1887
Volume 3, Issue 2
  • ISSN 2452-1949
  • E-ISSN: 2452-2147
USD
Buy:$35.00 + Taxes

Abstract

Abstract

Language is an integral part of the social identity and ethnicity of a community apart from being its mode of communication. Language plays a key role to preserve the history, culture and identity of a community. In this era of globalization, cultural and linguistic homogenization is a common trend. The state and dominant linguistic communities expect ‘others’ or the minority groups to assimilate into the dominant culture and language. Arguments for the maintenance and revitalization of minority and endangered languages have been made by many linguists around the world. Language rights, language planning and language documentation programmes are some steps taken by government and externally-funded organizations to protect endangered and indigenous languages. Besides the initiatives taken by the non-members of the community, the future of an endangered language and culture has been decided by the role and attitude of the community towards its community-specific linguistic and cultural identity. India is a very diverse country as far as its linguistic and cultural heritage is concerned. This project is enriched with insights from field experience in various districts of West Bengal, a state in India, where the speakers of endangered linguistic communities are aware of their linguistic rights and are highly engaged in the language and cultural revitalization, and in that their degree of progress and success is commendable. This paper aims at demonstrating the major role played by the communities themselves in language-revitalization programmes.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1075/le.19001.bha
2020-09-09
2020-09-28
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

