Volume 12, Issue 3
  • ISSN 2210-4119
  • E-ISSN: 2210-4127
Buy:$35.00 + Taxes



This contribution explores the stances of speakers of Romance languages towards the use of English as a lingua franca in a business context. Grounding on an audio-visual corpus collected in a wine fair in France, the analysis focuses on three extracts where participants comment in a playful way (i.e. through laughing, joking and humorous enactments) upon the fact that they are speaking English. Through a sequential and multimodal analysis, the study will highlight the participants’ ambivalent stance: on the one hand, through these playful practices they display a local resistance towards the mainstream language choice; on the other hand, these same practices reveal their vulnerability to the social pressure concerning the speaking of English.


Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...


  1. Barfod, Sonja
    2018 “On the Non-Use of English in a Multinational Company: Interactions and Policies.” English in Europe5: 172–193.
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Bert, Emma, Arnulf Depperman
    2021 “OKAY in responding and claiming understanding”. InOKAY across Languages Toward a comparative approach to its use in talk-in-interaction, ed. byEmma Betz, Arnulf Deppermann, Lorenza Mondada, Marja-Leena Sorjonen, 55–92. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 10.1075/slsi.34.03bet
    https://doi.org/10.1075/slsi.34.03bet [Google Scholar]
  3. Berthoud, Anne-Claude, Marcel Burger
    2014Repenser le rôle des pratiques langagières dans la constitution des espaces sociaux contemporains. Duculot: Do boeck.
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Björkman, Beyza
    2011 “Pragmatic strategies in English as an academic lingua franca: ways of achieving communicative effectiveness”. Journal of Pragmatics43(4): 950–964. 10.1016/j.pragma.2010.07.033
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pragma.2010.07.033 [Google Scholar]
  5. Blommaert, Jan and Ad Backus
    2013 “Superdiverse repertoires and the individual”. InMultilingualism and Multimodality. Current challenges for educational studies, ed. byIngrid de Saint-Georges and Jean-Jacques Weber, 11–32. Rotterdam: Sense Publishers. 10.1007/978‑94‑6209‑266‑2_2
    https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-6209-266-2_2 [Google Scholar]
  6. Bothorel-Witz, Arlette and Irini Tsamadou-Jacoberger
    2012 “Les représentations du plurilinguisme et de la gestion de la diversité linguistique dans les entreprises: les imbrications entre une monophonie collective et la polyphonie des énonciateurs singuliers”. InReprésentations, gestion et pratiques du plurilinguisme au travail. Bulletin suisse de linguistique appliquée, ed. byGeorges Lüdi, 57–73.
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Caddéo, Sandrine and Marie-Christine Jamet
    2012L’intercompréhension: une autre approche pour l’enseignement des langues. Paris: Hachette.
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Clark, Colin, Paul Drew, and Trevor Pinch
    2003 “Managing Prospect Affiliation and Rapport in Real-Life Sale Encounters.” Discourse Studies5(1): 5–31. 10.1177/14614456030050010101
    https://doi.org/10.1177/14614456030050010101 [Google Scholar]
  9. Clift, Rebecca
    2016 “Don’t make me laugh: Responsive laughter in (dis)affiliation”. Journal of Pragmatics100: 73–88. 10.1016/j.pragma.2016.01.012
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pragma.2016.01.012 [Google Scholar]
  10. Coates, Jennifer
    2007 “Talk in a Play Frame: More on Laughter and Intimacy.” Journal of Pragmatics39(1): 29–49. 10.1016/j.pragma.2006.05.003
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pragma.2006.05.003 [Google Scholar]
  11. Cogo, Alessia and Patchareerat, Yanaprasart
    2018 “English is the Language of Business: An Exploration of Language Ideologies in Two European Corporate Contexts: Interactions and Policies.” English in Europe5: 96–116. 10.1515/9781501506833‑005
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9781501506833-005 [Google Scholar]
  12. Cook, Haruko Minegishi
    2012 “Language Socialization and Stance-Taking Practices” inThe Handbook of Language Socialization, ed. byAlessandro Duranti, Elinor Ochs, and Bambi B. Schieffelin, 298–321. New Jersey: Blackwell Publishing.
