Volume 10, Issue 3
  • ISSN 2210-4119
  • E-ISSN: 2210-4127
Buy:$35.00 + Taxes



Why does our moral intuition tend to differ when a person uses deprecating speech towards her own affiliation group as opposed to an outer affiliation group? This paper offers a descriptive mapping of moral intuitions behind group self-deprecation (GSD) as stemming from two theoretical fields: pragmatics and standing. The first possible explanation to our moral intuition focuses on the moral flaw in the utterance of (i.e., the person using GSD). Here, I argue our moral intuition suggests the group affiliation of the condemned affects the utterance’s pragmatic interpretation, thus affecting its offensiveness. An alternative explanation focuses on the . Here, I argue practices of standing lay behind the offhand rejection of critiques from outer-group members, regardless of their validity.


Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...


  1. Allport, Gordon
    1954Nature of Prejudice. Boston, MA: Addison-Wesley.
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Bell, Macalester
    2013 “The standing to blame: a critique.” InBlame: Its nature and norms, ed. byJustin D. Coates and Neal Tognazzini. 263–281. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Braxton, Greg [Google Scholar]
  4. Brommage, Thomas
    2015 “Just kidding, folks: an expressivist analysis of offensive humor.” Florida Philosophical Review66: 71–75.
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Brontsema, Robin
    2004 “A queer revolution: Reconceptualizing the debate over linguistic reclamation.” Colorado Research in Linguistics17(1): 9.
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Coates, Justin D. and Neal Tognazzini
    2018 “Blame.” InThe Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Fall 2018 Edition), ed. byEdward N. Zalta. Retrieved fromhttps://plato.stanford.edu/archives/fall2018/entries/blame/
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Cohen, Gerald A.
    2006 “Casting the first stone: Who can, and who can’t, condemn the terrorists?” Royal Institute of Philosophy Supplements58: 113–136.
    [Google Scholar]
  8. DeSpelder, Lynne Ann and Albert Lee Strickland, A.
    1996The Last Dance: Encountering Death and Dying. California City, CA: Mayfield Publishers.
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Duff, Robin A.
    2010 “Blame, moral stand and the legitimacy of the criminal trial.” Ratio23: 123–140. 10.1111/j.1467‑9329.2010.00456.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9329.2010.00456.x [Google Scholar]
  10. Dworkin, Gerald
    2017 “Paternalism.” InThe Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Fall 2018 Edition), ed. byEdward N. Zalta. Retrieved fromhttps://plato.stanford.edu/archives/win2017/entries/paternalism
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Freud, Sigmund
    2003The Joke and Its Relation to the Unconscious. London: Penguin Classics.
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Friedman, Marilyn
    2013 “How to blame people responsibly.” The Journal of Value Inquiry47: 271–284. 10.1007/s10790‑013‑9377‑x
    https://doi.org/10.1007/s10790-013-9377-x [Google Scholar]
  13. Garrick, Jacqueline and Mary Beth Williams
    2014 “The humor of trauma survivors: Its application in a therapeutic milieu.” InTrauma Treatment Techniques, ed. byJacqueline Garrick and Mary Beth Williams. 191. Abingdon-on-Thames: Routledge. 10.4324/9781315864518
    https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315864518 [Google Scholar]
  14. Gilbert, Margaret
    2006 “Who’s to blame? Collective moral responsibility and its implications for group members.” Midwest Studies in Philosophy30(1): 94–114. 10.1111/j.1475‑4975.2006.00130.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1475-4975.2006.00130.x [Google Scholar]
  15. Herbert, Cassie
    2015 “Precarious projects: The performative structure of reclamation.” Language Sciences52:131–138. 10.1016/j.langsci.2015.05.002
