1887
Volume 3, Issue 2
  • ISSN 2452-1949
  • E-ISSN: 2452-2147
USD
Buy:$35.00 + Taxes

Abstract

Abstract

Kristang is the critically endangered heritage language of the Portuguese-Eurasian community in Singapore. Using newly-identified mentions of Kristang in the Singapore National Library Board’s NewspaperSG digitised collection, I present a preliminary sketch of a hitherto-undocumented and previously poorly understood part of Kristang’s history in Singapore between the 1880s and the late 1920s, demonstrating that, in addition to the use of Kristang in religious functions, there existed a vibrant Kristang theatre scene involving multiple Eurasian theatre troupes performing in Kristang. This in turn has allowed for a more coherent understanding of Kristang’s historical domains of use and the place of the language and speech community in multilingual colonial Singapore, especially in terms of its relationship with the various hybridised theatrical forms developing throughout Southeast Asia in the second half of the nineteenth century, and a revised understanding of Kristang’s history in Singapore overall.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1075/le.19003.won
2020-09-09
2020-09-26
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

References

  1. A Eurasian
    A Eurasian 1893a Eurasian society (1). The Singapore Free Press and Mercantile Advertiser. 20January 1893a eresources.nlb.gov.sg/newspapers/Digitised/Article/singfreepressb1893.0120-1.2.3.2Accessed24 February 2019.
    [Google Scholar]
  2. A Eurasian
    A Eurasian 1893b Eurasian society (2). The Singapore Free Press and Mercantile Advertiser. 23January 1893b eresources.nlb.gov.sg/newspapers/Digitised/Article/singfreepressb18930123-1.2.8.2Accessed24 February 2019.
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Anak Singapura
    Anak Singapura 1934 Notes of the day. The Straits Times. 4December 1934 eresources.nlb.gov.sg/newspapers/Digitised/Article/straitstimes19341204-1.2.47Accessed27 February 2019.
    [Google Scholar]
  4. B 1877 Communities, like individuals… [no title]. The Straits Times Overland Journal. 27December 1877 eresources.nlb.gov.sg/newspapers/Digitised/Article/stoverland18771227-1.2.12Accessed17 February 2019.
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Baxter, Alan Norman
    1988A Grammar of Kristang (Malacca Creole Portuguese). Canberra, Australia: Australian National University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  6. 1996 Portuguese and creole Portuguese in the Pacific. InPeter Mühlhäusler, Stephen Wurm and Darrell Tryon, eds.Atlas of Languages of Intercultural Communication in the Pacific, Asia, and the Americas. Berlin, Germany: Mouton de Gruyter. 299–338. 10.1515/9783110819724.2.299
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110819724.2.299 [Google Scholar]
  7. 2010 Vestiges of etymological gender in Malacca Creole Portuguese. Journal of Pidgin and Creole Languages25(1): 120–54. doi:  10.1075/jpcl.25.1.05bax
    https://doi.org/10.1075/jpcl.25.1.05bax [Google Scholar]
  8. 2018 Malacca Creole Portuguese in the 19th century: Evidence of a wider lectal range?Journal of Pidgin and Creole Languages33(2): 247–79. doi:  10.1075/jpcl.00016.bax
    https://doi.org/10.1075/jpcl.00016.bax [Google Scholar]
  9. Benjamin, Geoffrey
    1976 The cultural logic of Singapore’s “multiracialism”. InRiaz Hassan, ed.Singapore: Society in Transition. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia: Oxford University Press. 115–33.
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Boss, James Newton and Sadie-Jane Alexis Nunis
    2016Journey of 190 Years: A History of the Eurasian Catholic Community in Singapore 1825–2015. Singapore: Global Cultural Alliance Ltd.
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Braga-Blake, Myrna and Ann Ebert Oehlers
    1992Singapore Eurasians: Memories and Hopes. Singapore: Times Editions.
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Chandy, Gloria
    1979 St Anthony’s very simple beginnings: The Portuguese Mission first ran the schools in a shophouse. New Nation. 6August 1979 eresources.nlb.gov.sg/newspapers/Digitised/Article/newnation19790806-1.2.35Accessed28 February 2019.
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Coelho, Adolpho
    1886 Os dialetos romanicos ou neo-latinos na Africa, Asia e America. Boletim da Sociedade de Geographia de Lisboa6(12): 705–55.
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Cohen, Matthew Isaac
    2001 On the origin of the Komedie Stamboel: Popular culture, colonial society, and the Parsi theatre movement. Bijdragen tot de Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde157(2): 313–57. 10.1163/22134379‑90003811
    https://doi.org/10.1163/22134379-90003811 [Google Scholar]
  15. 2004Thousand and One Nights at the Komedie Stamboel: Popular theatre and travelling stories in colonial Southeast Asia. Middle Eastern Literatures7(2): 235–46. doi:  10.1080/1366616042000236914
    https://doi.org/10.1080/1366616042000236914 [Google Scholar]
  16. 2006The Komedie Stamboel: Popular Theater in Colonial Indonesia, 1891–1903. Athens, Ohio: Center for International Studies, Ohio University.
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Davenport, Bryan
    2004 Why Kristang not taught as mother tongue. The Straits Times. 8June 2004 Lexis Nexis. Accessed21 March 2016.
    [Google Scholar]
  18. De Silva Jayasuriya, Shihan
    2008The Portuguese in the East: A Cultural History of a Maritime Trading Empire. London, United Kingdom: Tauris Academic Books.
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Dickinson, A. H.
    1941 The history of the creation of the Malacca police. Journal of the Malayan Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society19(2): 251–83.
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Gunn, Geoffrey C.
    2003First Globalization: The Eurasian Exchange, 1500–1800. Lanham, Maryland: Rowman & Littlefield.
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Holm, John
    1989Pidgins and Creoles: Volume 2, Reference Survey. Cambridge, United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Imran bin Tajudeen
    Imran bin Tajudeen 2007 State constructs of ethnicity in the reinvention of Malay-Indonesian heritage in Singapore. Traditional Dwellings and Settlements Review18(2): 7–27.
