Volume 6, Issue 2
  • ISSN 2210-4119
  • E-ISSN: 2210-4127
Buy:$35.00 + Taxes


Our objective is to discover if metadialogic discussion by participants and researchers increases their understanding of the dialogue. We videotaped a native Spanish speaker and a fifth-semester Spanish learner from the U.S. as they discussed a conversational prompt. Next, a facilitator guided the participants in a videotaped retrospection to uncover what their thoughts and feelings had been during the original interaction. A third party then analyzed the original videotaped dialogue and compared it to the participants’ metadialogic commentary to determine accuracy and adequacy of the analysis. Results show that dialogic retrospection is an effective tool and should be incorporated into dialogue research methodology. Instead of analyzing solely a transcription of an audiotape or film, metadialogic retrospection can access hidden motivations underlying language use, leading to greater accuracy. We argue that such retrospection is necessary for understanding cognitive and psychological dimensions of co-constructing meaning in intercultural dialogue.


Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...


  1. Agar, Michael
    1994Language Shock: Understanding the Culture of Conversation. New York: William Morrow.
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Brown, Penelope , and Stephen Levinson
    1987Politeness: Some Universals of Language Usage. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Bruner, Jerome
    1973Beyond the Information Given: Studies in the Psychology of Knowing. New York: W. W. Norton.
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Cienki, Alan
    2007 “Frames, Idealized Cognitive Models and Domains.” The Oxford Handbook of Cognitive Linguistics, ed. by Dirk Geeraerts , and Hubert Cuyckens , 170–187. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  5. D’Andrade, Roy
    2005 “Some Methods for Studying Cultural Cognitive Structures.” InFinding Culture in Talk, ed. by Naomi Quinn , 83–104. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. doi: 10.1007/978‑1‑137‑05871‑3_3
    https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-137-05871-3_3 [Google Scholar]
  6. Doughty, Catherine , and Jessica Williams
    1998Focus on Form in Classroom Second Language Acquisition. New York: Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Ellis, Rod
    1993 “Interpretation-based Grammar Teaching.” System21: 69–78. doi: 10.1016/0346‑251X(93)90007‑4
    https://doi.org/10.1016/0346-251X(93)90007-4 [Google Scholar]
  8. Fauconnier, Gilles
    1994Mental Spaces: Aspects of Meaning Construction in Natural Language. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. doi: 10.1017/CBO9780511624582
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511624582 [Google Scholar]
  9. Fotos, Sandra
    1994 “Integrating Grammar Instruction and Communicative Language Use Through Grammar Consciousness-Raising Tasks.” TESOL Quarterly28: 323–351. doi: 10.2307/3587436
    https://doi.org/10.2307/3587436 [Google Scholar]
  10. Hanks, William F
    1993 “Metalanguage and Pragmatics of Deixis.” InReflexive Language: Reported Speech and Metapragmatics, ed. by John Lucy , 127–158. New York: Cambridge University Press. doi: 10.1017/CBO9780511621031.008
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511621031.008 [Google Scholar]
  11. Ishihara, Noriko , and Andrew Cohen
    2014Teaching and Learning Pragmatics: Where Language and Culture Meet. New York, NY: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Kasper, Gabriele , and Kenneth Rose
    2003Pragmatic Development in a Second Language. New York: Wiley.
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Kecskes, Istvan
    2014Intercultural Pragmatics. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Koike, Dale
    2015 “Changing Frames in Native Speaker and Learner Talk.” InDialogue in Multilingual and Multimodal Communities, ed. by Dale Koike , and Carl Blyth , 253–285. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. doi: 10.1075/ds.27.09koi
    https://doi.org/10.1075/ds.27.09koi [Google Scholar]
  15. Lakoff, George
    1987Women, Fire and Dangerous Things: What Categories Reveal About the Mind. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. doi: 10.7208/chicago/9780226471013.001.0001
    https://doi.org/10.7208/chicago/9780226471013.001.0001 [Google Scholar]
  16. Lantolf, James
    2006 “Re(de)fining Language Proficiency in Light of the Concept ‘Languaculture.’” InAdvanced Language Learning: The Contribution of Halliday and Vygotsky, ed. by Heidi Byrnes , 58–71. London: Continuum.
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Linell, Per
    1996Approaching Dialogue: Talk and Interaction in Dialogical Perspectives. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. doi: 10.1075/impact.3
    https://doi.org/10.1075/impact.3 [Google Scholar]
  18. Lucy, John
    (ed) 1993Reflexive Language: Reported Speech and Metapragmatics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. doi: 10.1017/CBO9780511621031
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511621031 [Google Scholar]
  19. Quinn, Naomi
    2005 “How to Reconstruct Schemas People Share From What They Say.” InFinding Culture in Talk, ed. by Naomi Quinn , 35–82. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. doi: 10.1007/978‑1‑137‑05871‑3_2
    https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-137-05871-3_2 [Google Scholar]
  20. Risager, Karen
    2006Language and Culture: Local Flows and Global Complexity. Clevedon, UK: Multilingual Matters.
    [Google Scholar]
  21. 2007Language and Culture Pedagogy: From a National to a Transnational Paradigm. Clevedon, UK: Multilingual Matters.
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Rommetveit, Ragnar
    1992 “Outlines of a Dialogically-based Social-cognitive Approach to Human Cognition and Communication.” InThe Dialogical Alternative: Towards a Theory of Language and Mind, ed. by Astri Heen Wold , 19–44. Oslo: Scandinavian University Press
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Rutherford, William , and Michael Sharwood Smith
    1985 “Consciousness-raising and Universal Grammar.” Applied Linguistics6: 274–282. doi: 10.1093/applin/6.3.274
    https://doi.org/10.1093/applin/6.3.274 [Google Scholar]
  24. Spencer-Oatey, Helen
    2000Culturally Speaking: Managing Rapport through Talk Across Cultures. London: Continuum.
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Van Compernolle, Remi A
    2014Sociocultural Theory ans L2 Instructional Pragmatics. Bristol: Multilingual Matters.
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Vygotsky, Lev S
    1987 “Thinking and Speech.” InLev S. Vygotsky, Collected Works, vol. 1, ed. by Robert Rieber , and Aaron Carton , transl. Norris Minick , 39–285. New York: Plenum. (Original works published in 1934, 1960).
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Wold, Astri Heen
    (ed) 1992The Dialogical Alternative: Towards a Theory of Language and Mind. Oslo: Scandinavian University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  • Article Type: Research Article
Keyword(s): intercultural dialogue; metadialogic; metapragmatic; retrospection
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error