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.langsci.2015.05.002 [Google Scholar]
  16. Herstein, Ori J.
    2017 “Understanding standing: Permission to deflect reasons.” Philosophical Studies174(12): 3109–3132. Retrieved from doi:  10.1007/s11098‑016‑0849‑2
    https://doi.org/10.1007/s11098-016-0849-2 [Google Scholar]
  17. Hill, Annie
    2016 “SlutWalk as perifeminist response to rape logic: The politics of reclaiming a name.” Communication and Critical/Cultural Studies13(1): 23–39. 10.1080/14791420.2015.1091940
    https://doi.org/10.1080/14791420.2015.1091940 [Google Scholar]
  18. Hope, Clover
    2015 “The Black-ish ‘N Word’ Episode Turned Out Just Fine.” Jezebel. Retrieved fromhttps://themuse.jezebel.com/the-black-ish-n-word-episode-turned-out-just-fine-1732781668
    [Google Scholar]
  19. King, Matt
    . (in press). “Skepticism about the standing to blame.” InOxford Studies in Agency And Responsibility, vol.6 ed. by David Shoemaker. 265–289. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Kocieda, Aphrodite
    2014 “We’re taking slut back: Analyzing racialized gender politics in Chicago’s 2012 Slutwalk march” (Master’s thesis). Retrieved fromhttps://scholarcommons.usf.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?referer=https://www.google.com/&httpsredir=1&article=6250&context=etd
  21. Levy, Ariel
    2006Female Chauvinist Pigs: Women and the Rise of Raunch Culture. NY: Free Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Lewin, Kurt
    1941 “Self-hatred among Jews.” Contemporary Jewish RecordIV: 219–232.
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Mitchell, Carol
    1977 “The sexual perspective in the appreciation and interpretation of jokes.” Western Folklore71 (3/4): 293–309.
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Nagel, Thomas
    1998 “Concealment and exposure.” Philosophy and Public Affairs27: 3–30. 10.1111/j.1088‑4963.1998.tb00057.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1088-4963.1998.tb00057.x [Google Scholar]
  25. Rieger, Alicja
    2015 “It was a joke for him and a life for me: A discourse on disability related humor among families of children with disabilities.” Disability Studies Quarterly4.
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Sabini, John and Maury Silver
    1982Moralities of everyday life. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Scanlon, Thomas M.
    2008Moral dimensions: permissibility, meaning, blame. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. 10.4159/9780674043145
    https://doi.org/10.4159/9780674043145 [Google Scholar]
  28. Shiffrin, Seana Valentine
    2000 “Paternalism, unconscionability doctrine, and accommodation.” Philosophy & Public Affairs29(3): 205–250. 10.1111/j.1088‑4963.2000.00205.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1088-4963.2000.00205.x [Google Scholar]
  29. Smith, Aangela M.
    2007 “On being responsible and holding responsible.” The Journal of Ethics2: 465–484. 10.1007/s10892‑005‑7989‑5
    https://doi.org/10.1007/s10892-005-7989-5 [Google Scholar]
  30. Todd, Patrick
    2019 “A unified account of the moral standing to blame.” Noûs53(2): 347–374. 10.1111/nous.12215
    https://doi.org/10.1111/nous.12215 [Google Scholar]
  31. Vaillant, George
    1994 “Ego mechanisms of defense and personality psychopathology.” Journal of Abnormal Psychology103(1): 44–50. 10.1037/0021‑843X.103.1.44
    https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-843X.103.1.44 [Google Scholar]
  32. Wallace, R. Jay
    2010 “Hypocrisy, moral address, and the equal standing of persons.” Philosophy & Public Affairs38: 307–341. 10.1111/j.1088‑4963.2010.01195.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1088-4963.2010.01195.x [Google Scholar]
  33. Zolten, Jerome
    1988 “Joking in the face of tragedy.” ETC: A Review of General Semantics45(4): 345–350.
    [Google Scholar]
  • Article Type: Research Article
Keyword(s): black humor; offensive humor; phrase reclaiming; self-deprecating humor; standing
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error