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Jain, Ritu and Lionel Wee
    2018 Diversity management and the presumptive universality of categories: the case of the Indians in Singapore. Current Issues in Language Planning20(1): 16–32. doi:  10.1080/14664208.2018.1503386
    https://doi.org/10.1080/14664208.2018.1503386 [Google Scholar]
  24. Lee, Kip Lee
    1998 Peranakan street names. The Peranakan: Quarterly Newsletter of the Peranakan AssociationJan-Mar 1998: 7–8.
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Lee, Swee Hoon and Shamini Murugan
    1988 Eurasians today. The Straits Times. 25 December 1988. eresources.nlb.gov.sg/newspapers/Digitised/Article/straitstimes19881225-1.2.68.2Accessed29 March 2018.
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Lewis, M. Paul, Gary F. Simons and Charles D. Fennig
    2015 Malacca Creole Portuguese. InM. Paul Lewis, Gary F. Simons and Charles D. Fennig, eds.Ethnologue: Languages of the World, 18th ed.Dallas, Texas: SIL International.
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Mohd. Effindi Samsuddin and Rahmah Bujang
    2013Bangsawan: Creative patterns in production. Asian Theatre Journal30(1): 122–44. doi:  10.1353/atj.2013.0020
    https://doi.org/10.1353/atj.2013.0020 [Google Scholar]
  28. Pereira, Alexius Anthony
    2006 No longer “other”: The emergence of the Eurasian community in Singapore. InKwen Fee Lien, ed.Race, Ethnicity, and the State in Malaysia and Singapore. Leiden, the Netherlands: Brill. 5–32.
    [Google Scholar]
  29. 2016Singapore Chronicles: Eurasians. Singapore: Institute of Policy Studies and Straits Times Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  30. 2018 Eurasian community and culture in Singapore. InMathew Mathews, ed.The Singapore Ethnic Mosaic: Many cultures, One People. Singapore: World Scientific. 371–97. 10.1142/9789813234741_0013
    https://doi.org/10.1142/9789813234741_0013 [Google Scholar]
  31. Pillai, Patrick
    2015 Bumiquest: Malacca’s Portuguese Eurasians and the search for identity. InPatrick Pillai, ed.Yearning to Belong: Malaysia’s Indian Muslims, Chitties, Portuguese Eurasians, Peranakan Chinese and Baweanese. Singapore: ISEAS-Yusof Ishak Institute Publishing. 78–118. 10.1355/9789814519687‑008
    https://doi.org/10.1355/9789814519687-008 [Google Scholar]
  32. Rappa, Antonio L.
    2000 Surviving the politics of late modernity: The Eurasian fringe community of Singapore. Asian Journal of Social Science28(2): 153–80. 10.1163/030382400X00091
    https://doi.org/10.1163/030382400X00091 [Google Scholar]
  33. 2013Saudade: The Culture and Security of Eurasian Communities in Southeast Asia. Singapore: Singapore Management University & Ethos Books.
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Sarkissian, Margaret
    1995 “Sinhalese Girl” meets “Aunty Annie”: Competing expressions of ethnic identity in the Portuguese Settlement, Melaka, Malaysia. Asian Music27(1): 37–62. 10.2307/834496
    https://doi.org/10.2307/834496 [Google Scholar]
  35. 2005 Being Portuguese in Malacca: The politics of folk culture in Malaysia. Etnografica9: 149–70.
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Scheerder, J. C.
    1879 The Mutual Improvement Society. The Straits Times Overland Journal. 29April 1879 eresources.nlb.gov.sg/newspapers/Digitised/Article/stoverland18790429-1.2.8Accessed24 February 2019.
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Scully, Valerie
    . (Interview). Interviewed by Patricia Lee. Special Project, 002459, National Archives of Singapore: Oral History Interviews 2000www.nas.gov.sg/archivesonline/oral_history_interviews/record-details/6eaa0c69-115e-11e3-83d5-0050568939ad. Accessed24 February 2019.
  38. Scully, Valerie and Catherine Zuzarte
    2004The Most Comprehensive Eurasian Heritage dictionary: Kristang-English/English-Kristang. Singapore: SNP International.
    [Google Scholar]
  39. Shelley, Rex Anthony
    . (Interview). Shelley, Rex Anthony. Interviewed by Ghalpanah Thangaraju. Literary Scene in Singapore (English), 002602, Reel/Disc 1 of 12. National Archives of Singapore: Oral History Centre. 24January 1984www.nas.gov.sg/archivesonline/oral_history_interviews/record-details/414894c7-1160-11e3-83d5-0050568939ad. Accessed24February 2019.
    [Google Scholar]
  40. Teixeira, Manuel
    1958The Portuguese Missions in Melaka and Singapore. Lisbon, Portugal: Agência Geral do Ultramar.
    [Google Scholar]
  41. 1963Macau e a sua Diocese, V I: A Missão Portuguesa de Malaca. Lisbon, Portugal: Agência Geral do Ultramar.
    [Google Scholar]
  42. Tessensohn, Denyse
    2001Elvis Lived in Katong: Personal Singapore Eurasiana. Singapore: Dagmar Books.
    [Google Scholar]
  43. The Daily Advertiser
    The Daily Advertiser 1890a The members of St. Joseph’s Amateur Dramatic Society… [no title]. The Daily Advertiser. 24December 1890a eresources.nlb.gov.sg/newspapers/Digitised/Article/singfreepresswk18901224-1.2.7.1Accessed24 February 2019.
    [Google Scholar]
  44. The Daily Advertiser
    The Daily Advertiser 1890b We hear that the serio comic drama… [no title]. The Daily Advertiser. 24December 1890b eresources.nlb.gov.sg/newspapers/Digitised/Article/dailyadvertiser18901224-1.2.5Accessed24 February 2019.
    [Google Scholar]
  45. The Daily Advertiser
    The Daily Advertiser 1891 The St. Joseph’s Dramatic Society will give a repetition… [no title]. The Daily Advertiser. 27January 1891 eresources.nlb.gov.sg/newspapers/Digitised/Article/dailyadvertiser18910127-1.2.9.1Accessed24 February 2019.
    [Google Scholar]
  46. The Daily Advertiser
    The Daily Advertiser 1892a AMUSEMENTS. The Daily Advertiser. 20August 1892a eresources.nlb.gov.sg/newspapers/Digitised/Page/dailyadvertiser18920820-1.1.3Accessed27 February 2019.