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Du Bois, John
    2007 “The Stance Triangle.” InStancetaking in Discourseed. byRobert Englebretson, 139–182. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 10.1075/pbns.164.07du
    https://doi.org/10.1075/pbns.164.07du [Google Scholar]
  14. Englebretson, Robert
    2007 (ed.), Stancetaking in Discourse. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 10.1075/pbns.164
    https://doi.org/10.1075/pbns.164 [Google Scholar]
  15. Ellis, Yvette
    1997 “Laughing Together: Laughter as a Feature of Affiliation in French Conversation.” French Language Studies7: 147–161. 10.1017/S095926950000363X
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S095926950000363X [Google Scholar]
  16. Firth, Alan
    1996 “The discursive accomplishment of normality: On ‘lingua franca’ English and conversation analysis.” Journal of Pragmatics26(2): 237–259. 10.1016/0378‑2166(96)00014‑8
    https://doi.org/10.1016/0378-2166(96)00014-8 [Google Scholar]
  17. Frath, Pierre
    2014 “Anthropologie de l’anglicisation des formations supérieures et de la recherche.” Philologica Jassyensia1(19): 251–264.
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Glenn, Philip
    1995 “Laughing at and Laughing with: Negotiations of Participant Alignment through Conversational Laughter.” InSituated Order. Studies in the Social Organization of Talk and Embodied Activities, ed. byPaul Ten Have and George Psathas, 43–56. Washington: University Press of America.
    [Google Scholar]
  19. 2010 “Interviewer Laughs: Shared Laughter and Asymmetries in Employment Interviews.” Journal of Pragmatics42: 1485–1498. 10.1016/j.pragma.2010.01.009
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pragma.2010.01.009 [Google Scholar]
  20. Goffman, Erving
    1967Interaction Ritual: Essays on Face-to-Face Behavior. NY: Anchor.
    [Google Scholar]
  21. 1981Forms of talk. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Goodwin, Charles and Marjorie Harness Goodwin
    1992 “Assessments and the Construction of Context” InRethinking Context, ed. byAlessandro Duranti and Charles Goodwin, 147–90. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Hazel, Spencer and Jan Svennevig
    2018 “Multilingual workplaces e Interactional dynamics of the contemporary international workforce.” Journal of Pragmatics126: 1–9. 10.1016/j.pragma.2017.11.005
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pragma.2017.11.005 [Google Scholar]
  24. Holt, Elizabeth
    2010 “The Last Laugh: Shared Laughter and Topic Termination.” Journal of Pragmatics42: 1513–1525. 10.1016/j.pragma.2010.01.011
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pragma.2010.01.011 [Google Scholar]
  25. 2016 “Laughter at Last: Playfulness and Laughter in Interaction.” Journal of Pragmatics100: 89–102. 10.1016/j.pragma.2016.04.012
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pragma.2016.04.012 [Google Scholar]
  26. 2000 “Reporting and reacting: Concurrent responses to reported speech.” Research on Language and Social Interaction33: 425–454. 10.1207/S15327973RLSI3304_04
    https://doi.org/10.1207/S15327973RLSI3304_04 [Google Scholar]
  27. 2000 “‘I’m eveing your chop up mind’: reporting and enacting.” InReporting talk. Reported speech in interaction, ed. byElizabeth Holt and Rebecca Clift, 47–80. Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  28. House, Juliane
    1999 “Misunderstanding in intercultural communication: Interactions in English as a lingua franca and the myth of mutual intelligibility.” InTeaching and Learning English as a Global Language, ed. byClaus Gnutzmann, 73–93. Tübingen: Stauffenberg.
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Haddington, Pentti
    2006 “The organization of gaze and assessments as resources for stance taking.” Text and Talk26(3): 281–328. 10.1515/TEXT.2006.012
    https://doi.org/10.1515/TEXT.2006.012 [Google Scholar]
  30. Jaffe, Alexandra
    (ed.) 2009Stance: Sociolinguistic Perspectives. Oxford Scholarship Online. 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195331646.001.0001
    https://doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195331646.001.0001 [Google Scholar]
  31. Jefferson, Gail
    1979 “A Technique for Inviting Laughter and its Subsequent Acceptance/Declination.” InEveryday Language. Studies in Ethnomethodology, ed. byG. Psathas, 77–96. New York: Irvington Publishers.
    [Google Scholar]
  32. 2004 “Glossary of Transcript Symbols with an Introduction.” InConversation Analysis: Studies from the First Generation, ed. byG. H. Lerner, 13–31. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 10.1075/pbns.125.02jef
    https://doi.org/10.1075/pbns.125.02jef [Google Scholar]
  33. Jefferson, Gail, Harvey Sacks, and Emanuel A. Schegloff
    1987 “On Laughter in the Pursuit of Intimacy.” InTalk and Social Organizationed. byG. Button and J. R. E. Lee, 152–205. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Jenkins, Jennifer, Alessia Cogo, and Martin Dewey
    2011 “Review of Developments in Research into English as a Lingua Franca.” Language Teaching44(3): 281–315. 10.1017/S0261444811000115
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0261444811000115 [Google Scholar]
  35. Jenkins, Jennifer, Will Baker, and Martin Dewey
    2017The Routledge Handbook of English as a Lingua Franca. New York: Routledge. 10.4324/9781315717173
    https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315717173 [Google Scholar]
  36. Kappa, Katherine
    2016 “Exploring solidarity and consensus in English as lingua franca interactions.” Journal of Pragmatics95: 16–33. 10.1016/j.pragma.2016.01.015
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pragma.2016.01.015 [Google Scholar]
  37. Kärkkäinen, Elise
    2006 “Stance taking in conversation: From subjectivity to intersubjectivity.” Text and Talk26(6): 699–731. 10.1515/TEXT.2006.029
    https://doi.org/10.1515/TEXT.2006.029 [Google Scholar]
  38. Kerbrat-Orecchioni, Catherine
    1994Les interactions verbales. Paris: Armand Colin.
