1887
Volume 9, Issue 3
  • ISSN 2210-4119
  • E-ISSN: 2210-4127
USD
Buy:$35.00 + Taxes

Abstract

Abstract

This paper explores how gestures, or the movements of hands, arms, and fingers, are employed by young bilinguals, or those who possess a good command of two languages. Moreover, it uncovers the sequential environment in which those gestures are found. The data come from twelve hours of recorded, naturally-occurring interaction between six bilingual girls in English. The findings reveal that their gestures have cognitive, communicative, interpersonal, and interactional functions. The gestures help solve speech problems, such as disambiguating speech, compensating for speech, and searching for words or what to say next. They also help allocate turns-at-talk, draw addressees’ attention, and maintain social relations. At a discourse level, the study reveals how bilinguals display similar gestures within the same discourse domain.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1075/ld.00047.wan
2019-10-29
2019-11-22
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

References

  1. Alibali, Matha W. and Sotaro Kita
    2010 “Gesture Highlights Perceptually Present Information for Speakers.” Gesture10(1): 3–28. 10.1075/gest.10.1.02ali
    https://doi.org/10.1075/gest.10.1.02ali [Google Scholar]
  2. Argyle, Michael
    1974Bodily Communication. London: Methuen.
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Beattie, Geoffrey
    2003Visible Thought: The New Psychology of Body language. Hove: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Beattie, Geoffrey and Heather Shovelton
    1999a “Do Iconic Hand Gestures Really Contribute Anything to the Semantic Information Conveyed by Speech?: An Experimental Investigation.” Semiotica123(1–2): 1–30. 10.1515/semi.1999.123.1‑2.1
    https://doi.org/10.1515/semi.1999.123.1-2.1 [Google Scholar]
  5. 1999b “Mapping the Range of Information Contained in the Iconic Hand Gestures that Accompany Spontaneous Speech.” Journal of Language and Social Psychology18(4): 438–462. 10.1177/0261927X99018004005
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0261927X99018004005 [Google Scholar]
  6. Brown, Amanda
    2008 “Gesture Viewpoint in Japanese and English: Cross-Linguistic Interactions between Two Languages in One Speaker.” Gesture8(2): 256–276. 10.1075/gest.8.2.08bro
    https://doi.org/10.1075/gest.8.2.08bro [Google Scholar]
  7. Butterworth, Brian and Uri Hadar
    1989 “Gesture, Speech, and Computational Stages: A Reply to McNeill.” Psychological Review96(1): 168–174. 10.1037/0033‑295X.96.1.168
    https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-295X.96.1.168 [Google Scholar]
  8. Byers-Heinlein, Krista, Tracey C. Burns, and Janet F. Werker
    2010 “The Roots of Bilingualism in Newborns.” Psychological Science21(3): 343–348. 10.1177/0956797609360758
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0956797609360758 [Google Scholar]
  9. Cassell, Justine, David McNeill, and Karl-Erik McCullough
    1999 “Speech-Gesture Mismatches: Evidence for One Underlying Representation of Linguistic and Nonlinguistic Information.” Pragmatics & Cognition7(1): 1–34. 10.1075/pc.7.1.03cas
    https://doi.org/10.1075/pc.7.1.03cas [Google Scholar]
  10. Chomsky, Noam
    1965Aspects of the Theory of Syntax. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Church, Ruth B., Saba Ayman-Nolley, and Shahrzad Mahootian
    2004 “The Role of Gesture in Bilingual Education: Does Gesture Enhance Learning?” International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism7(4): 303–319. 10.1080/13670050408667815
    https://doi.org/10.1080/13670050408667815 [Google Scholar]