    [Google Scholar]
  47. The Daily Advertiser
    The Daily Advertiser 1892b On Saturday next, at 9 p.m., the members… [no title]. The Daily Advertiser. 12March 1892b eresources.nlb.gov.sg/newspapers/Digitised/Article/dailyadvertiser18920312-1.2.7Accessed24 February 2019.
    [Google Scholar]
  48. The Daily Advertiser
    The Daily Advertiser 1892c The members of the St. Joseph’s Dramatic Society… [no title]. The Daily Advertiser. 21March 1892c eresources.nlb.gov.sg/newspapers/Digitised/Article/dailyadvertiser18920321-1.2.9Accessed24 February 2019.
    [Google Scholar]
  49. The Daily Advertiser
    The Daily Advertiser 1892d The Regina Theatrical Company. The Daily Advertiser. 18July 1892d eresources.nlb.gov.sg/newspapers/Digitised/Article/dailyadvertiser18920718-1.2.7Accessed17 February 2019.
    [Google Scholar]
  50. The Daily Advertiser
    The Daily Advertiser 1892e The church of St. Joseph yesterday… [no title]. The Daily Advertiser. 4July 1892e eresources.nlb.gov.sg/newspapers/Digitised/Page/dailyadvertiser18920704-1.1.3Accessed17 February 2018.
    [Google Scholar]
  51. The Daily Advertiser
    The Daily Advertiser 1892f On Saturday evening, the “Adolphinen Minstrels” gave a performance… [no title]. The Daily Advertiser4July 1892f eresources.nlb.gov.sg/newspapers/Digitised/Article/dailyadvertiser18920704-1.2.7Accessed27 February 2019.
    [Google Scholar]
  52. The Daily Advertiser
    The Daily Advertiser 1892g Yesterday, in the Church of St. Joseph… [no title]. The Daily Advertiser. 11July 1892g eresources.nlb.gov.sg/newspapers/Digitised/Article/dailyadvertiser18920711-1.2.6Accessed17 February 2019.
    [Google Scholar]
  53. The Daily Advertiser
    The Daily Advertiser 1892h The Regina Theatrical Company will perform on Saturday night… [no title]. The Daily Advertiser. 13July 1892h eresources.nlb.gov.sg/newspapers/Digitised/Article/dailyadvertiser18920713-1.2.7Accessed27 February 2019.
    [Google Scholar]
  54. The Daily Advertiser
    The Daily Advertiser 1892i The entertainment, it may be mentioned… [no title]. The Daily Advertiser. 25July 1892i eresources.nlb.gov.sg/newspapers/Digitised/Page/dailyadvertiser18920725-1.1.3Accessed27 February 2019.
    [Google Scholar]
  55. The Daily Advertiser
    The Daily Advertiser 1892j Local and general. The Daily Advertiser. 26July 1892j eresources.nlb.gov.sg/newspapers/Digitised/Article/dailyadvertiser18920726-1.2.6Accessed17 February 2019.
    [Google Scholar]
  56. The Daily Advertiser
    The Daily Advertiser 1892k The members of the Straits Eurasian Theatrical Company… [no title]. The Daily Advertiser. 1August 1892k eresources.nlb.gov.sg/newspapers/Digitised/Article/dailyadvertiser18920801-1.2.8Accessed27 February 2019.
    [Google Scholar]
  57. The Daily Advertiser
    The Daily Advertiser 1892l The “Adolphinen Minstrel Company”. The Daily Advertiser. 5August 1892l eresources.nlb.gov.sg/newspapers/Digitised/Page/dailyadvertiser18920805-1.1.3Accessed27 February 2019.
    [Google Scholar]
  58. The Daily Advertiser
    The Daily Advertiser 1892m The rising Eurasians. The Daily Advertiser. 8August 1892m eresources.nlb.gov.sg/newspapers/Digitised/Page/dailyadvertiser18920808-1.1.3Accessed27 February 2019.
    [Google Scholar]
  59. The Daily Advertiser
    The Daily Advertiser 1892n The 40 Robbers. The Daily Advertiser. 3September 1892n eresources.nlb.gov.sg/newspapers/Digitised/Page/dailyadvertiser18920903-1.1.3Accessed27 February 2019.
    [Google Scholar]
  60. The Daily Advertiser
    The Daily Advertiser 1892o Ali Baba and the 40 Robbers. The Daily Advertiser. 5September 1892o eresources.nlb.gov.sg/newspapers/Digitised/Article/dailyadvertiser18920905-1.2.7Accessed27 February 2019.
    [Google Scholar]
  61. The Daily Advertiser
    The Daily Advertiser 1892p The “Merchant of Venice”, one of Shakespeare’s plays… [no title]. The Daily Advertiser. 30December 1892p eresources.nlb.gov.sg/newspapers/Digitised/Article/dailyadvertiser18921230-1.2.10Accessed27 February 2019.
    [Google Scholar]
  62. The Daily Advertiser
    The Daily Advertiser 1893a The proprietor of the Jalan Besar theatre hall… [no title]. The Daily Advertiser. 7January 1893a eresources.nlb.gov.sg/newspapers/Digitised/Article/dailyadvertiser18930107-1.2.5Accessed27 February 2019.
    [Google Scholar]
  63. The Daily Advertiser
    The Daily Advertiser 1893b The Merchant of Venice. The Daily Advertiser. 9January 1893b eresources.nlb.gov.sg/newspapers/Digitised/Article/dailyadvertiser18930109-1.2.7Accessed27 February 2019.
    [Google Scholar]
  64. The Daily Advertiser
    The Daily Advertiser 1893c By special request, the Angelic Troupe will give a repetition… [no title]. The Daily Advertiser. 2February 1893c eresources.nlb.gov.sg/newspapers/Digitised/Page/dailyadvertiser18930202-1.1.3Accessed27 February 2019.
    [Google Scholar]
  65. The Daily Advertiser
    The Daily Advertiser 1893d What might be termed the best performance that has ever been given… [no title]. The Daily Advertiser. 11February 1893d eresources.nlb.gov.sg/newspapers/Digitised/Page/dailyadvertiser18930211-1.1.3Accessed27 February 2019.