    [Google Scholar]
  39. Kiesling, Scott. F.
    2009 “Style as Stance: Stance as the explanation for patterns of sociolinguistic variation. InStance: Sociolinguistic perspectives, ed. byAlexandra Jaffe, 171–194. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195331646.003.0008
    https://doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195331646.003.0008 [Google Scholar]
  40. Leone, Andrea R.
    2014 “Ideologies of Personhood: A Citizen Sociolinguistic Case Study of the Roman Dialect.” Working Papers in Educational Linguistics29(2): 81–105.
    [Google Scholar]
  41. Linn, Andrew, Neil Bermel, and Gibson Ferguson
    (eds) 2015Attitudes towards English in Europe. Berlin, Boston: De Gruyter Mouton. 10.1515/9781614515517
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9781614515517 [Google Scholar]
  42. Liyanage, Indika and Suresh Canagarajah
    2019 “Shame in English Language Teaching: Desirable Pedagogical Possibilities for Kiribati in Neoliberal Times.” TESOL Quarterly53: 430–455. 10.1002/tesq.494
    https://doi.org/10.1002/tesq.494 [Google Scholar]
  43. Local, John, Gareth Walker
    2008 “Stance and affect in conversation: On the interplay of sequential and phonetic resources.” Text and Talk28(6): 723–747. 10.1515/TEXT.2008.037
    https://doi.org/10.1515/TEXT.2008.037 [Google Scholar]
  44. Lüdi, Georges
    2012 “Introduction : Représentations, gestion et pratiques de la diversité linguistique dans des entreprises européennes.” Bulletin VALS-ASLA95: 1–13.
    [Google Scholar]
  45. 2014 “Le monde économique parle-t-il vraiment anglais? Les pratiques langagières dans le domaine des entreprises.” InRepenser le rôle des pratiques langagières dans la constitution des espaces sociaux contemporains, ed. byAnne-Claude Berthoud et Marcel Burger, 17–34. Duculot: Do boeck.
    [Google Scholar]
  46. Markaki, Vasiliki, Sara Merlino, Lorenza Mondada, and Florence Oloff
    2010 “Laughter in Professional Meetings: The Organization of an Emergent Ethnic Joke.” Journal of Pragmatics42(6): 1526–1542. 10.1016/j.pragma.2010.01.013
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pragma.2010.01.013 [Google Scholar]
  47. Millar, Sharon, Sylvia Cifuentes, and Astrid Jensen
    2012 “The perception of language needs in Danish companies: Representations and repercussions”. InReprésentations, gestion et pratiques du plurilinguisme au travail. Bulletin suisse de linguistique appliquée, ed. byGeorges Lüdi, 75–96.
    [Google Scholar]
  48. Moore, Emilee
    2017 “Doing Understanding in Transient, Multilingual Communities in Higher Education.” Journal of Linguistic Anthropology27: 289–307. 10.1111/jola.12171
    https://doi.org/10.1111/jola.12171 [Google Scholar]
  49. Mondada, Lorenza and Sara Keel
    2017 “Introduction and Conventions de transcription.” InParticipation et asymétries dans l’interaction institutionnelle, ed. byLorenza Mondada and Sara Keel, 9–52. Paris: Harmattan.