  12. Cohen, Akiba A.
    1977 “The Communicative Functions of Hand Illustrators.” Journal of Communication7(4): 54–63. 10.1111/j.1460‑2466.1977.tb01856.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1460-2466.1977.tb01856.x [Google Scholar]
  13. Colletta, Jean-Marc
    2009 “Comparative Analysis of Children’s Narratives at Different Ages: A Multimodal Approach.” Gesture9(1): 61–97. 10.1075/gest.9.1.03col
    https://doi.org/10.1075/gest.9.1.03col [Google Scholar]
  14. Colletta, Jean-Marc and Catherine Pellenq
    2009 “Multimodal Explanations in French Children Aged from 3 to 11 Years.” InExpository Discourse Development and Disorders: International Perspectives, ed. byMarilyn A. Nippold and Cheryl M. Scott, 63–97. New York, NY: Psychology Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Colletta, Jean-Marc, Catherine Pellenq, and Michèle Guidetti
    2010 “Age-Related Changes in Co-Speech Gesture and Narrative: Evidence from French Children and Adults.” Speech Communication52(6): 565–576. 10.1016/j.specom.2010.02.009
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.specom.2010.02.009 [Google Scholar]
  16. Colletta, Jean-Marc, Michele Guidetti, Olga Capirci, Carla Cristilli, Ozlem E. Demir, Ramona N. Kunene-Nicolas, and Susan Levine
    2015 “Effects of Age and Language on Co-Speech Gesture Production: An Investigation of French, American, and Italian Children’s Narratives.” Journal of Child Language42(1): 122–145. 10.1017/S0305000913000585
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0305000913000585 [Google Scholar]
  17. De Houwer, Annick
    2005 “Early Bilingual Acquisition: Focus on Morphosyntax and the Separate Development Hypothesis.” InHandbook of Bilingualism: Psycholinguistic Aspects, ed. byJudith Kroll and Annette M. B. De Groot, 30–48. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  18. De Houwer, Annick, Marc H. Bornstein, and Diane L. Putnick
    2013 A Bilingual-Monolingual Comparison of Young Children’s Vocabulary Size: Evidence from Comprehension and Production.” Applied Psycholinguistics35(6): 1–23.
    [Google Scholar]
  19. De Ruiter, Jan P.
    2000 “The Production of Gesture and Speech.” InLanguage and Gesture, ed. byDavid McNeill, 285–311. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9780511620850.018
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511620850.018 [Google Scholar]
  20. Duranti, Alessandro
    1992 “Language in Context and Language as Context: The Samoan Respect Vocabulary.” InRethinking Context: Language as an Interactive Phenomenon, ed. byAlessandro Duranti and Charles Goodwin, 77–99. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Dittmann, Allen T. and Lynn G. Llewellyn
    1969 “Body Movement and Speech Rhythm in Social Conversation.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology11(2): 98–106. 10.1037/h0027035
    https://doi.org/10.1037/h0027035 [Google Scholar]
  22. Furuyama, Nobuhiro
    2000 “Gestural Interaction between the Instructor and the Learner in Origami Instruction.” InLanguage and Gesture, ed. byDavid McNeill, 99–117. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9780511620850.007
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511620850.007 [Google Scholar]
  23. Gass, Susan
    2013Second Language Acquisition: An Introduction Course. New York, NY: Routledge. 10.4324/9780203137093
    https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203137093 [Google Scholar]
  24. Goffman, Erving
    1981Form of Talk. Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Goldin-Meadow, Susan, Martha W. Alibali, and Ruth B. Church
    1993 “Transitions in Concept Acquisition: Using the Hand to Read the Mind.” Psychological Review100(2): 279–297. 10.1037/0033‑295X.100.2.279
    https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-295X.100.2.279 [Google Scholar]
  26. Goldin-Meadow, Susan, David McNeill, and Jenny Singleton
    1996 “Silence is Liberating: Removing the Handcuffs on Grammatical Expression in the Manual Modality.” Psychological Review103(1): 34–55. 10.1037/0033‑295X.103.1.34