    [Google Scholar]
  66. The Daily Advertiser
    The Daily Advertiser 1893e Portuguese theatre. The Daily Advertiser. 8September 1893e eresources.nlb.gov.sg/newspapers/Digitised/Article/dailyadvertiser18930908-1.2.11.1Accessed27 February 2019.
    [Google Scholar]
  67. The Daily Advertiser
    The Daily Advertiser 1893f The St. Joseph’s Dramatic Society. The Daily Advertiser. 13October 1893f eresources.nlb.gov.sg/newspapers/Digitised/Article/dailyadvertiser18931013-1.2.12Accessed24 February 2019.
    [Google Scholar]
  68. The Malaya Tribune
    The Malaya Tribune 1916a The Oriental Portuguese Amateur Dramatic Coy… [no title]. The Malaya Tribune. 7December 1916a eresources.nlb.gov.sg/newspapers/Digitised/Article/maltribune19161207-1.2.18.2Accessed27 February 2019.
    [Google Scholar]
  69. The Malaya Tribune
    The Malaya Tribune 1916b Portuguese aid. The Malaya Tribune. 9December 1916b eresources.nlb.gov.sg/newspapers/Digitised/Article/maltribune19161209-1.2.21Accessed27 February 2019.
    [Google Scholar]
  70. The Malaya Tribune
    The Malaya Tribune 1917 Our Day Fund: Portuguese Aid. The Malaya Tribune. 16November 1917 eresources.nlb.gov.sg/newspapers/Digitised/Article/maltribune19171116-1.2.37Accessed27 February 2019.
    [Google Scholar]
  71. The Malaya Tribune
    The Malaya Tribune 1919a Star of Hope Amateurs. The Malaya Tribune. 1August 1919a eresources.nlb.gov.sg/newspapers/Digitised/Article/maltribune19190801-1.2.32Accessed27 February 2019.
    [Google Scholar]
  72. The Malaya Tribune
    The Malaya Tribune 1919b We are informed that a performance entitled Harischandra… [no title]. The Malaya Tribune. 17September 1919b eresources.nlb.gov.sg/newspapers/Digitised/Page/maltribune19190917-1.1.5Accessed27 February 2019.
    [Google Scholar]
  73. The Malaya Tribune
    The Malaya Tribune 1919c Star of Hope Amateurs. The Malaya Tribune. 31October 1919c eresources.nlb.gov.sg/newspapers/Digitised/Article/maltribune19191031-1.2.28Accessed28 February 2019.
    [Google Scholar]
  74. The Malaya Tribune
    The Malaya Tribune 1921 A record house, under the patronage of Mr Lim Chin Kuan… [no title]. The Malaya Tribune. 14October 1921 eresources.nlb.gov.sg/newspapers/Digitised/Article/maltribune19211014-1.2.53Accessed27 February 2019.
    [Google Scholar]
  75. The Malaya Tribune
    The Malaya Tribune 1922a The “Star of Hope” Amateurs present their play… [no title]. The Malaya Tribune. 4October 1922a eresources.nlb.gov.sg/newspapers/Digitised/Article/maltribune19221004-1.2.25Accessed27 February 2019.
    [Google Scholar]
  76. The Malaya Tribune
    The Malaya Tribune 1922b On Wednesday last the Star of Hope Amateurs… [no title]. The Malaya Tribune. 10October 1922b eresources.nlb.gov.sg/newspapers/Digitised/Article/maltribune19221010-1.2.34Accessed27 February 2019.
    [Google Scholar]
  77. The Malaya Tribune
    The Malaya Tribune 1922c By special requests, the united Dramatic Amateurs of Singapore… [no title]. The Malaya Tribune. 18October 1922c eresources.nlb.gov.sg/newspapers/Digitised/Article/maltribune19221018-1.2.48Accessed27 February 2019.
    [Google Scholar]
  78. The Malaya Tribune
    The Malaya Tribune 1922d Antonio’s Fate. The Malaya Tribune. 20October 1922d eresources.nlb.gov.sg/newspapers/Digitised/Article/maltribune19221020-1.2.35Accessed27 February 2019.
    [Google Scholar]
  79. The Malaya Tribune
    The Malaya Tribune 1923a THE PORTUGUESE AMATEUR DRAMATIC CO. The Malaya Tribune. 1February 1923a eresources.nlb.gov.sg/newspapers/Digitised/Article/maltribune19230131-1.2.11.4Accessed27 February 2019.
    [Google Scholar]
  80. The Malaya Tribune
    The Malaya Tribune 1923b The Portuguese Amateur Dramatic Co. will stage an interesting… [no title]. The Malaya Tribune. 22March 1923b eresources.nlb.gov.sg/newspapers/Digitised/Article/maltribune19230322-1.2.25Accessed27 February 2019.
    [Google Scholar]
  81. The Malaya Tribune
    The Malaya Tribune 1924a The Portuguese Amateurs Dramatic Company of Singapore… [no title]. The Malaya Tribune. 1May 1924a eresources.nlb.gov.sg/newspapers/Digitised/Article/maltribune19240501-1.2.16.2Accessed27 February 2019.
    [Google Scholar]
  82. The Malaya Tribune
    The Malaya Tribune 1924b Portuguese ladies play. The Malaya Tribune. 5May 1924b eresources.nlb.gov.sg/newspapers/Digitised/Article/maltribune19240505-1.2.36Accessed27 February 2019.
    [Google Scholar]
  83. The Malaya Tribune
    The Malaya Tribune 1924c The United Dramatic Amateurs will give a repetition… [no title]. The Malaya Tribune. 10July 1924c eresources.nlb.gov.sg/newspapers/Digitised/Page/maltribune19240710-1.1.5Accessed27 February 2019.
    [Google Scholar]
  84. The Malaya Tribune
    The Malaya Tribune 1926a The Star of Hope are preparing a comical Chinese play… [no title]. The Malaya Tribune. 2September 1926a eresources.nlb.gov.sg/newspapers/Digitised/Article/maltribune19260902-1.2.21Accessed27 February 2019.
