 2543-3164
  • E-ISSN: 2543-3156
Buy:$35.00 + Taxes



In this article, we question the presumed presence of the textbook as in languages education. Contextualising our discussion within Spanish as a foreign language (SFL) in higher education, we illuminate the overlapping ideological, historical and economic forces that frame and shape language practice through textbooks. In a field in which decolonial and poststructuralist approaches to language and languages education are gaining traction, the textbook thwarts theoretical and practical complexification of language beyond monolingual depictions of languages as ahistorical and context-free systems which unproblematically transport meaning across time and space. Furthermore, the status of the textbook as a producible and consumable item cannot be overlooked. On the basis of our critique, we conclude that the use of textbooks generates serious tensions in practice for those wishing to pursue emergent, emancipatory linguistic frameworks in languages education.


Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...


  1. Appleby, R., & Pennycook, A.
    (2017) Swimming with sharks, ecological feminism and posthuman language politics. Critical Inquiry in Language Studies, 14(2), 239–261. 10.1080/15427587.2017.1279545
    https://doi.org/10.1080/15427587.2017.1279545 [Google Scholar]
  2. Block, D., & Gray, J.
    (2016) ‘Just go away and do it and you get marks’: The degradation of language teaching in neoliberal times. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, 37(5), 184–494. 10.1080/01434632.2015.1071826
    https://doi.org/10.1080/01434632.2015.1071826 [Google Scholar]
  3. Bolander, B., & Sultana, S.
    (2019) Ordinary English amongst Muslim communities in South and Central Asia. International Journal of Multilingualism, 16(2), 162–174. 10.1080/14790718.2019.1575835
    https://doi.org/10.1080/14790718.2019.1575835 [Google Scholar]
  4. Bori, P.
    (2018) Language textbooks in the era of neoliberalism. Oxon, England: Routledge. 10.4324/9781315405544
    https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315405544 [Google Scholar]
  5. Brenner, N., Peck, J., & Theodore, N.
    (2010) Variegated neoliberalization: Geographies, modalities, pathways. Global Networks, 10(2), 182–222. 10.1111/j.1471‑0374.2009.00277.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1471-0374.2009.00277.x [Google Scholar]
  6. Bunce, L., Baird, A., & Jones, S. E.
    (2017) The student-as-consumer approach in higher education and its effects on academic performance. Studies in Higher Education, 42(11), 1958–1978. 10.1080/03075079.2015.1127908
    https://doi.org/10.1080/03075079.2015.1127908 [Google Scholar]
  7. Calvo, H.
    (2020) Latin America. InS. Eliot & J. Rose (Eds.), A companion to the history of the book (Second ed., Vol.One, pp.283–300). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley Blackwell.
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Canagarajah, A. S.
    (2006) Negotiating the local in English as a lingua franca. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, 26, 197–218. 10.1017/S0267190506000109
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0267190506000109 [Google Scholar]
  9. Canale, G.
    (2016) (Re)Searching culture in foreign language textbooks, or the politics of hide and seek. Language, Culture and Curriculum, 29(2), 225–243. 10.1080/07908318.2016.1144764
    https://doi.org/10.1080/07908318.2016.1144764 [Google Scholar]
  10. Ceo-DiFrancesco, D.
    (2014) The role of textbooks in promoting communication goals. InS. Dhonau (Ed.), Unlock the gateway to communication – Selected papers from the 2014 Central States conference on the teaching of foreign languages (pp.83–112). Richmond, VA: Robert M. Terry.
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Coates, H., Goedegebuure, L., & Meek, V. L.
    (2015) Increasing the attractiveness of the academic profession: A challenge for management. InU. Teichler & W. K. Cummings (Eds.), Forming, recruiting and managing the academic profession (pp.297–316). Cham, Switzerland: Springer. 10.1007/978‑3‑319‑16080‑1_16
    https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-16080-1_16 [Google Scholar]
  12. Copley, K.
    (2018) Neoliberalism and ELT coursebook content. Critical Inquiry in Language Studies, 15(1), 43–62. 10.1080/15427587.2017.1318664
    https://doi.org/10.1080/15427587.2017.1318664 [Google Scholar]
