Volume 41, Issue 2
  • ISSN 0378-4169
  • E-ISSN: 1569-9927
Buy:$35.00 + Taxes



This study describes the outcomes of a POS-based method for the automatic extraction of Italian oral academic collocations from an annotated corpus. A frequency statistical measure is applied to automatically extract the collocations from the POS-tagged corpus. The results reveal that frequency alone is not sufficient to measure the degree of association that connects the two elements of a word pair. In order to detect the real-attested Italian collocations, the data has been further evaluated by 50 Italian native speakers. The results indicate that these combinations are tightly linked to their context of usage. Thus, native speakers should be exposed to these phrasal contexts to activate their mechanisms of explicit reflection and assess the degree of collocativity of these combinations.


Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...


  1. Ackerman, K. & Chen, Y.
    2014The Academic Collocation List. [online] Available at: pearsonpte.com/research/Pages/CollocationList.aspx.
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Basili, R., Pazienza, M. T., & Velardi, P.
    1992 A shallow syntactic analyzer to extract word associations from corpora. Literary and Linguistic Computing, 7, 113–123. 10.1093/llc/7.2.113
    https://doi.org/10.1093/llc/7.2.113 [Google Scholar]
  3. Benson, M.
    1990 Collocations and general-purpose dictionaries. International Journal of Lexicography, 31, 23–35. 10.1093/ijl/3.1.23
    https://doi.org/10.1093/ijl/3.1.23 [Google Scholar]
  4. Benson, M., Benson, E., & Ilson, R.
    1986The BBI Dictionary of English Word Combinations. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 10.1075/z.bbi1(1st)
    https://doi.org/10.1075/z.bbi1(1st) [Google Scholar]
  5. Biber, D.
    2006University Language: a corpus-based study of spoken and written registers. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 10.1075/scl.23
    https://doi.org/10.1075/scl.23 [Google Scholar]
  6. Biber, D. & Conrad, S.
    2009Register, Genre and Style. New York: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9780511814358
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511814358 [Google Scholar]
  7. Callison-Burch, C.
    2009 Fast, cheap, and creative: Evaluating translation quality using Amazon’s Mechanical Turk. Proceedings of the 2009 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing, 286–295. 10.3115/1699510.1699548
    https://doi.org/10.3115/1699510.1699548 [Google Scholar]
  8. Calzolari, N.
    2002 Towards Best Practice for Multiword Expressions in Computational Lexicons. Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation, 1934–1940.
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Chan, T. P., & Liou, H. C.
    2005 Effects of web-based concordancing instruction on EFL students’ learning of verb-noun collocations. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 18(3), 231–251.
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Cowie, A.
    1978 The place of illustrative material and collocations in the design of a learner’s dictionary. InP. Strevens (Ed.), In Honour of A.S. Hornby, 127–139. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  11. 1981 The treatment of collocations and idioms in learners’ dictionaries. Applied Linguistics, 2, 223–235. 10.1093/applin/2.3.223
    https://doi.org/10.1093/applin/2.3.223 [Google Scholar]
  12. Coxhead, A.
    2000 A New Academic Word List. TESOL Quarterly, 34, 213–38. 10.2307/3587951
    https://doi.org/10.2307/3587951 [Google Scholar]
  13. Church, K. W. & Hanks, P.
    1990 Word association norms, mutual information, and lexicography. Computational Linguistics, 16, 22–29.
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Church, K. W., Gale, W., Hanks, P., & Hindle, D.
    1991 Parsing, word associations, and typical predicate-argument relations. InM. Tomita (Ed.), Current Issues in Parsing Technology, 75–81. Boston: Kluwer Academic. 10.1007/978‑1‑4615‑3986‑5_7
    https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4615-3986-5_7 [Google Scholar]
  15. Durrant, P.
    2008High frequency collocations and second language learning. Final Thesis Ph.D., University of Nottingham.
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Durrant, P. & Schmitt, N.
    2009 To what extent do native and nonnative writers make use of collocations?. International Review of Applied Linguistics in Language Teaching, 47, 157–177. 10.1515/iral.2009.007
    https://doi.org/10.1515/iral.2009.007 [Google Scholar]
  17. Ellis, N. C., Simpson-Vlach, R. & Maynard, C.
    2008 Formulaic language in native and second-language speakers: Psycholinguistics, corpus Linguistics, and TESOL. TESOL Quarterly, 42, 375–396. 10.1002/j.1545‑7249.2008.tb00137.x
    https://doi.org/10.1002/j.1545-7249.2008.tb00137.x [Google Scholar]
  18. Evert, S.
    2008 Corpora and collocations. InA. Lüdeling, & M. Kytö (Eds.), Corpus Linguistics. An International Handbook, 223–233. Berlin: de Gruyter.
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Evert, S. & Hardie, A.