    [Google Scholar]
  85. The Malaya Tribune
    The Malaya Tribune 1926b The Portuguese Amateur Dramatic Company will give a performance… [no title]. The Malaya Tribune. 6September 1926b eresources.nlb.gov.sg/newspapers/Digitised/Article/maltribune19260906-1.2.21Accessed27 February 2019.
    [Google Scholar]
  86. The Malaya Tribune
    The Malaya Tribune 1926c To-night no performance… [no title]. The Malaya Tribune. 9September 1926c eresources.nlb.gov.sg/newspapers/Digitised/Page/maltribune19260909-1.1.4Accessed27 February 2019.
    [Google Scholar]
  87. The Singapore Free Press and Mercantile Adviser
    The Singapore Free Press and Mercantile Adviser 1890 St. Joseph’s Amateur Dramatic Society. The Singapore Free Press and Mercantile Adviser. 24December 1890 eresources.nlb.gov.sg/newspapers/Digitised/Article/singfreepresswk18901224-1.2.62Accessed24 February 2019.
    [Google Scholar]
  88. The Singapore Free Press and Mercantile Adviser
    The Singapore Free Press and Mercantile Adviser 1891a Gazette Notifications. The Singapore Free Press and Mercantile Advertiser. 15December 1891a eresources.nlb.gov.sg/newspapers/Digitised/Article/singfreepresswk18911215-1.2.8Accessed27 February 2019.
    [Google Scholar]
  89. The Singapore Free Press and Mercantile Adviser
    The Singapore Free Press and Mercantile Adviser 1891b St Joseph’s Dramatic Society will give… [no title]. The Singapore Free Press and Mercantile Advertiser. 15December 1891b eresources.nlb.gov.sg/newspapers/Digitised/Article/singfreepressb18911215-1.2.6.3Accessed24 February 2019.
    [Google Scholar]
  90. The Singapore Free Press and Mercantile Adviser
    The Singapore Free Press and Mercantile Adviser 1891c St. Joseph’s Dramatic Society. The Singapore Free Press and Mercantile Adviser. 22December 1891c eresources.nlb.gov.sg/newspapers/Digitised/Article/singfreepressb18911222-1.2.17Accessed27 February 2019.
    [Google Scholar]
  91. The Singapore Free Press and Mercantile Adviser
    The Singapore Free Press and Mercantile Adviser 1892a Carnival Feast. The Singapore Free Press and Mercantile Adviser. 3March 1892a eresources.nlb.gov.sg/newspapers/Digitised/Article/singfreepressb18920303-1.2.7Accessed27 February 2019.
    [Google Scholar]
  92. The Singapore Free Press and Mercantile Adviser
    The Singapore Free Press and Mercantile Adviser 1892b St. Joseph’s Dramatic Society will give a performance… [no title]. The Singapore Free Press and Mercantile Adviser. 14March 1892b eresources.nlb.gov.sg/newspapers/Digitised/Article/singfreepressb18920314-1.2.9.4Accessed27 February 2019.
    [Google Scholar]
  93. The Singapore Free Press and Mercantile Adviser
    The Singapore Free Press and Mercantile Adviser 1892c St Joseph’s Dramatic Society. The Singapore Free Press and Mercantile Adviser. 21March 1892c eresources.nlb.gov.sg/newspapers/Digitised/Article/singfreepressb18920321-1.2.18Accessed24 February 2019.
    [Google Scholar]
  94. The Singapore Free Press and Mercantile Adviser
    The Singapore Free Press and Mercantile Adviser 1892d Domestic occurrence. The Singapore Free Press and Mercantile Adviser. 20October 1892d eresources.nlb.gov.sg/newspapers/Digitised/Article/singfreepressb18921020-1.2.2Accessed27 February 2019.
    [Google Scholar]
  95. The Singapore Free Press and Mercantile Adviser
    The Singapore Free Press and Mercantile Adviser 1894 The Stamboul Opera Co. gave their opening performance… [no title]. The Singapore Free Press and Mercantile Adviser. 19February 1894 eresources.nlb.gov.sg/newspapers/Digitised/Page/singfreepressb18940219-1.1.3Accessed27 February 2019.
    [Google Scholar]
  96. The Singapore Free Press and Mercantile Adviser
    The Singapore Free Press and Mercantile Adviser 1895 The Portuguese community of Singapore are making preparations… [no title]. The Singapore Free Press and Mercantile Adviser. 26February 1895 eresources.nlb.gov.sg/newspapers/Digitised/Article/singfreepresswk18950226-1.2.64Accessed27 February 2019.
    [Google Scholar]
  97. The Singapore Free Press and Mercantile Adviser
    The Singapore Free Press and Mercantile Adviser 1896 To-day, being Ash Wednesday, commences Lent… [no title]. The Singapore Free Press and Mercantile Adviser. 25February 1896 eresources.nlb.gov.sg/newspapers/Digitised/Page/singfreepresswk18960225-1.1.5Accessed27 February 2019.
    [Google Scholar]
  98. The Singapore Free Press and Mercantile Adviser
    The Singapore Free Press and Mercantile Adviser 1898 There were not many Carnival demonstrations… [no title]. The Singapore Free Press and Mercantile Adviser. 21February 1898 eresources.nlb.gov.sg/newspapers/Digitised/Article/singfreepressb18980221-1.2.4Accessed27 February 2019.
    [Google Scholar]
  99. The Singapore Free Press and Mercantile Adviser
    The Singapore Free Press and Mercantile Adviser 1904a A local company from the Portuguese community… [no title]. The Singapore Free Press and Mercantile Adviser. 9May 1904a eresources.nlb.gov.sg/newspapers/Digitised/Article/singfreepressb19040509-1.2.4Accessed27 February 2019.
    [Google Scholar]
  100. The Singapore Free Press and Mercantile Adviser
    The Singapore Free Press and Mercantile Adviser 1904b Last night in the Wayang Kassim… [no title]. The Singapore Free Press and Mercantile Adviser. 13May 1904b eresources.nlb.gov.sg/newspapers/Digitised/Article/singfreepressb19040513-1.2.5Accessed27 February 2019.