  13. Cots, J. M., Aguilar, M., Mas-Alcolea, S., & Llanes, À.
    (2016) Studying the impact of academic mobility on intercultural competence: A mixed-methods perspective. The Language Learning Journal, 44(3), 304–322. 10.1080/09571736.2016.1198097
    https://doi.org/10.1080/09571736.2016.1198097 [Google Scholar]
  14. Cotton, D., Winter, J., & Bailey, I.
    (2013) Researching the hidden curriculum: Intentional and unintended messages. Journal of Geography in Higher Education, 37(2), 192–203. 10.1080/03098265.2012.733684
    https://doi.org/10.1080/03098265.2012.733684 [Google Scholar]
  15. Cubillos, J. H.
    (2014) Spanish textbooks in the US: Enduring traditions and emerging trends. Journal of Spanish Language Teaching, 1(2), 205–225. 10.1080/23247797.2014.970363
    https://doi.org/10.1080/23247797.2014.970363 [Google Scholar]
  16. De Costa, P.
    (2019) Elite multilingualism, affect and neoliberalism. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, 40(5), 453–460. 10.1080/01434632.2018.1543698
    https://doi.org/10.1080/01434632.2018.1543698 [Google Scholar]
  17. De Lissovoy, N.
    (2012) Education and violation: Conceptualizing power, domination, and agency in the hidden curriculum. Race, Ethnicity and Education, 15(4), 463–484. 10.1080/13613324.2011.618831
    https://doi.org/10.1080/13613324.2011.618831 [Google Scholar]
  18. Del Valle, J.
    (2000) Monoglossic policies for a heteroglossic culture: Misinterpreted multilingualism in modern Galicia. Language & Communication, 20, 105–132. 10.1016/S0271‑5309(99)00021‑X
    https://doi.org/10.1016/S0271-5309(99)00021-X [Google Scholar]
  19. Demuro, E., & Gurney, L.
    (2018) Mapping language, culture, ideology: Rethinking language in foreign language instruction. Language and Intercultural Communication, 18(3), 287–299. 10.1080/14708477.2018.1444621
    https://doi.org/10.1080/14708477.2018.1444621 [Google Scholar]
  20. Errington, J.
    (1999) Ideology. Journal of Linguistic Anthropology, 9(1–2), 115–117. 10.1525/jlin.1999.9.1‑2.115
    https://doi.org/10.1525/jlin.1999.9.1-2.115 [Google Scholar]
  21. Favoretto, M., & Hortiguera, H.
    (2018) Más allá de la imagen: Estereotipos y complicidades discursivas en los videos de ELE (español como lengua extranjera). Revista Interdisciplinaria de Formación Docente, 4(7), 5–32.
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Flores, N.
    (2013) The unexamined relationship between neoliberalism and plurilingualism: A cautionary tale. TESOL Quarterly, 47(3), 500–520. 10.1002/tesq.114
    https://doi.org/10.1002/tesq.114 [Google Scholar]
  23. Foucault, M.
    (2008) The birth of biopolitics: Lectures at the Collège de France, 1978–1979. Basingstoke, England: Palgrave Macmillan.
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Freire, P.
    (2000) Pedagogy of the oppressed (M. Bergman Ramos, Trans.30th anniversary ed.). London: Bloomsbury Publishing PLC.
    [Google Scholar]
  25. García, O.
    (2019) Decolonizing foreign, second, heritage, and first languages. InD. Macedo (Ed.), The misteaching of English and other colonial languages (pp.152–168). New York, NY: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  26. García, O., & Otheguy, R.
    (2014) Spanish and Hispanic bilingualism. InM. Lacorte (Ed.), Routledge handbook of Hispanic applied linguistics (pp.655–674). New York, NY: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Giroux, H. A.
    (2020) Neoliberal dis-imagination, manufactured ignorance and civic illiteracy. InS. Dawes & M. Lenormand (Eds.), Neoliberalism in context (pp.271–287). Cham, Switzerland: Palgrave Macmillan. 10.1007/978‑3‑030‑26017‑0_15
    https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-26017-0_15 [Google Scholar]
  28. Gramling, D.
    (2016) The invention of monolingualism. New York, NY: Bloomsbury Academic.
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Gray, J., O’Regan, J. P., & Wallace, C.