    2011 Twenty-first century Corpus Workbench: Updating a query architecture for the new millennium. Proceedings of the Corpus Linguistics 2011 conference.
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Firth, J.
    1956Synopsis of linguistic theory 1930–1955. Reprinted inF. R. Palmer (Ed.) 1968, Selected Papers of J. R. Firth, 168–205. Harlow: Longman.
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Gao, Z.-M.
    2011 Exploring the effects and use of a Chinese-English bilingual concordancer. Computer-Assisted Language Learning, 24, 255–275. 10.1080/09588221.2010.540469
    https://doi.org/10.1080/09588221.2010.540469 [Google Scholar]
  22. 2014 Automatic Extraction of English Collocations and their Chinese-English Bilingual Examples: A Computational Tool for Bilingual Lexicography. Studies in Linguistics, 40, 1, 95–121.
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Gardner, D. & Davies, M.
    2013 A new academic vocabulary list. Applied Linguistics, 35, 1–24.
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Gledhill, C. J.
    2000Collocations in Science Writing. Tübingen: Gunter Narr Verlag.
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Granger, S., & Meunier, F.
    2008Phraseology. An interdisciplinary perspective. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 10.1075/z.139
    https://doi.org/10.1075/z.139 [Google Scholar]
  26. Granger, S., & Paquot, M.
    2009 In search of a General Academic vocabulary: A corpus-driven study. InK. Katsampoxaki-Hodgetts (Ed.), Options and Practices of LSP Practitioners, 94–108. Crete: University of Crete Publications.
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Hardie, A.
    2012 CQPweb – combining power, flexibility and usability in a corpus analysis tool. International Journal of Corpus Linguistics, 17, 3, 380–409. 10.1075/ijcl.17.3.04har
    https://doi.org/10.1075/ijcl.17.3.04har [Google Scholar]
  28. Henriksen, B.
    2012 Research on L2 learners’ collocational competence and development – a progress report. InC. Bardel, B. Laufer, & C. Lindqvist (Eds.), L2 vocabulary acquisition, knowledge and use. New perspectives on assessment and corpus analysis, 29–56. Eurosla Monographs Series 2, EUROSLA.
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Hoffmann, S., Evert, S., Smith, N., Lee, D. Y. W. & Berglund Prytz, Y.
    2008Corpus Linguistics with BNCWeb – a Practical Guide. Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang.
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Howarth, P.
    1996Phraseology in English academic writing: some implications for language learning and dictionary making. Niemeyer: Tübingen. 10.1515/9783110937923
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110937923 [Google Scholar]
  31. Hsueh, P., Melville, P. & Sindhwani, V.
    2009 Data quality from crowdsourcing: a study of annotation selection criteria. Proceedings of the NAACL HLT 2009 Workshop on Active Learning for Natural Language Processing, 27–35. 10.3115/1564131.1564137
    https://doi.org/10.3115/1564131.1564137 [Google Scholar]
  32. Hyland, K.
    2008 As can be seen: Lexical bundles and disciplinary variation. English for specific purposes, 27, 4–21. 10.1016/j.esp.2007.06.001
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.esp.2007.06.001 [Google Scholar]
  33. Justeson, J. S. & Katz, S.
    1995 Technical terminology: Some linguistic properties and an algorithm for identification in text. Natural Language Engineering, 1, 9–27.
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Kilgarriff, A., Rychly, P., Smrz, P. & Tugwell, D.
    2004 The Sketch Engine. Proceedings of EURALEX, 105–116Lorient, France.
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Kjellmer, G.
    1987 Aspects of English collocations. InW. Meijs (Ed.), Corpus Linguistics and Beyond: Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference of English of English Language Research on Computerized Corpora, 133–140. Amsterdam: Rodopi.
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Krishnamurthy, R.
    2006 Collocations. InK. Brown (Ed.), Encyclopedia of language and linguistics, 2nd Edition, 596–600. Oxford: Elsevier. 10.1016/B0‑08‑044854‑2/00414‑4
    https://doi.org/10.1016/B0-08-044854-2/00414-4 [Google Scholar]
  37. Kupiec, J., Pedersen, J. & Chen, F.
    1995 A Trainable Document Summarizer. Proceedings of the 18th ACM-SIGIR, 68–73Seattle.
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Laufer, B. & Waldman, T.
    2011 Verb-noun collocations in second-language writing: A corpus analysis of learners’ English. Language Learning, 612, 647–672. 10.1111/j.1467‑9922.2010.00621.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9922.2010.00621.x [Google Scholar]
  39. Lewis, M.
    1993 The lexical approach. The State of ELT and the Way Forward. Hove: Language Teaching Publications.
    [Google Scholar]
  40. Lorenz, G.
    1999Adjective intensification-learners versus native speakers: A corpus study of argumentative writing. Amsterdam: Rodopi.
    [Google Scholar]
  41. Manning, C. D. & Schütze, H.
    1999Foundations of Statistical Natural Language Processing. Cambridge: MIT Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  42. Nagy, W. & Townsend, D.