    https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-295X.103.1.34 [Google Scholar]
  27. Gollan, Tamar H., Rosa I. Montoya, and Marina P. Bonanni
    2005 “Proper Names Get Stuck on Bilingual and Monolingual Speakers’ Tip of the Tongue Equally Often.” Neuropsychology19(3): 278–287. 10.1037/0894‑4105.19.3.278
    https://doi.org/10.1037/0894-4105.19.3.278 [Google Scholar]
  28. Goodwin, Charles
    2007 “Interactive Footing.” InReporting Talk: Reporting Speech Interaction, ed. byElizabeth Holt and Rebecca Clift, 16–46. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Graham, Jean A. and Michael Argyle
    1975 “A Cross-Cultural Study of the Communication of Extra-Verbal Meaning by Gesture.” International Journal of Psychology10(1): 57–67. 10.1080/00207597508247319
    https://doi.org/10.1080/00207597508247319 [Google Scholar]
  30. Gullberg, Marianne
    2011 “Multilingual Multimodality: Communicative Difficulties and their Solutions in Second Language Use.” InEmbodied Interaction: Language and Body in the Material World, ed. byJürgen Streeck, Charles Goodwin, and Curtis LeBaron, 137–151. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Gullberg, Marianne, Kees de Bot, and Virginia Volterra
    2010 “Gestures and Some Key Issues in the Study of Language Development.” InGesture in Language Development, ed. byMarianne Gullberg and Kees de Bot, 3–33. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 10.1075/bct.28.03gul
    https://doi.org/10.1075/bct.28.03gul [Google Scholar]
  32. Gumperz, John
    1992 “Contextualization and Understanding.” InRethinking Context: Language as an Interactive Phenomenon, ed. byAlessandro Duranti and Charles Goodwin, 229–252. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Hadar, Uri, Dafna Wenkert-Olenik, Robert M. Krauss, and Nachum Soroker
    1998 “Gesture and the Processing of Speech: Neuropsychological Evidence.” Brain and Language62(1): 107–26. 10.1006/brln.1997.1890
    https://doi.org/10.1006/brln.1997.1890 [Google Scholar]
  34. Halliday, M. A. K. and Ruqaiya Hasan
    1989Text and Context: Aspects of Language in a Socio-Semiotic Perspective. Linguistic Institute for International Communication (Sophia Linguistica 6). Tokyo: Sophia University.
    [Google Scholar]
  35. 1991Language, Context, and Text: Aspects of Language in a Social-Semiotic Perspective. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Heredia, Roberto R. and Jeffrey M. Brown
    2013 “Bilingual Memory.” InHandbook of Bilingualism and Multilingualism, 2nd edition, ed. byTej K. Bhatia and William C. Ritchie, 269–291. Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell.
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Heritage, John
    1984Garfinkel and Ethnomethodology. Cambridge: Polity Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Holler, Judith and Geoffrey Beattie
    2003 “Pragmatic Aspects of Representational Gestures: Do Speakers Use Them to Clarify Verbal Ambiguity for the Listener?” Gesture3(2): 127–154. 10.1075/gest.3.2.02hol
    https://doi.org/10.1075/gest.3.2.02hol [Google Scholar]
  39. Iverson, Jana and Susan Goldin-Meadow
    2005 “Gesture Paves the Way for Language Development. Psychological Science16(5): 367–373. 10.1111/j.0956‑7976.2005.01542.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.0956-7976.2005.01542.x [Google Scholar]
  40. Jefferson, Gail
    1987 “On Exposed and Embedded Correction in Conversation.” InTalk and Social Organization, ed. byGraham Button and John R. E. Lee, 86–100. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.
    [Google Scholar]
  41. Kaushanskaya, Margarita, Henrike K. Blumenfeld, and Viorica Marian
    2011 “The Relationship between Vocabulary and Short-Term Memory Measures in Monolingual and Bilingual Speakers.” International Journal of Bilingualism15 (4): 408–425. 10.1177/1367006911403201
    https://doi.org/10.1177/1367006911403201 [Google Scholar]
  42. Kendon, Adam
    1982 “The Study of Gesture: Some Observations on Its History.” Recherches Semiotique/Semiotic Inquiry2 (1): 25–62.
