Volume 43, Issue 2
  • ISSN 0378-4169
  • E-ISSN: 1569-9927
Buy:$35.00 + Taxes



Lexicological and lexicographical studies on multiword expressions in Romance languages have significantly increased in recent years. Even though some attention has been paid to Multiwords functioning as adjectives and adverbs, the structural and the functional relation between them has not been clarified yet.

Employing both a qualitative and quantitative approach, this corpus-based investigation aims at exploring the diatopic distribution and the evolution of Romance multiword lexemes having the form of a prepositional phrase and the function of an adjective or/and an adverb (or both functions). According to data taken from corpora of Latin, Old Italian, Old Spanish and Middle French, this contribution investigates the relationship between the different degrees of schematicity and the productivity of this kind of multiword lexemes in order to highlight the evolutional path and the diachronic/diatopic principles engaged in the multiword modifying system across the different Romance languages taken into consideration.


Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...


  1. Bally, C.
    1951 [1909]Traité de stylistique française. Paris: Klincksieck [first ed.Traité de stylistique française. Stuttgart: Winter].
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Baptista, J.
    2003 Some families of compound temporal adverbs in Portuguese. In A. Maletti & M. Constant (Eds.) Proceedings of the Workshop on Finite-State Methods for Natural Language Processing, 97–104. Budapest: EACL.
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Baroni, M. , Bernardini, S. , Comastri, F. , Piccioni, L. , Volpi, A. , Aston, G. , & Mazzoleni, M.
    2004 Introducing the La Repubblica corpus: a large, annotated, TEI(XML)-compliant corpus of newspaper Italian. In M. T. Lino , M. F. Xavier , F. Ferreira , R. Costa , & R. Silva (Eds.), Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation, 1771–1774. Paris: ELRA.
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Breidt, E. , Segond, F. , & Valetto, G.
    1996 Formal description of multi-word lexemes with the finite-state formalism IDAREX. InProceedings of the 16th conference on computational linguistics, 1036–1040. Copenhagen: Center for Sprogteknologi. 10.3115/993268.993360
    https://doi.org/10.3115/993268.993360 [Google Scholar]
  5. Blanco, X.
    2001 Regroupements sémantiques dans un dictionnaire d’adverbes composés en espagnol. Lingvisticæ Investigationes, 24 (2), 167–182. 10.1075/li.24.2.03bla
    https://doi.org/10.1075/li.24.2.03bla [Google Scholar]
  6. Blanco, X. , & Català, D.
    1999 Quelques remarques sur un dictionnaire électronique d’adverbes composés en espagnol. Lingvisticæ Investigationes, 22, 213–232. 10.1075/li.22.1‑2.13bla
    https://doi.org/10.1075/li.22.1-2.13bla [Google Scholar]
  7. Bybee, J.
    2006 From Usage to Grammar: The Mind’s Response to Repetition. Language, 82 (4), 711–733. 10.1353/lan.2006.0186
    https://doi.org/10.1353/lan.2006.0186 [Google Scholar]
  8. 2010Language, Usage and Cognition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9780511750526
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511750526 [Google Scholar]
  9. Calzolari, N. , Fillmore, C. J. , Grishman, R. , Ide, N. , Lenci, A. , Macleod, C. , & Zampolli, A.
    2002a Towards best practice for multiword expressions in computational lexicons. In M. Gonzalez Rodriguez , & C. Paz Suarez Araujo (Eds.), Proceedings LREC 2002. Third International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation, 1934–1940. Paris: ELRA.
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Calzolari, N. , Lenci, A. , & Quochi, V.
    2002b Towards Multiword and Multilingual Lexicons: Between Theory and Practice. In S. Haraguchi , O. Fujimura , & B. Palek (Eds.), Proceedings of LP’2002. Prague: The Karolinum Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Calzolari, N. , Grishman, R. E. , & Palmer, M.
    2003 Standards and Best-Practice for Multilingual Computational Lexicons. MILE (Multilingual lexical entry). ISLE Computational Lexicons Working Group.
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Català, D.
    2003 Les adverbes composés. Approches contrastives en linguistique appliquée (PhD Thesis). Barcelona: Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona.
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Català, D. , & Baptista, J.
    2002 Compound Temporal Adverbs in Portuguese and in Spanish. In E. Ranchhod , & N. J. Mamede (Eds.), Advances in Natural Language Processing, 133–136. Berlin: Springer.