    (2018) Education and the discourse of global neoliberalism. Language and Intercultural Communication, 18(5), 471–477. 10.1080/14708477.2018.1501842
    https://doi.org/10.1080/14708477.2018.1501842 [Google Scholar]
  30. Grosfoguel, R.
    (2011) Decolonizing post-colonial studies and paradigms of political economy: Transmodernity, decolonial thinking, and global coloniality. Transmodernity: Journal of Peripheral Cultural Production of the Luso-Hispanic World, 1(1), 1–38.
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Guilbault, M.
    (2018) Students as customers in higher education: The (controversial) debate needs to end. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 40, 295–298. 10.1016/j.jretconser.2017.03.006
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jretconser.2017.03.006 [Google Scholar]
  32. Guilherme, M., & de Souza, L. M. T. M.
    (Eds.) (2019) Glocal languages and critical intercultural awareness: The South answers back. New York, NY: Routledge. 10.4324/9781351184656
    https://doi.org/10.4324/9781351184656 [Google Scholar]
  33. Gurney, L., & Demuro, E.
    (2019) Tracing new ground, from language to languaging, and from languaging to assemblages: Rethinking languaging through the multilingual and ontological turns. International Journal of Multilingualism, 1–20. doi:  10.1080/14790718.2019.1689982
    https://doi.org/10.1080/14790718.2019.1689982 [Google Scholar]
  34. Herman, D. M.
    (2007) It’s a small world after all: From stereotypes to invented worlds in secondary school Spanish textbooks. Critical Inquiry in Language Studies, 4(2–3), 117–150. 10.1080/15427580701389417
    https://doi.org/10.1080/15427580701389417 [Google Scholar]
  35. Houston, R. A.
    (2002) Literacy in early modern Europe (2nd ed.). Abingdon, England: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Jalalian Daghigh, A., & Abdul Rahim, H.
    (2020) Neoliberalism in ELT textbooks: An analysis of locally developed and imported textbooks used in Malaysia. Pedagogy, Culture & Society, 1–20. doi:  10.1080/14681366.2020.1755888
    https://doi.org/10.1080/14681366.2020.1755888 [Google Scholar]
  37. Katz, C.
    (2005) Partners in crime? Neoliberalism and the production of new political subjectivities. Antipode, 37(3), 623–631. 10.1111/j.0066‑4812.2005.00516.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.0066-4812.2005.00516.x [Google Scholar]
  38. Kim, M., Choi, D. I., & Kim, T. Y.
    (2018) A political economic analysis of commodified English in South Korean neoliberal labor markets. Language Sciences, 70, 82–91. 10.1016/j.langsci.2018.05.011
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.langsci.2018.05.011 [Google Scholar]
  39. Kramsch, C.
    (1988) The cultural discourse of FL textbooks. InA. Singerman (Ed.), Toward a new integration of language and culture (pp.63–88). Middlebury, VT: Northeast Conference on the Teaching of Foreign Languages.
    [Google Scholar]
  40. (2019) Between globalization and decolonization: Foreign languages in the cross-fire. InD. Macedo (Ed.), Decolonizing foreign language education: The misteaching of English and other colonial languages (pp.50–72). New York, NY: Routledge. 10.4324/9780429453113‑2
    https://doi.org/10.4324/9780429453113-2 [Google Scholar]
  41. Kramsch, C., & Vinall, K.
    (2015) The cultural politics of language textbooks in the era of globalization. InX. L. Curdt-Christiansen & C. Weninger (Eds.), Language, ideology and education: The politics of textbooks in language education (pp.11–28). London: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  42. Kroskrity, P. V.
    (2010) Language ideologies – Evolving perspectives. InJ. Jaspers, J.-O. Östman & J. Verschueren (Eds.), Handbook of pragmatics highlights: Society and language use (pp.192–205). Amsterdam, The Netherlands: John Benjamins. 10.1075/hop.14.lan6
    https://doi.org/10.1075/hop.14.lan6 [Google Scholar]
  43. Kubota, R.
    (2014) The multi/plural turn, postcolonial theory, and neoliberal multiculturalism: Complicities and implications for applied linguistics. Applied Linguistics, 37(4), 474–494. 10.1093/applin/amu045
    https://doi.org/10.1093/applin/amu045 [Google Scholar]
  44. (2016) The social imaginary of study abroad: Complexities and contradictions. The Language Learning Journal, 44(3), 347–357. 10.1080/09571736.2016.1198098
    https://doi.org/10.1080/09571736.2016.1198098 [Google Scholar]