    [Google Scholar]
  43. 1994 “Do Gestures Communicate?: A Review.” Research on Language and Social Interaction27(3): 175–200. 10.1207/s15327973rlsi2703_2
    https://doi.org/10.1207/s15327973rlsi2703_2 [Google Scholar]
  44. 2000 “Language and Gesture: Unity or Duality?” InLanguage and Gesture, ed. byDavid McNeil, 47–63. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9780511620850.004
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511620850.004 [Google Scholar]
  45. 2004Gesture: Visible Action as Utterance. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9780511807572
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511807572 [Google Scholar]
  46. Kimbara, Irene
    2006 “On Gestural Mimicry.” Gesture6(1): 39–61. 10.1075/gest.6.1.03kim
    https://doi.org/10.1075/gest.6.1.03kim [Google Scholar]
  47. Kita, Sotaro
    2000 “How Representational Gestures Help Speaking.” InLanguage and Gesture, ed. byDavid McNeill, 162–185. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9780511620850.011
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511620850.011 [Google Scholar]
  48. Kita, Sotaro and Asli Özyürek
    2003 “What Does Cross-Linguistic Variation in Semantic Coordination of Speech and Gesture Reveal?: Evidence for an Interface Representation of Spatial Thinking and Speaking.” Journal of Memory and Language48(1): 16–32. 10.1016/S0749‑596X(02)00505‑3
    https://doi.org/10.1016/S0749-596X(02)00505-3 [Google Scholar]
  49. Krauss, Robert M., Palmer Morrel-Samuels, and Christina Colasante
    1991 “Do Conversational Hand Gestures Communicate?” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology61(5): 743–754. 10.1037/0022‑3514.61.5.743
    https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.61.5.743 [Google Scholar]
  50. Krauss, Robert M., Robert A. Dushay, Yihsiu Chen, and Frances Rauscher
    1995 “The Communicative Value of Conversational Hand Gesture.” Journal of Experimental Social Psychology31(6): 533–552. 10.1006/jesp.1995.1024
    https://doi.org/10.1006/jesp.1995.1024 [Google Scholar]
  51. Krauss, Robert M. and Uri Hadar
    1999 “The Role of Speech-Related Arm/Hand Gestures in Word Retrieval.” InGesture, Speech, and Sign, ed. byLynn S. Messing and Ruth Campbell, 93–116. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198524519.003.0006
    https://doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198524519.003.0006 [Google Scholar]
  52. Krauss, Robert M., Yihsiu Chen, and Purnima Chawla
    1996 “Nonverbal Behavior and Nonverbal Communication: What Do Conversational Hand Gestures Tell Us?” InAdvances in Experimental Social Psychology, ed. byMark P. Zanna, 389–450. San Diego, CA: Academic Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  53. Kroll, Judith F. and Natasha Tokowicz
    2005 “Models of Bilingual Representation and Processing.” InHandbook of Bilingualism: Psycholinguistic Aspects, ed. byJudith Kroll and Annette M. B. De Groot, 531–553. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  54. Laurent, Angélique, Elena Nicoladis, Paula Marentette
    2015 “The Development of Storytelling in Two Languages with Words and Gestures.” International Journal of Bilingualism19 (1): 56–74. 10.1177/1367006913495618
    https://doi.org/10.1177/1367006913495618 [Google Scholar]
  55. Levelt, Willem J. M., Graham Richardson, and Wido La Heij
    1985 “Pointing and Voicing in Deictic Expressions.” Journal of Memory and Language24(2): 133–164. 10.1016/0749‑596X(85)90021‑X
    https://doi.org/10.1016/0749-596X(85)90021-X [Google Scholar]
  56. Li, Wei
    2005 “How Can You Tell?”: Towards a Commonsense Explanation of Conversational Code-Switching.” Journal of Pragmatics37(3): 375–389.
    [Google Scholar]
  57. McNeill, David
    1992Hand and Mind: What Gestures Reveal about Thought. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  58. 2000 “Introduction.” InLanguage and Gesture, ed. byDavid McNeill, 1–10. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9780511620850.001
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511620850.001 [Google Scholar]
  59. 2005Gesture and Thought. Chicago: IL, University of Chicago Press. 10.7208/chicago/9780226514642.001.0001
    https://doi.org/10.7208/chicago/9780226514642.001.0001 [Google Scholar]
  60. McNeill, David, Justine Cassell, and Karl-Erik McCullough
    1994 “Communicative Effects of Speech-Mismatched Gestures.” Research on Language and Social Interaction27(3): 223–237. 10.1207/s15327973rlsi2703_4
    https://doi.org/10.1207/s15327973rlsi2703_4 [Google Scholar]
  61. McNeill, David and Susan D. Duncan
    2000 “Growth Points in Thinking-for-Speaking.” InLanguage and Gesture, ed. byDavid McNeill, 141–162. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9780511620850.010
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511620850.010 [Google Scholar]
  62. Morales Julia, Alejandro Calvo, and Ellen Bialystok
    2013 “Working Memory Development in Monolingual and Bilingual Children.” Journal of Experimental Child Psychology114(2): 187–202. 10.1016/j.jecp.2012.09.002
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jecp.2012.09.002 [Google Scholar]
  63. Myers-Scotton, Carol
    2006Multiple Voices: An Introduction to Bilingualism. Malden, MA: Blackwell.