    [Google Scholar]
  50. Mondada, Lorenza
    2018 “Greetings as a device to find out and establish the language of the language of service encounters in multilingual settings.” Journal of Pragmatics126: 10–28. 10.1016/j.pragma.2017.09.003
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pragma.2017.09.003 [Google Scholar]
  51. Mortensen, Janus
    2014 “Language Policy from Below: Language Choice in Student Project Groups in a Multilingual University Setting.” Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development35(4): 425–442. 10.1080/01434632.2013.874438
    https://doi.org/10.1080/01434632.2013.874438 [Google Scholar]
  52. 2013 “Notes on English used as a lingua franca as an object of study.” Journal of English as a Lingua Franca2(1): 25–46. 10.1515/jelf‑2013‑0002
    https://doi.org/10.1515/jelf-2013-0002 [Google Scholar]
  53. Ochs, Elinor
    1992 “Indexing Gender.” InRethinking Contexted. byAlessandro Duranti and Charles Goodwin, 335–358. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  54. 1996 “Linguistic resources for socializing humanity”. InRethinking Linguistic Relativity, ed. byJohn Gumperz and Stephen Levinson, 407–37. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  55. Oloff, Florence
    2018 “Sorry?”/“Como?”/“Was?” – Open class and embodied repair initiators in international workplace interactions”. Journal of Pragmatics126: 29–51. 10.1016/j.pragma.2017.11.002
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pragma.2017.11.002 [Google Scholar]
  56. Petitjean, Cécile and Esther González-Martínez
    2015 “Laughing and Smiling to Manage Trouble in French-Language Classroom Interaction.” Classroom Discourse6 (2): 89–106. 10.1080/19463014.2015.1010556
    https://doi.org/10.1080/19463014.2015.1010556 [Google Scholar]
  57. Piccoli, Vanessa
    2017a Interactions plurilingues entre locuteurs romanophones: de l’analyse à une réflexion didactique sur l’intercompréhension en langues romanes. PhD Dissertation. Université Lumière Lyon 2.
  58. 2017b ““Puedes hablar italiano”: négocier la conversation plurilingue dans un salon commercial international.” Domínios de Lingu@gem10(4): 1326–1348. 10.14393/DL27‑v10n4a2016‑7
    https://doi.org/10.14393/DL27-v10n4a2016-7 [Google Scholar]
  59. 2020 “L’hétéro-répétition plurilingue: une pratique pour l’intercompréhension romane?” Bulletin suisse de linguistique appliquée111: 43–63.
    [Google Scholar]
  60. Piccoli, Vanessa and Elizaveta Chernyshova
    2018 ““Du vin pour chopper”: identité masculine, blagues (hétéro)sexuelles et affiliation lors d’une première rencontre entre hommes. TRANEL69: 99–123. 10.26034/tranel.2018.2988
    https://doi.org/10.26034/tranel.2018.2988 [Google Scholar]
  61. Rampton, Ben
    1999 “Styling the Other.” Journal of Sociolinguistics3(4): 421–427. 10.1111/1467‑9481.00088
    https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-9481.00088 [Google Scholar]
  62. Sacks, Harvey
    1992Lectures on Conversation. Oxford: Blackwell Publishers.
    [Google Scholar]
  63. Schegloff, Emanuel A.
    1987 “Some Sources of Misunderstanding in Talk-in-Interaction.” Linguistics25: 201–218. 10.1515/ling.1987.25.1.201
    https://doi.org/10.1515/ling.1987.25.1.201 [Google Scholar]
  64. 2007Sequence Organization in Interaction: A Primer in Conversation Analysis 1. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9780511791208
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511791208 [Google Scholar]
  65. Seidlhofer, Barbara
    2001 “Closing a Conceptual Gap: The Case for a Description of English as a Lingua Franca.” International Journal of Applied Linguistics11(2): 133–158. 10.1111/1473‑4192.00011
    https://doi.org/10.1111/1473-4192.00011 [Google Scholar]
  66. 2012 “Anglophone-Centric Attitudes and the Globalization of English.” Journal of English as a Lingua Franca1/2: 393–407. 10.1515/jelf‑2012‑0026
    https://doi.org/10.1515/jelf-2012-0026 [Google Scholar]
  67. Sidnell, Jack and Tanya Stivers
    2013The handbook of conversation analysis. Chichester, UK: Wiley Blackwell.
    [Google Scholar]
  68. Steensig, Jakob and Paul Drew
    2008 “Introduction: Questioning and Affiliation/ Disaffiliation in Interaction.” Discourse Studies10(1): 5–15. 10.1177/1461445607085581
    https://doi.org/10.1177/1461445607085581 [Google Scholar]
  69. Stivers, Tanya
    2008 “Stance, Alignment, and Affiliation During Storytelling: When Nodding Is a Token of Affiliation.” Research on Language and Social Interaction41 (5): 31–57. 10.1080/08351810701691123
    https://doi.org/10.1080/08351810701691123 [Google Scholar]
  70. Stivers, Tanya, Lorenza Mondada, and Jakob Steensig
    2011 “Knowledge, Morality and Affiliation in Social Interaction.” InThe Morality of Knowledge in Conversation, ed. byTanya Stivers, Lorenza Mondada, and Jakob Steensig, 3–24. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9780511921674.002
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511921674.002 [Google Scholar]
  71. Waring, Hansun Zhang
    2012 “Yes-no questions that convey a critical stance in the language classroom.” Language and Education26(5): 451–469. 10.1080/09500782.2012.656651
    https://doi.org/10.1080/09500782.2012.656651 [Google Scholar]
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error