  45. Lacorte, M., & Suárez García, J.
    (2014) La enseñanza del español en los Estados Unidos: Panorama actual y perspectivas de futuro. Journal of Spanish Language Teaching, 1(2), 129–136. 10.1080/23247797.2014.970358
    https://doi.org/10.1080/23247797.2014.970358 [Google Scholar]
  46. Leeman, J., & Martínez, G.
    (2007) From identity to commodity: Ideologies of Spanish in heritage language textbooks. Critical Inquiry in Language Studies, 4(1), 35–65. 10.1080/15427580701340741
    https://doi.org/10.1080/15427580701340741 [Google Scholar]
  47. Lemke, T.
    (2001) ‘The birth of bio-politics’: Michel Foucault’s lecture at the Collège de France on neo-liberal governmentality. Economy and Society, 30(2), 190–207. 10.1080/03085140120042271
    https://doi.org/10.1080/03085140120042271 [Google Scholar]
  48. Li, W.
    (2018) Translanguaging as a practical theory of language. Applied Linguistics, 39(1), 9–30. 10.1093/applin/amx039
    https://doi.org/10.1093/applin/amx039 [Google Scholar]
  49. Lin, A., & Luke, A.
    (2006) Coloniality, postcoloniality, and TESOL … Can a spider weave its way out of the web that it is being woven into just as it weaves?Critical Inquiry in Language Studies, 3(2&3), 65–73. 10.1080/15427587.2006.9650840
    https://doi.org/10.1080/15427587.2006.9650840 [Google Scholar]
  50. Llurda, E., Gallego-Balsà, L., Barahona, C., & Martin-Rubió, X.
    (2016) Erasmus student mobility and the construction of European citizenship. The Language Learning Journal, 44(3), 323–346. 10.1080/09571736.2016.1210911
    https://doi.org/10.1080/09571736.2016.1210911 [Google Scholar]
  51. Loomba, A.
    (2015) Colonialism/postcolonialism (3rd ed.). London: Routledge. 10.4324/9781315751245
    https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315751245 [Google Scholar]
  52. López López, G., Martinez Franco, S. P., & Yazan, B.
    (2019) The exclusion of vos from the Spanish as a foreign language classroom discourse: A critical examination through the lens of the language management theory. Critical Inquiry in Language Studies, 16(4), 229–248. doi:  10.1080/15427587.2018.1564624
    https://doi.org/10.1080/15427587.2018.1564624 [Google Scholar]
  53. Lopriore, L.
    (2018) Revisiting language teaching materials in a time of change. A Cor das Letras, 18, 182–199. 10.13102/cl.v18iEspecial.2668
    https://doi.org/10.13102/cl.v18iEspecial.2668 [Google Scholar]
  54. Lorenzini, D.
    (2018) Governmentality, subjectivity, and the neoliberal form of life. Journal for Cultural Research, 22(2), 154–166. 10.1080/14797585.2018.1461357
    https://doi.org/10.1080/14797585.2018.1461357 [Google Scholar]
  55. Lozano Lerma, B. R.
    (2010) El feminismo no puede ser uno porque las mujeres somos diversos. Aportes a un feminismo negro decolonial desde la experiencia de las mujeres negras del Pacifico colombiano. La manzana de la discordia, 5(2), 7–24. 10.25100/lamanzanadeladiscordia.v5i2.1516
    https://doi.org/10.25100/lamanzanadeladiscordia.v5i2.1516 [Google Scholar]
  56. Lugones, M.
    (2016) The coloniality of gender. InW. Harcourt (Ed.), The Palgrave handbook of gender and development (pp.13–33). London: Palgrave Macmillan. 10.1007/978‑1‑137‑38273‑3_2
    https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-137-38273-3_2 [Google Scholar]
  57. Luke, A.
    (2015) Cultural content matters: A critical sociology of language and literacy curriculum. InC. Weninger & X. L. Curdt-Christiansen (Eds.), Language, ideology and education: The politics of textbooks in language education (pp.207–220). London: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  58. Lynch, A.
    (2019) Introduction: Globalization, cities, and the Spanish language in postmodernity. InA. Lynch (Ed.), The Routledge handbook of Spanish in the global city (pp.1–14). New York, NY: Routledge. 10.4324/9781315716350‑1
    https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315716350-1 [Google Scholar]
  59. Macedo, D.
    (Ed.) (2019) Decolonizing foreign language education: The misteaching of English and other colonial languages. New York, NY: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  60. Makoni, S., & Pennycook, A.