    [Google Scholar]
  64. Nicoladis, Elena
    2007 “The Effect of Bilingualism on the Use of Manual Gestures.” Applied Psycholinguistics28(3): 441–454. 10.1017/S0142716407070245
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0142716407070245 [Google Scholar]
  65. Nicoladis, Elena, Simone Pika, and Paula Marentette
    2009 “Do French-English Bilingual Children Gesture More Than Monolingual Children?” Journal of Psycholinguistic Research38(6): 573–585. 10.1007/s10936‑009‑9121‑7
    https://doi.org/10.1007/s10936-009-9121-7 [Google Scholar]
  66. Özyürek, Asli
    2002 “Do Speakers Design Their Co-Speech Gestures for Their Addressees?: The Effects of Addressee Location on Representational Gestures.” Journal of Memory and Language46(4): 688–704. 10.1006/jmla.2001.2826
    https://doi.org/10.1006/jmla.2001.2826 [Google Scholar]
  67. Özyürek, Asli, Sotaro Kita, Shanley Allen, Reyhan Furman, and Amanda Brown
    2005 “How does Linguistic Framing of Events Influence Co-speech Gestures? Insights from Crosslinguistic Variations and Similarities.” Gesture5(1/2): 219–240. 10.1075/gest.5.1‑2.15ozy
    https://doi.org/10.1075/gest.5.1-2.15ozy [Google Scholar]
  68. Pika, Simone, Elena Nicoladis, and Paula F. Marentette
    2006 “A Cross-Cultural Study on the Use of Gestures: Evidence for Cross-Linguistic Transfer?” Bilingualism: Language and Cognition9(3): 319–27. 10.1017/S1366728906002665
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S1366728906002665 [Google Scholar]
  69. Rimé, Bernard
    1982 “The Elimination of Visible Behaviour from Social Interactions: Effects on Verbal, Nonverbal and Interpersonal Variables.” European Journal of Social Psychology12(2): 113–129. 10.1002/ejsp.2420120201
    https://doi.org/10.1002/ejsp.2420120201 [Google Scholar]
  70. Rimé, Bernard and Loris Schiaratura
    1991 “Gesture and Speech.” InFundamentals of Nonverbal Behaviour, ed. byRobert S. Feldman and Bernard Rimé, 239–281. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  71. Riseborough, Margaret G.
    1981 “Physiographic Gestures as Decoding Facilitators: Three Experiments Exploring a Neglected Facet of Communication.” Journal of Nonverbal Behavior5(3): 172–183. 10.1007/BF00986134
    https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00986134 [Google Scholar]
  72. Rogers, William T.
    1978 “The Contribution of Kinesic Illustrators toward the Comprehension of Verbal Behaviour within Utterances.” Human Communication Research5(1): 54–62. 10.1111/j.1468‑2958.1978.tb00622.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-2958.1978.tb00622.x [Google Scholar]
