Volume 44, Issue 1
  • ISSN 0378-4169
  • E-ISSN: 1569-9927
Buy:$35.00 + Taxes



This article explores the temporal structuring of Occitan and French oral narratives. Using contemporary linguistic theory and through a corpus-based analysis, it aims to explore the relationship between language and orality, with a specific focus on two key temporal features of oral narrative, i.e. frames and connectives. The authors create a digitised corpus involving three sub-corpora demonstrating different degrees of orality in Occitan and these are also compared with a French oral corpus. The analysis shows that there is quantitative evidence to support the idea that frames and connectives have complementary roles in narrative, with inverse proportions of frames and connectives in the four sub-corpora. In terms of degrees of orality, the results suggest that not only is the use of particular connectives strongly associated with oral as opposed to written narratives but also that factors relating to sources, transmission and storytelling practice are highly influential and interact with each other in complex ways. Frames are generally ‘primarily structural’ in function rather than ‘temporal and structural’ and certain frame introducers recur in all the sub-corpora but there are complex differences between the different sub-corpora and a clear link with story-type. Questions of sources, transmission and narrative practice are central to our argumentation throughout and are particularly striking in the case of the contemporary Occitan sub-corpus.


Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...


  1. Aarne, A., & Thompson, S.
    1961The types of the folktale. A classification and bibliography. Helsinki: Academia Scientiarum Fennica.
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Asher, N.
    1993Reference to abstract objects in discourse. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers. 10.1007/978‑94‑011‑1715‑9
    https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-011-1715-9 [Google Scholar]
  3. Asher, N., & Lascarides, A.
    2003Logics of conversation. Cambridge: CUP.
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Bec, P.
    1995La Langue occitane. Paris: Que sais-je.
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Belmont, N.
    1999Poétique du conte. Essai sur le conte de tradition orale. Paris: NRF Gallimard.
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Biber, D.
    1988Variation across speech and writing. Cambridge : CUP. 10.1017/CBO9780511621024
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511621024 [Google Scholar]
  7. Biber, D., & Conrad, S.
    2009Register, genre and style. Cambridge : CUP. 10.1017/CBO9780511814358
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511814358 [Google Scholar]
  8. Borillo, A.
    1983 Les adverbes de référence temporelle dans la phrase et dans le texte. DRLAV, 29, 109–131. 10.3406/drlav.1983.995
    https://doi.org/10.3406/drlav.1983.995 [Google Scholar]
  9. Bras, M., & Asher, N.
    1994 Le Raisonnement non monotone dans la construction de la structure temporelle de textes en français. In AFCET-AFIA (Ed.), Actes du 9ème congrès de l’AFCET RF-IA, volume2, 223–224. Paris: AFCET-AFIA.
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Bras, M., Le Draoulec, A., & Asher, N.
    2006 Evidence for a scalar analysis of Result in SDRT from a study of the French temporal connective alors. InC. Fabricius-Hansen, B. Behrens, & M. F. Krave (Eds.), Pre-proceedings of the SPRIK conference 2006: “Explicit and implicit information in text information structure across languages”, 75–79. Oslo: University of Oslo.
    [Google Scholar]
  11. 2009 A formal analysis of the French temporal connective alors. Oslo Studies in Language, 1, 149–170. 10.5617/osla.10
    https://doi.org/10.5617/osla.10 [Google Scholar]
  12. Bras, M., Le Draoulec, A., & Vieu, L.
    2001 French adverbial ‘puis’ between temporal structure and discourse structure. InM. Bras, & L. Vieu (Eds.), Semantic and pragmatic issues in dialogue : experimenting with current theories, 109–46. Amsterdam: Elsevier. 10.1163/9780585474397
    https://doi.org/10.1163/9780585474397 [Google Scholar]
  13. 2003 Connecteurs et temps verbaux dans l’interprétation temporelle du discours : le cas de puis en interaction avec l’imparfait et le passé simple. InS. Mellet, & M. Vuillaume (Eds.), Modes de repérage temporel, 71–97. Amsterdam: Rodopi.
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Bras, M., & Molinès, F.
    1993 Adverbials of temporal location : linguistic description and automatic processing. InJ. Darski, & Z. Vetulani (Eds.), Sprache, Kommunikation, Informatik. Akten des 26. Linguistischen Kolloquiums, Poznan 1991, 137–146. Tübingen : Max Niemeyer Verlag. 10.1515/9783111353234.137
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783111353234.137 [Google Scholar]
  15. Bras, M., & Vergez-Couret, M.
    2016BaTelÒc: A text base for the Occitan language. InV. Ferreira & P. Bouda (Eds.), Language documentation and conservation in Europe, 133–149. Honolulu: University of Hawaï Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Carruthers, J.
    2005Oral narration in modern French. A linguistic analysis of temporal patterns. Oxford: Legenda.
    [Google Scholar]
  17. 2011 Temporal framing in the conte. From theoretical debate to oral story performance. French Studies, LXV, 488–504. 10.1093/fs/knr135
    https://doi.org/10.1093/fs/knr135 [Google Scholar]
  18. 2013The French oral narrative corpus (www.frenchoralnarrative.qub.ac.uk).