    (2006) Disinventing and reconstituting languages. InS. Makoni & A. Pennycook (Eds.), Disinventing and reconstituting languages (pp.1–41). London: Multilingual Matters. 10.21832/9781853599255‑003
    https://doi.org/10.21832/9781853599255-003 [Google Scholar]
  61. Maldonado-Torres, N.
    (2007) On the coloniality of being. Cultural Studies, 21(2–3), 240–270. 10.1080/09502380601162548
    https://doi.org/10.1080/09502380601162548 [Google Scholar]
  62. Mar-Molinero, C.
    (2004) Spanish as a world language: Language and identity in a global era. Spanish in Context, 1(1), 3–20. 10.1075/sic.1.1.03mar
    https://doi.org/10.1075/sic.1.1.03mar [Google Scholar]
  63. (2008) Subverting Cervantes: Language authority in global Spanish. International Multilingual Research Journal, 2(1–2), 27–47. 10.1080/19313150701766805
    https://doi.org/10.1080/19313150701766805 [Google Scholar]
  64. Martínez-Expósito, A.
    (2014) Vested interests: The place of Spanish in Australian academia. Coolabah, 13, 74–86.
    [Google Scholar]
  65. Mignolo, W.
    (2009) Epistemic disobedience, independent thought and decolonial freedom. Theory, Culture & Society, 26(7–8), 159–181. 10.1177/0263276409349275
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0263276409349275 [Google Scholar]
  66. (2011) Geopolitics of sensing and knowing: On (de)coloniality, border thinking and epistemic disobedience. Postcolonial Studies, 14(3), 273–283. 10.1080/13688790.2011.613105
    https://doi.org/10.1080/13688790.2011.613105 [Google Scholar]
  67. Muñoz-Basols, J., Muñoz-Calvo, M., & Suárez García, J.
    (2014) Hacia una internacionalización del discurso sobre la enseñanza del español como lengua extranjera. Journal of Spanish Language Teaching, 1(1), 1–14. 10.1080/23247797.2014.918402
    https://doi.org/10.1080/23247797.2014.918402 [Google Scholar]
  68. Nolle, S. T.
    (1989) Literacy and culture in early modern Castile. Past & Present, 125(1), 65–96. 10.1093/past/125.1.65
    https://doi.org/10.1093/past/125.1.65 [Google Scholar]
  69. Otsuji, E., & Pennycook, A.
    (2010) Metrolingualism: Fixity, fluidity and language in flux. International Journal of Multilingualism, 7(3), 240–254. 10.1080/14790710903414331
    https://doi.org/10.1080/14790710903414331 [Google Scholar]
  70. Oyěwùmí, O.
    (1997) The invention of women: Making an African sense of western gender discourses. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  71. Padilla, L. V., & Vana, R.
    (2019) Ideologies in the foreign language curriculum: Insights from textbooks and instructor interviews. Language Awareness, 28(1), 15–30. 10.1080/09658416.2019.1590376
    https://doi.org/10.1080/09658416.2019.1590376 [Google Scholar]
  72. Pardiñas-Barnes, P.
    (1998) Twentieth-century Spanish textbooks: A generational approach. Hispania, 81(2), 230–247. 10.2307/345012
    https://doi.org/10.2307/345012 [Google Scholar]
  73. Park, J. S. Y.
    (2016) Language as pure potential. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, 37(5), 453–466. 10.1080/01434632.2015.1071824
    https://doi.org/10.1080/01434632.2015.1071824 [Google Scholar]
  74. Pennycook, A.
    (2018) Posthumanist applied linguistics. Abingdon, England: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  75. Pennycook, A., & Makoni, S.