  73. Schegloff, Emmanuel A.
    1991 “Conversation Analysis and Socially Shared Cognition.” InPerspectives on Socially Shared Cognition, ed. byLauren J. Resnick, John M. Levine, and Stephanie D. Teasley, 150–171. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. 10.1037/10096‑007
    https://doi.org/10.1037/10096-007 [Google Scholar]
  74. 1992a “In Another Context.” InRethinking Context: Language as an Interactive Phenomenon, ed. byAlessandro Duranti and Charles Goodwin, 193–227. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  75. 1992b “Repair after Next Turn: The Last Structurally Provided Defense of Intersubjectivity in Conversation”. American Journal of Sociology97(5): 1295–1345. 10.1086/229903
    https://doi.org/10.1086/229903 [Google Scholar]
  76. Schegloff, Emmanuel A., Gail Jefferson, and Harvey Sacks
    1977 “The Preference for Self-Correction in the Organization of Repair in Conversation.” Language53(2): 361–382. 10.1353/lan.1977.0041
    https://doi.org/10.1353/lan.1977.0041 [Google Scholar]
  77. Sebastián-Gallés, Nuria
    2006 “Native-Language Sensitivities: Evolution in the First Year of Life.” Trends in Cognitive Sciences10(6): 239–241. 10.1016/j.tics.2006.04.009
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tics.2006.04.009 [Google Scholar]
  78. Smithson, Lisa, Elena Nicoladis, and Paula Marentette
    2011 “Bilingual Children’s Gesture Use”. Gesture11(3): 330–347. 10.1075/gest.11.3.04smi
    https://doi.org/10.1075/gest.11.3.04smi [Google Scholar]
  79. Toribio, Almeida J.
    2001 “On the Emergence of Bilingual Code-Switching Competence.” Bilingualism: Language and Cognition4(3): 203–231. 10.1017/S1366728901000414
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S1366728901000414 [Google Scholar]
  80. Weigand, Edda
    2007 “The Sociobiology of Language.” InDialogue and Culture, ed. byMarion Grein and Edda Weigand, 27–50. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 10.1075/ds.1.04wei
    https://doi.org/10.1075/ds.1.04wei [Google Scholar]
  81. 2010aDialogue: The Mixed Game. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 10.1075/ds.10
    https://doi.org/10.1075/ds.10 [Google Scholar]
  82. 2010b “Language as Dialogue.” Intercultural Pragmatics7(3): 505–510. 10.1515/iprg.2010.022
    https://doi.org/10.1515/iprg.2010.022 [Google Scholar]
  83. 2012 “The Challenge of Complexity: Body, Mind and Language in Interaction.” InMoving Ourselves, Moving Others: Motion and Emotion in Intersubjectivity, Consciousness and Language, ed. byAd Foolen, Ulrike M. Lüdtke, Timothy P. Racine, and Jordan Zlatev, 383–406. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 10.1075/ceb.6.15wei
    https://doi.org/10.1075/ceb.6.15wei [Google Scholar]
  84. Weikum, Whitney M., Athena Vouloumanos, Jordi Navarra, Salvador Soto-Faraco, Nuria Sebastián-Gallés, and Janet F. Werker
    2007 “Visual Language Discrimination in Infancy.” Science316(5828): 1159–1159. 10.1126/science.1137686
    https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1137686 [Google Scholar]
  85. Wharton, Tim
    2009Pragmatics and Non-Verbal Communication. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9780511635649
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511635649 [Google Scholar]
  86. Widdowson, Henry G.
    2004Text, Context, Pretext. Oxford: Blackwell. 10.1002/9780470758427
    https://doi.org/10.1002/9780470758427 [Google Scholar]
  87. Wölck, Wolfgang
    1984 “Komplementierung und Fusion: Prozesse Natürlicher Zweisprachigkeit.” InSpracherwerb-Sprachkontakt-Sprachkonflikt, ed. byEls Oksaar, 107–128. Berlin: de Gruyter.
    [Google Scholar]
  88. Yan, Stephanie and Elena Nicoladis
    2009 “Finding le mot Juste: Differences between Bilingual and Monolingual Children’s Lexical Access in Comprehension and Production.” Bilingualism: Language and Cognition12(3): 323–335. 10.1017/S1366728909990101
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S1366728909990101 [Google Scholar]
  89. Zvaigzne, Meghan, Yuriko Oshima-Takane, Fred Genesee, and Makiko Hirakawa
    2011 “A Cross-Linguistic Study of Verbal and Gestural Descriptions in French and Japanese Monolingual and Bilingual Children.” InIntegrating Gestures: The Interdisciplinary Nature of Gesture, ed. byGale Stam and Mika Ichino, 219–330. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 10.1075/gs.4.19zva
    https://doi.org/10.1075/gs.4.19zva [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.1075/ld.00047.wan
Loading
/content/journals/10.1075/ld.00047.wan
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Article Type: Research Article
Keyword(s): bilingual interaction , bilinguals , gesture , speech-gesture connections and turns-at-talk
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error