    [Google Scholar]
  14. 2007 Spanish adverbial frozen expressions. In N. Gregoire , S. Evert , & N. Kim (Eds.), Proceedings of the Workshop on A Broader Perspective on Multiword Expressions, 33–40. Prague: ACL. 10.3115/1613704.1613709
    https://doi.org/10.3115/1613704.1613709 [Google Scholar]
  15. De Gioia, M.
    1999 I dizionari sintattici. Rivista Internazionale di Tecnica della Traduzione, 4, 225–242.
    [Google Scholar]
  16. 2000 Sur un lexique-grammaire comparé d’adverbes figés. Lingvisticæ Investigationes, 23 (2), 327–346. 10.1075/li.23.2.09deg
    https://doi.org/10.1075/li.23.2.09deg [Google Scholar]
  17. De Gioia, M. , & Català, D.
    2004 Étude comparée d’adverbes figés du français, de l’italien et de l’espagnol. Seminários de Linguística, 5, 17–44.
    [Google Scholar]
  18. De Mauro, T.
    (ed.) 1999Grande Dizionario Italiano dell’Uso. Torino: Utet.
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Dobrovol’skij, D.
    2011 Phraseologie und Konstruktionsgrammatik. In A. Lasch , & A. Ziem (Eds.). Konstruktionsgrammatik III. Aktuelle Fragen und Lösungsansätze, 111–130. Tübingen: Stauffenburg.
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Fillmore, C. J. , Kay, P. , & O’Connor, M. C.
    1988 Regularity and idiomaticity in grammatical constructions: the case of let alone. Language, 64, 501–538. 10.2307/414531
    https://doi.org/10.2307/414531 [Google Scholar]
  21. Ganfi, V. , & Piunno, V.
    2017 Preposizioni complesse in italiano antico e contemporaneo. Grammaticalizzazione, schematismo e produttività. Archivio Glottologico Italiano, CII (2), 184–204.
    [Google Scholar]
  22. García Page, M.
    1991 Locuciones adverbiales con palabras idiomáticas. RSEL, 21 (2), 233–264.
    [Google Scholar]
  23. 2007 Esquemas sintácticos de formación de locuciones adverbiales. Moenia, 13, 121–144.
    [Google Scholar]
  24. García Valle, A.
    2010 Locuciones adverbiales de ámbito jurídico: de los fueros medievales a su consolidación en la lengua. Revista de Filología Española, 90 (1), 99–134. 10.3989/rfe.2010.v90.i1.200
    https://doi.org/10.3989/rfe.2010.v90.i1.200 [Google Scholar]
  25. Goldberg, A.
    1995Constructions. A construction Grammar Approach to Argument Structures. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  26. 2003 Constructions: a new theoretical approach to language. TRENDS in Cognitive Sciences, 7 (5), 219–224. 10.1016/S1364‑6613(03)00080‑9
    https://doi.org/10.1016/S1364-6613(03)00080-9 [Google Scholar]
  27. 2006Constructions at work. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Grezka, A. , & Poudat, C.
    2012 Building a database of French frozen adverbial phrases. In N. Calzolari , K. Choukri , T. Declerck , M. Uğur Doğan , B. Maegaard , J. Mariani , A. Moreno , J. Odijk , & S. Piperidis (Eds.), Proceedings of the Eight International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation, 685–692. Paris: ELRA.
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Gross, G.
    1991 Typologie des adjectivaux. In H. Stammerjohann (Ed.), Analyse et synthèse dans les langues romanes et slaves, 163–178. Tübingen: Gunter NarrVerlag.
    [Google Scholar]
  30. 1996Les expressions figées en français. Paris: Ophrys.
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Gross, M.
    1990aGrammaire transformationnelle du français. 3. Syntaxe de l’adverbe. Paris: ASSTRIL.
    [Google Scholar]
  32. 1990b La caractérisation des adverbes dans un lexique-grammaire. Langue Française, 86, 90–102. 10.3406/lfr.1990.5796
    https://doi.org/10.3406/lfr.1990.5796 [Google Scholar]
  33. Hummel, M.
    2014 Adjetivos adverbiales. In C. Company Company (Ed.), Sintaxis histórica de la lengua española. Tercera parte: Adverbios, preposiciones y conjunciones. Relaciones interoracionales, 613–732. Ciudad de México: Fondo de Cultura Económica.
    [Google Scholar]
  34. 2017 Adjectives with adverbial functions in Romance. In M. Hummel , & S. Valera (Eds.), Adjective adverb interfaces in Romance, 13–46. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 10.1075/la.242.02hum
    https://doi.org/10.1075/la.242.02hum [Google Scholar]
  35. Kovacci, O.
    1999 El adverbio. In I. Bosque , & V. Demonte (Eds.), Gramática descriptiva de la lengua española, 705–786. Madrid: Espasa.
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Lamiroy, B.
    2003 Les notions linguistiques de figement et de contrainte. Lingvisticæ Investigationes, 26(1), 1–14. 10.1075/li.26.1.03lam
    https://doi.org/10.1075/li.26.1.03lam [Google Scholar]
  37. Laporte, E. , & Voyatzi, S.
    2008 An electronic dictionary of French multiword adverbs. In N. Gregoire , S. Evert , & B. Krenn (Eds.), Proceedings of the LREC Workshop Towards a Shared Task for Multiword Expressions, 31–34. Paris: ELRA.