    (2019) Innovations and challenges in applied linguistics from the global South. New York, NY: Routledge. 10.4324/9780429489396
    https://doi.org/10.4324/9780429489396 [Google Scholar]
  76. Pennycook, A., & Otsuji, E.
    (2019) Mundane metrolingualism. International Journal of Multilingualism, 16(2), 175–186. 10.1080/14790718.2019.1575836
    https://doi.org/10.1080/14790718.2019.1575836 [Google Scholar]
  77. Peris, E. M., & Cubillos, J. H.
    (2014) Publishing. InM. Lacorte (Ed.), The Routledge handbook of Hispanic applied linguistics (pp.388–405). New York, NY: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  78. Peters, M. A., Rizvi, F., McCulloch, G., Gibbs, P., Gorur, R., Hong, M., Hwang, Y., Zipin, L., Brennan, M., Robertson, S., Quay, J., Malbon, J., Taglietti, D., Barnett, R., Chengbing, W., McLaren, P., Apple, R., Papastephanou, M., Burbules, N., Jackson, L., Jalote, P., Kalantzis, M., Cope, B., Fataar, A., Conroy, J., Misiaszek, G., Biesta, G., Jandrić, P., Choo, S., Apple, M., Stone, L., Tierney, R., Tesar, M., Besley, T., & Misiaszek, L.
    (2020) Reimagining the new pedagogical possibilities for universities post-Covid-19. Educational Philosophy and Theory, 1–45. 10.1080/00131857.2020.1777655
    https://doi.org/10.1080/00131857.2020.1777655 [Google Scholar]
  79. Phillipson, R., & Skutnabb-Kangas, T.
    (2017) English, language dominance, and ecolinguistic diversity maintenance. InM. Filppula, J. Klemola & D. Sharma (Eds.), The Oxford handbook of World Englishes (pp.312–334). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  80. Phipps, A.
    (2019) Decolonising multilingualism: Struggles to decreate. Bristol, England: Multilingual Matters.
    [Google Scholar]
  81. Pomerantz, A.
    (2002) Language ideologies and the production of identities: Spanish as a resource for participation in a multilingual marketplace. Multilingua, 21(2-3), 275–302.
    [Google Scholar]
  82. Porto-Gonçalves, C. W.
    (2011) Abya Yala, el descubrimiento de América. InN. Giarracca (Ed.), Bicentenarios (otros), trasiciones y resistencias (pp.39–46). Buenos Aires, Argentina: Una Ventana.
    [Google Scholar]
  83. Prádanos, L. I.
    (2015) The pedagogy of degrowth: Teaching Hispanic studies in the age of social inequality and ecological collapse. Arizona Journal of Hispanic Cultural Studies, 19, 153–168. 10.1353/hcs.2016.0029
    https://doi.org/10.1353/hcs.2016.0029 [Google Scholar]
  84. Quijano, A.
    (2000) Colonialidad del poder y clasificación social. Journal of World System Research, 1(3), 342–388. 10.5195/jwsr.2000.228
    https://doi.org/10.5195/jwsr.2000.228 [Google Scholar]
  85. (2007) Coloniality and modernity/rationality. Cultural Studies, 21(2–3), 168–178. 10.1080/09502380601164353
    https://doi.org/10.1080/09502380601164353 [Google Scholar]
  86. Ramirez, A. G., & Hall, J. K.
    (1990) Language and culture in secondary level Spanish textbooks. The Modern Language Journal, 74(1), 48–65. 10.1111/j.1540‑4781.1990.tb02553.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-4781.1990.tb02553.x [Google Scholar]
  87. Real Academia Española
    Real Academia Española (2020) Historia. https://www.rae.es/la-institucion/historia
  88. Risager, K., & Chapelle, C. A.
    (2013) Culture in textbook analysis and evaluation. InC. A. Chappelle (Ed.), The encyclopedia of applied linguistics (pp.1–4). New York, NY: Blackwell.
    [Google Scholar]
  89. Ros i Solé, C.
    (2013) Spanish imagined: Political and subjective approaches to language textbooks. InJ. Gray (Ed.), Critical perspectives on language teaching materials (pp.161–181). New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan. 10.1057/9781137384263_8
    https://doi.org/10.1057/9781137384263_8 [Google Scholar]
  90. Rossomondo, A., & Lord, G.
    (2018) The world is not flat, so why are our textbooks?Hispania, 100(5), 251–257. 10.1353/hpn.2018.0062
    https://doi.org/10.1353/hpn.2018.0062 [Google Scholar]
  91. Sánchez, A.
    (2014) Spanish as a foreign language in Europe: Six centuries of teaching materials. Language & History, 57(1), 59–74. 10.1179/1759753614Z.00000000027
    https://doi.org/10.1179/1759753614Z.00000000027 [Google Scholar]