    [Google Scholar]
  101. The Singapore Free Press and Mercantile Adviser
    The Singapore Free Press and Mercantile Adviser 1904c To-morrow night the Portuguese who gave a rendering… [no title]. The Singapore Free Press and Mercantile Adviser. 1June 1904c eresources.nlb.gov.sg/newspapers/Digitised/Article/singfreepresswk19040609-1.2.23Accessed27 February 2019.
    [Google Scholar]
  102. The Singapore Free Press and Mercantile Adviser
    The Singapore Free Press and Mercantile Adviser 1904d Last night the Portuguese Amateur Theatrical Company… [no title]. The Singapore Free Press and Mercantile Adviser. 9June 1904d eresources.nlb.gov.sg/newspapers/Digitised/Article/singfreepresswk19040609-1.2.51Accessed27 February 2019.
    [Google Scholar]
  103. The Singapore Free Press and Mercantile Adviser
    The Singapore Free Press and Mercantile Adviser 1905a The Regina Theatrical Coy of Singapore… [no title]. The Singapore Free Press and Mercantile Adviser. 15June 1905a eresources.nlb.gov.sg/newspapers/Digitised/Article/singfreepressb19050615-1.2.4.1Accessed27 February 2019.
    [Google Scholar]
  104. The Singapore Free Press and Mercantile Adviser
    The Singapore Free Press and Mercantile Adviser 1905b A Portuguese play. The Singapore Free Press and Mercantile Adviser. 22June 1905b eresources.nlb.gov.sg/newspapers/Digitised/Article/singfreepresswk19050622-1.2.38Accessed27 February 2019.
    [Google Scholar]
  105. The Singapore Free Press and Mercantile Adviser
    The Singapore Free Press and Mercantile Adviser 1905c The Regina Theatrical Co. will give… [no title]. The Singapore Free Press and Mercantile Adviser. 22June 1905c eresources.nlb.gov.sg/newspapers/Digitised/Page/singfreepressb19050622-1.1.2Accessed27 February 2019.
    [Google Scholar]
  106. The Singapore Free Press and Mercantile Adviser
    The Singapore Free Press and Mercantile Adviser 1910a The Wilhelmina Theatrical Coy. will perform… [no title]. The Singapore Free Press and Mercantile Adviser. 8June 1910a eresources.nlb.gov.sg/newspapers/Digitised/Article/singfreepressb19100608-1.2.15Accessed27 February 2019.
    [Google Scholar]
  107. The Singapore Free Press and Mercantile Adviser
    The Singapore Free Press and Mercantile Adviser 1910b The Enchanted Horse. The Singapore Free Press and Mercantile Adviser. 15September 1910b eresources.nlb.gov.sg/newspapers/Digitised/Article/singfreepresswk19100915-1.2.66Accessed27 February 2019.
    [Google Scholar]
  108. The Singapore Free Press and Mercantile Adviser
    The Singapore Free Press and Mercantile Adviser 1911 The Star of Hope amateurs will stage… [no title]. The Singapore Free Press and Mercantile Adviser. 14February 1911 eresources.nlb.gov.sg/newspapers/Digitised/Article/singfreepressb19110214-1.2.12Accessed27 February 2019.
    [Google Scholar]
  109. The Singapore Free Press and Mercantile Adviser
    The Singapore Free Press and Mercantile Adviser 1917a Our Day Fund: Portuguese Amateur Dramatic Co… [no title]. The Singapore Free Press and Mercantile Adviser. 14November 1917a eresources.nlb.gov.sg/newspapers/Digitised/Article/singfreepressb19171114-1.2.7.1Accessed27 February 2019.
    [Google Scholar]
  110. The Singapore Free Press and Mercantile Adviser
    The Singapore Free Press and Mercantile Adviser 1917b Our Day Fund… [no title]. The Singapore Free Press and Mercantile Adviser. 15November 1917b eresources.nlb.gov.sg/newspapers/Digitised/Article/singfreepressb19171114-1.2.7.1Accessed27 February 2019.
    [Google Scholar]
  111. The Singapore Free Press and Mercantile Adviser
    The Singapore Free Press and Mercantile Adviser 1919 The Star of Hope Amateurs will stage their fifth performance… [no title]. The Singapore Free Press and Mercantile Adviser. 11July 1919 eresources.nlb.gov.sg/newspapers/Digitised/Article/singfreepressb19190711-1.2.14Accessed27 February 2019.
    [Google Scholar]
  112. The Singapore Weekly Herald
    The Singapore Weekly Herald 1889 Distribution of Prizes and Entertainment at St. Anthony’s School. The Singapore Weekly Herald. 2February 1889 eresources.nlb.gov.sg/newspapers/Digitised/Article/singweekherald18890202-1.2.9Accessed17 February 2019.
    [Google Scholar]
  113. The Straits Observer
    The Straits Observer 1875 In Mr Skinner’s Educational Report for 1873… [no title]. The Straits Observer. 11January 1875 eresources.nlb.gov.sg/newspapers/Digitised/Article/straitsobserver18750111-1.2.3Accessed27 February 2019.
    [Google Scholar]
  114. The Straits Observer
    The Straits Observer 1876 The Eurasian community of this place… [no title]. The Straits Observer. 2September 1876 eresources.nlb.gov.sg/newspapers/Digitised/Article/straitsobserver18760902-1.2.3Accessed27 February 2019.
    [Google Scholar]
  115. The Straits Telegraph
    The Straits Telegraph 1899 The season of Lent was ushered in… [no title]. The Straits Telegraph. 16February 1899 eresources.nlb.gov.sg/newspapers/Digitised/Page/straitstelegraph18990216-1.1.2Accessed27 February 2019.
    [Google Scholar]
  116. The Straits Times
    The Straits Times 1877a News of the Week (Monday, 26th February). The Straits Times. 3March 1877a eresources.nlb.gov.sg/newspapers/Digitised/Article/straitstimes18770303-1.2.17.1Accessed27 February 2019.
    [Google Scholar]
  117. The Straits Times
    The Straits Times 1877b We are informed that a society… [no title]. Supplement to the Straits Times. 28April 1877b eresources.nlb.gov.sg/newspapers/Digitised/Article/straitstimes18770428-1.2.22.4Accessed27 February 2019.