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Lavieu, B.
    2005Léa lave son linge à la main ou comment à la main ne désigne pas la partie du corps. Linx, 53, 173–181. 10.4000/linx.279
    https://doi.org/10.4000/linx.279 [Google Scholar]
  39. Masini, F.
    2012Parole sintagmatiche in italiano. Cesena/Roma: Caissa Italia.
    [Google Scholar]
  40. Mejri, S.
    1997Le figement lexical. Descriptions linguistiques et structuration sémantique. Tunis: Publications de la Faculté des lettres de la Manouba.
    [Google Scholar]
  41. 2004 Les séquences figées adjectivales. In J. François (Ed.), L’adjectif en français et à travers les langues, 403–412. Caen: Presses Universitaires de Caen.
    [Google Scholar]
  42. 2007 Les adjectivaux ambivalents: morphologie et prédication. In Mejri, Salah (Ed.), A la croisée des mots. Hommages à Taïeb Baccouche, 193–205. Sousse/Paris: Université de Sousse – Université Paris 13.
    [Google Scholar]
  43. Mel’čuk, I. , Clas, A. , & Polguère, A.
    1995Introduction à la lexicologie explicative et combinatoire. Louvain-la-Neuve: Duculot.
    [Google Scholar]
  44. Mellado Blanco, C.
    2020 Esquemas fraseológicos y construcciones fraseológicas en el contínuum léxico-gramática. In C. Sinner , E. Tabares Plasencia , & E. Montoro del Arco (Eds.), Clases y categorías en la fraseología española, 13–36. Berlin: Peter Lang.
    [Google Scholar]
  45. Mellado Blanco, C. , & López Meirama, B.
    2017 El fraseologismo por momentos: principales valores semánticos y algunos apuntes diatópicos. RILCE, 33 (2), 648–670. 10.15581/‑70
    https://doi.org/10.15581/ [Google Scholar]
  46. 2018 Las construcciones [de X a Y] y [de X a X] realizaciones idiomáticas y no tan idiomáticas. In M. Díaz Ferro , G. Vaamonde , A. Varela Suárez , M. D. C. Cabeza Pereiro , J. M. García-Miguel Gallego , & F. Ramallo Fernández (Eds.), Actas do XIII Congreso Internacional de Lingüística Xeral, 576–583. Vigo: Universidade de Vigo.
    [Google Scholar]
  47. Michaelis, L. A.
    2017 Meanings of constructions. Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Linguistics. 10.1093/acrefore/9780199384655.013.309
    https://doi.org/10.1093/acrefore/9780199384655.013.309 [Google Scholar]
  48. 2019 Constructions are Patterns and so are Fixed Expressions. In B. Busse , & R. Moehlig (Eds.), Patterns in Language and Linguistics, 193–220. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. 10.1515/9783110596656‑008
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110596656-008 [Google Scholar]
  49. Moon, R.
    1998Fixed Expressions and Idioms in English: A Corpus-based Approach. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  50. Ortiz Ciscomani, R. M.
    2017 From adjective to adverbial modal locutions in Spanish. In M. Hummel , & S. Valera (Eds.), Adjective adverb interfaces in Romance, 305–327. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 10.1075/la.242.12ort
    https://doi.org/10.1075/la.242.12ort [Google Scholar]
  51. Piunno, V.
    2015 Sintagmi Preposizionali come Costruzioni Aggettivali. Studi e Saggi Linguistici, 53 (1), 65–98.
    [Google Scholar]
  52. 2016 Multiword Modifiers in Romance languages. Semantic formats and syntactic templates. Yearbook of Phraseology, 7, 3–34. 10.1515/phras‑2016‑0002
    https://doi.org/10.1515/phras-2016-0002 [Google Scholar]
  53. 2018Sintagmi preposizionali con funzione aggettivale e avverbiale. München: LINCOM Studies in Romance Linguistics.
    [Google Scholar]
  54. 2020 Le combinazioni di parole parzialmente riempite in alcune lingue romanze. Schematismo e predicibilità semantica. Romanica Olomucensia, 32 (1), 143–171. 10.5507/ro.2020.008
    https://doi.org/10.5507/ro.2020.008 [Google Scholar]
  55. Piunno, V. , & Ganfi, V.
    2019 Usage-based account of Italian Complex Prepositions denoting the Agent, Revue Romane, 54(1), 141–175. 10.1075/rro.00019.piu
    https://doi.org/10.1075/rro.00019.piu [Google Scholar]
  56. Ranchhod, E.
    2005 Using corpora to increase Portuguese MWE dictionaries. Tagging MWE in a Portuguese corpus. In A. Mauranen , M. Scott , & A. Wray (Eds.), Proceedings from The Corpus Linguistics Conference Series, 1–14.