    2012 Words as Tools: Learning Academic Vocabulary as Language Acquisition. Reading Research Quarterly, 471, 91–108. 10.1002/RRQ.011
    https://doi.org/10.1002/RRQ.011 [Google Scholar]
  43. Nation, I. S. P.
    2001Learning vocabulary in another language. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9781139524759
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781139524759 [Google Scholar]
  44. Nesi, H., & Gardner, S.
    2012Genres across the Disciplines: Student writing in higher education. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  45. Nesselhauf, N.
    2005Collocations in a learner corpus. Amsterdam & Philadelphia: Benjamins. 10.1075/scl.14
    https://doi.org/10.1075/scl.14 [Google Scholar]
  46. Palmer, H. E.
    1933Second Interim Report on English Collocations. Tokyo: Kaitakusha.
    [Google Scholar]
  47. Peppoloni, D.
    2012 Linguistic and computational tools in support of non-native Italian speaking students: the development of the Academic Spoken Italian Corpus. InA. Llanes, L. Astrid, L. Gallego, & R. Mateu (Eds.), La lingüística aplicada en la era de la globalización. Lleida: Edicions i Publicacions de la Universitat de Lleida.
    [Google Scholar]
  48. Post, M., Callison-Burch, C., & Osborne, M.
    2012 Constructing parallel corpora for six indian languages via crowdsourcing. Proceedings of the Seventh Workshop on Statistical Machine Translation. Montréal, 401–409.
    [Google Scholar]
  49. Ramisch, C., Villavicencio, A., Moura, L., & Idiart, M.
    2008 Picking them up and figuring them out: Verb-particle constructions, noise and idiomaticity. InA. Clark, & K. Toutanova (Eds.), Proceedings of the Twelfth Conference on Natural Language Learning (CoNLL 2008), 49–56. Manchester, UK: Association for Computational Linguistics. 10.3115/1596324.1596334
    https://doi.org/10.3115/1596324.1596334 [Google Scholar]
  50. Ross, I. C. & Tukey, J. W.
    1975 Introduction to these Volumes. InJ. W. Tukey (Ed.), Index to Statistics and Probability, IV–X. Los Altos: R&D Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  51. Sag, I. A., Baldwin, T., Bond, F., Copestake, A., & Flickinger, D.
    2002 Multiword expressions: A pain in the neck for NLP. Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Intelligent Text Processing and Computational Linguistics CICLING 2002, 1–15.
    [Google Scholar]
  52. Schütze, H.
    1998 Automatic Word Sense Discrimination. Computational Linguistics, 24(1), 97–123.
    [Google Scholar]
  53. Shei, C.-C. & Pain, H.
    2000 An ESL writer’s collocation aid. Computer-Assisted Language Learning, 13, 167–182. 10.1076/0958‑8221(200004)13:2;1‑D;FT167
    https://doi.org/10.1076/0958-8221(200004)13:2;1-D;FT167 [Google Scholar]
  54. Shin, D., & Nation, P.
    2008 Beyond single words: The most frequent collocations in spoken English. ELT Journal, 62(4), 339–348.
    [Google Scholar]
  55. Simpson-Vlach, R. & Ellis, N. C.
    2010 An academic formulas list: New methods in phraseology research. Applied Linguistics, 31, 4, 463–512. 10.1093/applin/amp058
    https://doi.org/10.1093/applin/amp058 [Google Scholar]
  56. Sinclair, J.
    1987Collins Cobuild English Language Dictionary. London: Collins.
    [Google Scholar]
  57. 1991Corpus, Concordance, Collocation. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  58. 2004How to use corpora in language teaching. Amsterdam and Philadelphia: John Benjamins. 10.1075/scl.12
    https://doi.org/10.1075/scl.12 [Google Scholar]
  59. Smadja, F.
    1993 Retrieving collocations form text: Xtract. Computational Linguistics, 191, 143–177.
    [Google Scholar]
  60. Snow, R., O’connor, B., Jurafsky, D., & Ng, A.
    2008 Cheap and fast – but is it good?: evaluating non-expert annotations for natural language tasks. Proceedings of the Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing, Association for Computational Linguistics, 254–263.
    [Google Scholar]
  61. Tiberii, P.
    2012Il dizionario delle collocazioni. Bologna: Zanichelli.
    [Google Scholar]
  62. Villavicencio, A., Kordoni, V., Zhang, Y., Idiart, M., & Ramisch, C.
    2007 Validation and evaluation of automatically acquired multiword expressions for grammar engineering. InJ. Eisner (Ed.), Proceedings of the 2007 Joint Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing and Computational Natural Language Learning (EMNLP-CoNLL 2007), 1034–1043. Prague, Czech Republic: Association for Computational Linguistics.
    [Google Scholar]
  63. Wang, A., Hoang, C., & Kan, M. Y.
    2012 Perspectives on Crowdsourcing Annotations for Natural Language Processing. Language Resources and Evaluation, 47(1), 9–31. 10.1007/s10579‑012‑9176‑1
    https://doi.org/10.1007/s10579-012-9176-1 [Google Scholar]
  64. Westbrook, P. & Henriksen, B.
    2014 Advanced non-native university lecturers’ collocational competence. Thinking, Doing, Learning: Usage Based Perspectives on Second Language Learning, 24–26April 2013, Odense, Denmark.
    [Google Scholar]

Data & Media loading...

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error