    [Google Scholar]
  118. The Straits Times
    The Straits Times 1877c The Christian Brothers’ School. The Straits Times. 28July 1877c eresources.nlb.gov.sg/newspapers/Digitised/Article/straitstimes18770728-1.2.10Accessed27 February 2019.
    [Google Scholar]
  119. The Straits Times
    The Straits Times 1877d Dr. Dennys has consented to deliver… [no title]. Supplement to the Straits Times. 1December 1877d eresources.nlb.gov.sg/newspapers/Digitised/Article/straitstimes18771201-1.2.9.2Accessed27 February 2019.
    [Google Scholar]
  120. The Straits Times
    The Straits Times 1877e On Monday last an entertainment was given… [no title]. The Straits Times Overland Journal. 6December 1877e eresources.nlb.gov.sg/newspapers/Digitised/Article/stoverland18771206-1.2.5Accessed27 February 2019.
    [Google Scholar]
  121. The Straits Times
    The Straits Times 1878a The Amateur Eurasian Society… [no title]. The Straits Times. 20July 1878a eresources.nlb.gov.sg/newspapers/Digitised/Article/straitstimes18780720-1.2.4Accessed27 February 2019.
    [Google Scholar]
  122. The Straits Times
    The Straits Times 1878b The Eurasian Amateur Dramatic and Musical Society… [no title]. The Straits Times Overland Journal. 27July 1878b eresources.nlb.gov.sg/newspapers/Digitised/Article/stoverland18780727-1.2.17Accessed27 February 2019.
    [Google Scholar]
  123. The Straits Times
    The Straits Times 1878c The Eurasian Amateur Dramatic and Musical Society… [no title]. Supplement to the Straits Times. 27July 1878c eresources.nlb.gov.sg/newspapers/Digitised/Article/straitstimes18780727-1.2.15Accessed27 February 2019.
    [Google Scholar]
  124. The Straits Times
    The Straits Times 1881 The Portuguese residents of the place have been holding a carnival… [no title]. The Straits Times Overland Journal. 7March 1881 eresources.nlb.gov.sg/newspapers/Digitised/Article/stoverland18810307-1.2.18Accessed27 February 2019.
    [Google Scholar]
  125. The Straits Times
    The Straits Times 1883 The performance in the Town Hall… [no title]. The Straits Times. 3February 1883 eresources.nlb.gov.sg/newspapers/Digitised/Article/straitstimes18830203-1.2.8Accessed27 February 2019.
    [Google Scholar]
  126. The Straits Times
    The Straits Times 1886 The Carnival feast, which is always celebrated… [no title]. The Straits Times. 9March 1886 eresources.nlb.gov.sg/newspapers/Digitised/Article/straitstimes18860309-1.2.10Accessed27 February 2019.
    [Google Scholar]
  127. The Straits Times
    The Straits Times 1889 The annual Carnival feast was celebrated… [no title]. The Straits Times. 6March 1889 eresources.nlb.gov.sg/newspapers/Digitised/Page/straitstimes18890306-1.1.2Accessed27 February 2019.
    [Google Scholar]
  128. The Straits Times
    The Straits Times 1890 Prize Distribution and Concert. The Straits Times. 18February 1890 eresources.nlb.gov.sg/newspapers/Digitised/Article/stweekly18900218-1.2.55Accessed17 February 2019.
    [Google Scholar]
  129. The Straits Times
    The Straits Times 1891a The St. Joseph’s Amateur Dramatic Society will repeat… [no title]. The Straits Times. 4February 1891a eresources.nlb.gov.sg/newspapers/Digitised/Article/stweekly18910204-1.2.38Accessed24 February 2019.
    [Google Scholar]
  130. The Straits Times
    The Straits Times 1891b St Joseph’s Dramatic Society. The Straits Times. 30December 1891b eresources.nlb.gov.sg/newspapers/Digitised/Article/stweekly18911230-1.2.11Accessed27 February 2019.
    [Google Scholar]
  131. The Straits Times
    The Straits Times 1892 The Portuguese class started by Father Baptista… [no title]. The Straits Times Weekly Issue. 16February 1892 eresources.nlb.gov.sg/newspapers/Digitised/Article/stweekly18920216-1.2.55Accessed17 February 2019.
    [Google Scholar]
  132. The Straits Times
    The Straits Times 1897 The Carnival. The Straits Times. 1March 1897 eresources.nlb.gov.sg/newspapers/Digitised/Article/straitstimes18970301-1.2.24Accessed27 February 2019.
    [Google Scholar]
  133. The Straits Times
    The Straits Times 1903 It will be seen from a notice published… [no title]. The Straits Times. 6May 1903 eresources.nlb.gov.sg/newspapers/Digitised/Article/straitstimes19030506-1.2.51Accessed27 February 2019.
    [Google Scholar]
  134. The Straits Times
    The Straits Times 1908 Wayang Kassim’s First Night at the Royal. The Straits Times. 15June 1908 eresources.nlb.gov.sg/newspapers/Digitised/Article/straitstimes19080615-1.2.83Accessed27 February 2019.
    [Google Scholar]
  135. The Straits Times
    The Straits Times 1910a The Portuguese Amateur Dramatic Company will stage… [no title]. The Straits Times. 5August 1910a eresources.nlb.gov.sg/newspapers/Digitised/Article/straitstimes19100805-1.2.95.5Accessed27 February 2019.
    [Google Scholar]
  136. The Straits Times
    The Straits Times 1910b The Portuguese Amateur Dramatic Company… [no title]. The Straits Times. 13August 1910b eresources.nlb.gov.sg/newspapers/Digitised/Article/straitstimes19100813-1.2.43Accessed27 February 2019.
    [Google Scholar]
  137. The Straits Times
    The Straits Times 1910c Under the patronage and in the presence of… [no title]. The Straits Times. 18August 1910c eresources.nlb.gov.sg/newspapers/Digitised/Article/straitstimes19100816-1.2.80.2Accessed27 February 2019.
    [Google Scholar]
  138. The Straits Times
    The Straits Times 1910d The St Joseph’s Dramatic and Mutual Improvement Association… [no title]. The Straits Times. 29November 1910d eresources.nlb.gov.sg/newspapers/Digitised/Article/straitstimes19101129-1.2.74.5Accessed27 February 2019.