    [Google Scholar]
  57. Sag, I. , Baldwin, T. , Bond, F. , Copestake, A. , & Flickinger, D.
    2002 Multiword Expressions: A Pain in the Neck for NLP. In Gelbuk, A. (Ed.), Computational Linguistics and Intelligent Text Processing: Proceedings of CIC Ling 2002 (1–15). Heidelberg/Berlin: Springer-Verlag. 10.1007/3‑540‑45715‑1_1
    https://doi.org/10.1007/3-540-45715-1_1 [Google Scholar]
  58. Simone, R.
    2006a Nominales sintagmáticos y no-sintagmáticos. In E. De Miguel Aparicio , A. Palacios Alcaine , & A. M. Serradilla Castaño (Eds.), Estructuras léxicas y estructuras del léxico, 221–241. Berlin: Peter Lang.
    [Google Scholar]
  59. 2006b Classi di costruzioni. In N. Grandi , & G. Iannàccaro (Eds.), Zhì. Scritti in onore di Emanuele Banfi in occasione del suo 60° compleanno, 383–409. Cesena/Roma: Caissa Italia.
    [Google Scholar]
  60. 2007a Constructions and categories in verbal and signed languages. In E. Pizzuto , P. Pietrandrea , & R. Simone (Eds.), Verbal and Signed Languages. Comparing Structures, Constructs, and methodologies, 198–252. Berlino-New York, Mouton De Gruyter.
    [Google Scholar]
  61. 2007b Verbi sintagmatici come categoria e come costruzione. In M. Cini (Ed.), I verbi sintagmatici in italiano e nelle varietà dialettali. Stato dell’arte e prospettive di ricerca, 11–30. Berlin: Peter Lang.
    [Google Scholar]
  62. Simone, R. & Piunno, V.
    2017 Combinazioni di parole che costituiscono entrata. Rappresentazione lessicografica e aspetti lessicologici. Studi e Saggi Linguistici, 55 (2), 13–44.
    [Google Scholar]
  63. Steyer, K.
    (Ed.) 2018Sprachliche Verfestigung. Wortverbindungen, Muster, Phrasem-Konstruktionen. Tübingen: Francke Attempto Verlag.
    [Google Scholar]
  64. Svensson, M. H.
    2004Critères de figement. Umeå: Umeå University.
    [Google Scholar]
  65. Tutin, A. , & Grossmann, F.
    2002 Collocations régulières et irrégulières: esquisse de typologie du phénomène collocatif. Revue française de Linguistique appliquée, 7 (1), 7–25. 10.3917/rfla.071.0007
    https://doi.org/10.3917/rfla.071.0007 [Google Scholar]
  66. Voghera, M.
    1994 Lessemi complessi: percorsi di lessicalizzazione a confronto. Lingua e Stile, 29 (2), 185–214.
    [Google Scholar]
  67. 2004 Polirematiche. In M. Grossmann , & F. Rainer (Eds.), La formazione delle parole in italiano, 56–69. Tübingen: Max Niemeyer Verlag.
    [Google Scholar]
  68. Zgusta, L.
    1967 Multiword Lexical Units. Word, 23, 578–587. 10.1080/00437956.1967.11435507
    https://doi.org/10.1080/00437956.1967.11435507 [Google Scholar]
  69. Ziem, A.
    2008Frames und sprachliches Wissen. Kognitive Aspekte der semantischen Kompetenz. Berlin-New York: Mouton de Gruyter. 10.1515/9783110209419
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110209419 [Google Scholar]
  70. Ziem, A. , & Lasch, A.
    2013Konstruktionsgrammatik: Konzepte und Grundlagen gebrauchsbasierter Ansätze. Berlin-New York: Mouton de Gruyter. 10.1515/9783110295641
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110295641 [Google Scholar]
  71. Banca Dati dell’Italiano Antico dell’OVI
    Banca Dati dell’Italiano Antico dell’OVI: www.ovi.cnr.it/index.php?page=banchedati
  72. Corpus Opera del Vocabolario Italiano (OVI)
    Corpus Opera del Vocabolario Italiano (OVI): www.ovi.cnr.it/index.php/it/
  73. Dictionnaire du Moyen Français (DMF)
    Dictionnaire du Moyen Français (DMF): www.atilf.fr/dmf
  74. PHI Latin Texts
  75. Real Academia Española, Corpus diacrónico del español
    Real Academia Española, Corpus diacrónico del español : corpus.rae.es/cordenet.html
  76. TLIO (Tesoro della Lingua Italiana delle Origini)
    TLIO (Tesoro della Lingua Italiana delle Origini): tlio.ovi.cnr.it/TLIO/

Data & Media loading...

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error