  92. Shahjahan, R. A., & Morgan, C.
    (2016) Global competition, coloniality, and the geopolitics of knowledge in higher education. British Journal of Sociology of Education, 37(1), 92–109. 10.1080/01425692.2015.1095635
    https://doi.org/10.1080/01425692.2015.1095635 [Google Scholar]
  93. Sharma, B. K., & Phyak, P.
    (2017) Neoliberalism, linguistic commodification, and ethnolinguistic identity in multilingual Nepal. Language in Society, 46(2), 231–256. 10.1017/S0047404517000045
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0047404517000045 [Google Scholar]
  94. Shin, H.
    (2016) Language ‘skills’ and the neoliberal English education industry. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, 37(5), 509–522. 10.1080/01434632.2015.1071828
    https://doi.org/10.1080/01434632.2015.1071828 [Google Scholar]
  95. Standing, G.
    (2011) Workfare and the precariat. Soundings, 47(35–43).
    [Google Scholar]
  96. Steed, W., & Delicado Cantero, M.
    (2018) First things first: Exploring Spanish students’ attitudes towards learning pronunciation in Australia. The Language Learning Journal, 46(2), 103–113. 10.1080/09571736.2014.963644
    https://doi.org/10.1080/09571736.2014.963644 [Google Scholar]
  97. Torres, C. A.
    (2011) Public universities and the neoliberal common sense: Seven iconoclastic theses. International Studies in Sociology of Education, 21(3), 177–197. 10.1080/09620214.2011.616340
    https://doi.org/10.1080/09620214.2011.616340 [Google Scholar]
  98. Torres, K. M., & Turner, J. E.
    (2017) Heritage language learners’ perceptions of acquiring and maintaining the Spanish language. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 20(7), 837–853. 10.1080/13670050.2015.1113927
    https://doi.org/10.1080/13670050.2015.1113927 [Google Scholar]
  99. Train, R.
    (2007) “Real Spanish”: Historical perspectives on the ideological construction of a (foreign) language. Critical Inquiry in Language Studies, 4(2–3), 207–235. 10.1080/15427580701389672
    https://doi.org/10.1080/15427580701389672 [Google Scholar]
  100. Travers, W.
    (2018) Spanish as a pivot language for third language learning in the United States. Hispania, 100(5), 279–284. 10.1353/hpn.2018.0068
    https://doi.org/10.1353/hpn.2018.0068 [Google Scholar]
  101. Vinall, K., & Shin, J.
    (2019) The construction of the tourist gaze in English textbooks in South Korea: Exploring the tensions between internationalisation and nationalisation. Language, Culture and Curriculum, 32(2), 173–190. 10.1080/07908318.2018.1513022
    https://doi.org/10.1080/07908318.2018.1513022 [Google Scholar]
  102. Vingaard Johansen, U., Knudsen, F. B., Engelbrecht Kristoffersen, C., Stellfeld Rasmussen, J., Saaby Steffen, E., & Sund, K. J.
    (2017) Political discourse on higher education in Denmark: From enlightened citizen to homo economicus. Studies in Higher Education, 42(2), 264–277. 10.1080/03075079.2015.1045477
    https://doi.org/10.1080/03075079.2015.1045477 [Google Scholar]
  103. Weninger, C.
    (2012) Textbook analysis. InC. A. Chapelle (Ed.), The encyclopedia of applied linguistics (pp.1–8). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley & Sons.
    [Google Scholar]
  104. Weninger, C., & Kiss, T.
    (2015) Analyzing culture in foreign/second language textbooks. InC. Weninger & X. L. Curdt-Christiansen (Eds.), Language, ideology and education: The politics of textbooks in language education (pp.50–66). London: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  105. Wiggins, G., & McTighe, J.
    (1998) Understanding by design. Alexandria, VA: ASCD.
    [Google Scholar]
  106. Woolard, K. A., & Schieffelin, B. B.
    (1994) Language ideology. Annual Review of Anthropology, 23(1), 55–82. 10.1146/annurev.an.23.100194.000415
    https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.an.23.100194.000415 [Google Scholar]
  107. Xiong, T., & Yuan, Z. M.
    (2018) “It was because I could speak English that I got the job”: Neoliberal discourse in a Chinese English textbook series. Journal of Langyage, Identity & Education, 17(2), 103–117. 10.1080/15348458.2017.1407655
    https://doi.org/10.1080/15348458.2017.1407655 [Google Scholar]
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error