    [Google Scholar]
  139. The Straits Times
    The Straits Times 1918 To-night, at the Theatre Royal… [no title]. The Straits Times. 14February 1918 eresources.nlb.gov.sg/newspapers/Digitised/Article/straitstimes19180214-1.2.53.1Accessed27 February 2019.
    [Google Scholar]
  140. The Straits Times
    The Straits Times 1919a The Black Brigade Amateurs will stage the play Harischandra… [no title]. The Straits Times. 2October 1919a eresources.nlb.gov.sg/newspapers/Digitised/Article/straitstimes19191002-1.2.68Accessed27 February 2019.
    [Google Scholar]
  141. The Straits Times
    The Straits Times 1919b The Star of Hope Amateurs, who have recently staged… [no title]. The Straits Times. 2October 1919b eresources.nlb.gov.sg/newspapers/Digitised/Article/straitstimes19191002-1.2.68Accessed27 February 2019.
    [Google Scholar]
  142. The Straits Times
    The Straits Times 1919c There was a good house last night at the Theatre Royal… [no title]. The Straits Times. 31October 1919c eresources.nlb.gov.sg/newspapers/Digitised/Article/straitstimes19191031-1.2.74Accessed27 February 2019.
    [Google Scholar]
  143. The Straits Times
    The Straits Times 1921 To-night, at the Theatre Royal, North Bridge Road… [no title]. The Straits Times. 13October 1921 eresources.nlb.gov.sg/newspapers/Digitised/Article/straitstimes19211013-1.2.86Accessed27 February 2019.
    [Google Scholar]
  144. The Straits Times
    The Straits Times 1923a The Portuguese Amateur Dramatic Co. will stage… [no title]. The Straits Times. 23March 1923a eresources.nlb.gov.sg/newspapers/Digitised/Article/straitstimes19230323-1.2.33Accessed27 February 2019.
    [Google Scholar]
  145. The Straits Times
    The Straits Times 1923b Amateur Dramatics. The Straits Times. 6April 1923b eresources.nlb.gov.sg/newspapers/Digitised/Article/straitstimes19230406-1.2.74Accessed27 February 2019.
    [Google Scholar]
  146. The Straits Times
    The Straits Times 1924a By special request a repetition will be given… [no title]. The Straits Times. 31January 1924a eresources.nlb.gov.sg/newspapers/Digitised/Article/straitstimes19240131-1.2.69Accessed27 February 2019.
    [Google Scholar]
  147. The Straits Times
    The Straits Times 1924b The Portuguese Amateur Dramatic Company of Singapore will stage… [no title]. The Straits Times. 28April 1924b eresources.nlb.gov.sg/newspapers/Digitised/Article/straitstimes19240428-1.2.29Accessed27 February 2019.
    [Google Scholar]
  148. The Straits Times
    The Straits Times 1924c To-night opera Portuguese… [no title]. The Straits Times. 12May 1924c eresources.nlb.gov.sg/newspapers/Digitised/Article/straitstimes19240512-1.2.21.3Accessed27 February 2019.
    [Google Scholar]
  149. The Straits Times
    The Straits Times 1924d St. Anthony’s Convent. The Straits Times. 28October 1924d eresources.nlb.gov.sg/newspapers/Digitised/Article/straitstimes19241028-1.2.81Accessed27 February 2019.
    [Google Scholar]
  150. Thulaja, Naidu Ratnala
    2004 Raffles Hospital. Singapore Infopedia. 27December 2004 eresources.nlb.gov.sg/infopedia/articles/SIP_338_2004-12-27.htmlAccessed27 February 2019.
    [Google Scholar]
  151. Turtle
    Turtle 1876 I have not read Mr Pickering’s article… [no title]. The Straits Observer. 9December 1876 eresources.nlb.gov.sg/newspapers/Digitised/Article/straitsobserver18761209-1.2.5.2Accessed17 February 2019.
    [Google Scholar]
  152. van der Putten, Jan
    2014Bangsawan: The coming of a popular Malay theatrical form. Indonesia and the Malay World42(123): 268–85. doi:  10.1080/13639811.2014.907979
    https://doi.org/10.1080/13639811.2014.907979 [Google Scholar]
  153. Vande Walle, Willy
    2013 Malacca under Dutch rule (1641–1795 and 1818–1825). InLuís Filipe Barreto and Zhiliang Wu, eds.Port Cities and Intercultural Relations: 15th–18th Centuries. Lisbon, Portugal: Centro Científico e Cultural de Macau. 83–178.
    [Google Scholar]
  154. Wee, Lionel
    2002 When English is not a mother tongue: Linguistic ownership and the Eurasian community in Singapore. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development23(4): 282–95. doi:  10.1080/01434630208666470
    https://doi.org/10.1080/01434630208666470 [Google Scholar]
  155. Wong, Kevin Martens
    2017 Bos papiah Kristang? (Do you speak Kristang?): A Eurasian linguistic legacy. InMyrna Braga-Blake, Ann Ebert-Oehlers and Alexius Anthony Pereira, eds.Singapore Eurasians: Memories, Hopes and Dreams, 2nd ed.Singapore: World Scientific. 369–79. 10.1142/9789813109605_0016
    https://doi.org/10.1142/9789813109605_0016 [Google Scholar]
  156. . fc. Kodrah Kristang: The initiative to revitalize the Kristang language in Singapore. InMário Pinharanda-Nunes and Hugo C. Cardoso eds. Special Publication 19: Documentation and Maintenance of Contact Languages from South to East Asia. Journal of Language Documentation and Conservation19: 35–122.
    [Google Scholar]
  157. Yeoh, Brenda S. A., Kristel Acedera and Esther Rootham
    2018 Negotiating postcolonial Eurasian identities and national belonging in global-city Singapore. Social Identities: Journal for the Study of Race, Nation and Culture: 1–15. doi:  10.1080/13504630.2018.1500168
    https://doi.org/10.1080/13504630.2018.1500168 [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.1075/le.19003.won
Loading
/content/journals/10.1075/le.19003.won
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Article Type: Research Article
Keyword(s): bangsawan , Eurasian drama , Eurasian theatre , Kristang , language archives , language revitalization and Singapore
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error