References

  1. Campbell, Lyle
    1994 Language death. IN; R.E. Asher, ed.The Encyclopedia of Language and Linguistics. Oxford: Pergamon Press.1960–1968.
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Craig, C.
    1992 A constitutional response to language endangerment: The case of Nicaragua. Language68: 17–24. 10.1353/lan.1992.0077
    https://doi.org/10.1353/lan.1992.0077 [Google Scholar]
  3. Crystal, David
    2000Language Death. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9781139106856
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781139106856 [Google Scholar]
  4. Dua, Hans R.
    1985Language Planning in India. New Delhi: Harnam Publications.
    [Google Scholar]
  5. 1992Communication Policy and Language Planning. Mysore: Yashoda Publications.
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Fishman, J.
    1991Reversing Language Shift: Theoretical and Empirical Foundations of Assistance to Threatened Languages. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Garrett, P. , Nikolas, C. and Williams, A.
    2003Investigating Language Attitudes: Social Meanings of Dialect, Ethnicity and Performance. Cardiff: University of Wales Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Grenoble, L. A. & Whaley, L. J.
    2006Saving Languages: An Introduction to Language Revitalization. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Grimes, Barbara F.
    ed. 1996Ethnologue: Languages of the World, Fourteenth edition. Dallas, Texas: SIL International. Online version: www.ethnologue.com/14
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Hermes, M.
    2007 Moving toward the language: Reflections on teaching in an indigenous immersion school. Journal of American Indian Education46(1): 54–71.
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Hinton, L.
    2001 Sleeping languages: Can they be awakened?In Leanne Hinton and Kenneth L. Hale , eds.The Green Book of Language Revitalization in Practice. Netherlands: Brill. 411–432. 10.1163/9789004261723_032
    https://doi.org/10.1163/9789004261723_032 [Google Scholar]
  12. 2011 Revitalization of endangered languages. In Peter K. Austin and Julia Sallabank , eds.The Cambridge Handbook of Endangered Languages. Cambridge University Press. 291–311.
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Hoffman, C.
    1991An Introduction to Bilingualism. London: Longman.
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Juhuang, L.
    1990Language Attitude, Language Relations and Language Work. Tianjing Guiji Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Krauss, M.
    1992 The world’s language in crisis. Language68: 4–10. 10.1353/lan.1992.0075
    https://doi.org/10.1353/lan.1992.0075 [Google Scholar]
  16. Lehman, C.
    Date Unknown. Maori and Hawaiian language revitaization. https://www.academia.edu/5892446/Maori_and_Hawaiian_Language_revitalization. Accessed25th November 2019.
  17. May, S.
    2006 Language policy and minority rights. In T. Ricento , ed.An Introduction to Language Policy: Theory and Method. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell. 255–272.
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Meghanathan, R.
    2011 Language policy in education and the role of English in India: From library language to language of empowerment. In Hywel Coleman , ed.Dreams and Realities: Developing Countries and the English Language. United Kingdom: British Council.
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Moseley, Christopher
    ed. 2010Atlas of the World’s Languages in Danger. 3rd Edition. Paris: UNESCO Publishing.
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Nettle, Daniel and Suzanne Romaine
    2000Vanishing Voices: The Extinction of the World’s Languages. Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Rao, S.
    2008 India’s language debate and education of linguistic minorities. InEconomic and Political Weekly, India.
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Romaine, Suzanne
    2006 Planning for the survival of linguistic diversity. Language Policy5(4): 441–730. 10.1007/s10993‑006‑9034‑3
    https://doi.org/10.1007/s10993-006-9034-3 [Google Scholar]
  23. 2008 Linguistic diversity, sustainability, and the future of the past. In King , eds.Sustaining Linguistic Diversity: Endangered and Minority Languages and Languages Varieties. Washington DC: Georgetown University Press. 7–22.
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Sallabank, Julia
    2011 Language policy for endangered languages. In Peter K. Austin and Julia Sallabank . eds.The Cambridge Handbook of Endangered Languages. Cambridge University Press. 277–290.
    [Google Scholar]
  25. 2013Attitudes to Endangered Languages: Identities and Policies. Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9781139344166
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781139344166 [Google Scholar]
  26. Shahbaz, M. , Azam, L. and Rahim, A.
    2015 Language use and language attitudes of Pahari speakers towards Punjabi language: A sociolinguistic study of district Bhimber. Advances in Social Sceiences Research Journal2(3): 14–21.
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Singh, K. S.
    1993 An anthropological atlas: Ecology and cultural traits, languages and linguistic traits, demographic and biological traits. People of India11. India: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Singh, Parman
    2018 Revitalization of minority languages: Implications for language policy and planning. InIndian Languages and Culture: A Debate. India: The Marginalised Publication. 61–94.
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Singh, U. N. , Bhattacharjee, B. , Chakraborty, R. and Tripathi, A. K.
    2018Languages & Culture on Margin: Guidelines for Field Work on Endangered Languages. India, Timepass Publication.
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Warner, S. L.
    2001 The movement to revitalize Hawaiian language and culture. In Leanne Hinton and Kenneth L. Hale , eds.The Green Book of Revitalization in Practice. Brill: Netherlands. 10.1163/9789004261723_013
    https://doi.org/10.1163/9789004261723_013 [Google Scholar]
  31. Warschauer, M.
    1998 Technology and indigenous language eevitalization: Analyzing the experience of Hawaii. Canadian Modern Language Review55(1): 140–161. 10.3138/cmlr.55.1.139
    https://doi.org/10.3138/cmlr.55.1.139 [Google Scholar]
  32. BBC
    BBChttps://www.bbc.com/news. Accessed26th November 2019
  33. CENSUS India
    CENSUS Indiahttps://www.censusindia.gov.inAccessed12th November 2019
  34. Ethnologue
    Ethnologuehttps://www.ethnologue.com/Accessed16th May 2019
  35. Linguistic Atlas Project
    Linguistic Atlas Projectwww.lap.uga.edu/Site/LANE.htmlAccessed20th November 2019
  36. The Constitution of India
    The Constitution of Indialegislative.gov.in/sites/default/files/COI-updated.pdfAccessed25th November 2019
  37. The Hindu
    The Hinduhttps://www.thehindu.comAccessed20th November 2019
  38. UNESCO
  39. UNESCO
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.1075/le.19001.bha
Loading
/content/journals/10.1075/le.19001.bha
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Article Type: Other
Keyword(s): community attitude , language endangerment and language revitalization
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error