    [Google Scholar]
  19. 2018 Oral genres. Concepts and complexities. InW. Ayres-Bennett, & J. Carruthers (Eds.), Manual of Romance sociolinguistics, 335–361. Boston-Berlin : De Gruyter. 10.1515/9783110365955‑013
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110365955-013 [Google Scholar]
  20. Carruthers, J., & Vergez-Couret, M.
    2018 Méthodologie pour la constitution d’un corpus comparatif de narration orale en Occitan : objectifs, défis, solutions. Corpus [en ligne], 18. journals.openedition.org/corpus/3490
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Charolles, M.
    1997 L’Encadrement du discours: Univers, champs, domaines et espaces. Cahiers de recherche linguistique, 6, 1–73.
    [Google Scholar]
  22. 2006Un jour (one day) in narratives. InI. Korzen, & L. Lundquist (Eds.), Comparing anaphors. Between sentences, texts and languages, 11–26. Copenhagen: Samfundslitteratur Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Charolles, M., Le Draoulec, A., Péry-Woodley, M.-P., & Sarda, L.
    2005 Temporal and spatial dimensions of discourse organisation. Journal of French Language Studies, 15, 115–130. 10.1017/S0959269505002036
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0959269505002036 [Google Scholar]
  24. Crystal, D.
    2006Language and the internet. Cambridge: CUP. 10.1017/CBO9780511487002
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511487002 [Google Scholar]
  25. Delarue, P., & Tenèze, M.-L.
    1997Le Conte populaire français. Catalogue raisonné des versions de France et des pays de langue française d’outre-mer. Paris: Maisonneuve & Larose.
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Fleischman, S.
    1990Tense and narrativity. From medieval performance to modern fiction. London: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Gay-Para, P.
    1999 Le Répertoire du conteur. InG. Calame-Griaule (Ed.), Le Renouveau du conte, 115–122. Paris: CNRS.
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Halliday, M. A. K., & Hasan, R.
    1976Cohesion in English. London: Longman.
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Koch, P., & Oesterreicher, W.
    2001 Gesprochene Sprache und geschriebene Sprache (Langage parlé et langage écrit). InG. Holtus, M. Metzeltin, & C. Schmitt (Eds.), Lexikon der romanischen Linguistik, I.2, 584–627. Tübingen: Max Niemeyer Verlag. 10.1515/9783110938371.584
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110938371.584 [Google Scholar]
  30. Labov, W., & Waletzky, J.
    1967 Narrative analysis: Oral versions of personal experience. InJ. Helm (McNeish) (Ed.), Essays on the verbal and visual arts: Proceedings of the 1966 annual Spring meeting of the American Ethnological Society, 12–44. Seattle: University of Washington Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Le Draoulec, A., & Bras, M.
    2007Alors as a possible temporal connective in discourse. InL. de Saussure, J. Moeschler, & G. Puskas (Eds.), Tense, mood and aspect: Theoretical and descriptive issues, 81–94. Amsterdam: Rodopi.
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Le Draoulec, A., & Péry-Woodley, M.-P.
    2001 Corpus-based identification of temporal organisation in discourse. InP. Rayson, A. Wilson, T. McEnery, A. Hardie, & S. Khoja (Eds.), Proceedings of the Corpus Linguistics 2001 conference, 159–166. Lancaster: UCREL.
    [Google Scholar]
  33. 2005 Encadrement temporel et relations de discours. Langue française, 148, 45–60. 10.3917/lf.148.0045
    https://doi.org/10.3917/lf.148.0045 [Google Scholar]
  34. Martel, P.
    2015Etudes de langue et d’histoire occitanes. Limoges: Lambert-Lucas.
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Rossari, C.
    2000Connecteurs et relations de discours. Des liens entre cognition et signification. Nancy: Presses universitaires de Nancy.
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Rossari, C., Ricci, C., & Wandel, D.
    2018 Introducteurs de cadres et connecteurs de reformulation: étude contrastive sur corpus. Langages, 212, 51–67. 10.3917/lang.212.0051
    https://doi.org/10.3917/lang.212.0051 [Google Scholar]
  37. Smith, C.
    1980 Temporal structures in discourse. InRohrer, C. (Ed.), Time, tense and quantifiers, 355–374. Tübingen: Niemeyer. 10.1515/9783111346069.355
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783111346069.355 [Google Scholar]
  38. 2003Modes of discourse. Cambridge: CUP. 10.1017/CBO9780511615108
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511615108 [Google Scholar]
  39. Vergez-Couret, M.
    2017 Constitution et annotation d’un corpus écrit de contes et récits en occitan. InP. Paroubek, & M. Vallette (Eds.), Analyses et méthodes formelles pour les humanités numériques, ISTE OpenScience, 1–1, publication en ligne : https://www.openscience.fr/Constitution-et-annotation-d-un-corpus-ecrit-de-contes-et-recits-en-occitan
    [Google Scholar]
  40. Vergez-Couret, M., & Carruthers, J.
    2018OcOr : a corpus of Occitan oral narratives (Version 0.0.1) [Data set]. Zenodo. doi:  10.5281/zenodo.1451753
    https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1451753 [Google Scholar]
  41. Walter, H.
    2012Aventures et mésaventures des langues de France. Paris: Honoré Champion.
    [Google Scholar]
  42. Zumthor, P.
    1983Introduction à la poésie orale. Paris: Seuil.
    [Google Scholar]

Data & Media loading...

  • Article Type: Research Article
Keyword(s): connectives; frames; Occitan; oral narrative
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error