1887
Volume 12, Issue 1
  • ISSN 1879-7865
  • E-ISSN: 1879-7873
USD
Buy:$35.00 + Taxes

Abstract

Abstract

The present contribution analyzes the acquisition of subjects in French based on a longitudinal case study of a trilingual child aged 2;8–3;2 who acquired French, Italian and Spanish simultaneously. The three languages vary with respect to the null-subject property; French is traditionally characterized as a non-null-subject language, while Italian and Spanish are prototypical null-subject languages. Argument subject omissions in French are ungrammatical but frequently observed in monolingual children in early acquisitional phases, as are ungrammatical postverbal subjects which cluster with null-subjects. Bilingual children acquiring French produce fewer subject omissions and postverbal subjects. The present study also finds an acceleration effect in the trilingual child. The results are interpreted in light of a parameter setting which accounts for different verb classes at different locations with which the null-subjects occur, giving rise to ‘categorial CS’ or ‘congruent categorialization.’

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1075/lia.20011.sca
2021-07-27
2021-10-17
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

References

  1. Ågren, M.
    (2013) The impact of spoken French on the acquisition of written French in child L2 Learners. The Journal of Language Teaching and Learning, 3(1), 1–19.
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Alexiadou, A., & Anagnostopoulou, E.
    (1998) Parametrizing AGR: Word order, V-movement, and EPP-checking. Natural Language and Linguistic Theory, 16, 491–539. 10.1023/A:1006090432389
    https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1006090432389 [Google Scholar]
  3. Arnaus Gil, L.
    (2013) La selección copulativa y auxiliar: las lenguas romances (español – italiano – catalán – francés) y el alemán en contacto. Su adquisición en niños bilingües y trilingües. Tübingen: Narr.
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Arnaus Gil, L., & Müller, N.
    (2018) French postverbal subjects: A comparison of monolingual, bilingual, trilingual, and multilingual French. Languages, 3(29). doi:  10.3390/languages3030029
    https://doi.org/10.3390/languages3030029 [Google Scholar]
  5. (2019) Frühkindlicher Trilinguismus. Französisch, Spanisch, Deutsch. (=Narr Studienbücher) Tübingen: Narr.
    [Google Scholar]
  6. (2020) Acceleration and delay in bilingual, trilingual and multilingual German-Romance children. Finite verb placement in German. Linguistic Approaches to Bilingualism, 10(4), 530–558. 10.1075/lab.17081.arn
    https://doi.org/10.1075/lab.17081.arn [Google Scholar]
  7. Arnaus Gil, L., Müller, N., Sette, N., & Hüppop, M.
    (2020) Active bi- and trilingualism and its influencing factors. International Multilingual Research Journal, 15(1), 1–22. doi:  10.1080/19313152.2020.1753964
    https://doi.org/10.1080/19313152.2020.1753964 [Google Scholar]
  8. Arnaus Gil, L., Stahnke, J., & Müller, N.
    (2021). On the acquisition of French (null) subjects and (in)definiteness: simultaneous and sequential bi-, tri- and multilinguals. Probus. doi:  10.1515/PRBS‑2021‑0004
    https://doi.org/10.1515/PRBS-2021-0004 [Google Scholar]
  9. Bardel, C., & Falk, Y.
    (2007) The role of the second language in third language acquisition: The case of Germanic syntax. Second Language Research, 23(4), 459–484. 10.1177/0267658307080557
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0267658307080557 [Google Scholar]
  10. Barron-Hauwaert, S.
    (2000) Issues surrounding trilingual families: Children with simultaneous exposure to three languages. Zeitschrift für Interkulturellen Fremdsprachenunterricht, 5(1), 1–13.
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Belletti, A., & Guasti, M. T.
    (2015) The acquisition of Italian. Morphosyntax and its interfaces in different modes of acquisition. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: Benjamins. 10.1075/lald.57
    https://doi.org/10.1075/lald.57 [Google Scholar]
  12. Bernardini, P., & Schlyter, S.
    (2004) Growing syntactic structure and code-mixing in the weaker language: The Ivy Hypothesis. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 7(1), 49–69. 10.1017/S1366728904001270
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S1366728904001270 [Google Scholar]
  13. Biberauer, T., Holmberg, A., Roberts, I., & Sheehan, M.
    (2014) Complexity in comparative syntax: The view from modern parametric theory. InF. J. Newmeyer & L. B. Preston. (Eds.), Measuring grammatical complexity (pp.103–127). Oxford: Oxford University Press. 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199685301.003.0006
    https://doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199685301.003.0006 [Google Scholar]
  14. Birdsong, D.
    (2014) Dominance in bilingualism: Foundations of measurement, with insights from the study of handedness. InC. Silva-Corvalán & J. Treffers-Daller (Eds.), Language dominance in bilinguals: Issues of operationalization and measurement (pp.85–105), Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Brown, R.
    (1973) A first language. Cambridge, MA.: Harvard University Press. 10.4159/harvard.9780674732469
    https://doi.org/10.4159/harvard.9780674732469 [Google Scholar]
  16. Cardinaletti, A.
    (2014) Cross-linguistic variation in the syntax of subjects. InC. Picallo (Ed.), Linguistic variation in the Minimalist Framework (pp.82–107). Oxford: Oxford University Press. 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198702894.003.0005
    https://doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198702894.003.0005 [Google Scholar]
  17. Chevalier, S.
    (2015) Trilingual language acquisition. Contextual factors influencing active trilingualism in early childhood. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: Benjamins. 10.1075/tilar.16
    https://doi.org/10.1075/tilar.16 [Google Scholar]
  18. Chomsky, N.
    (1981) Lectures on government and binding. Dordrecht: Foris.
    [Google Scholar]
  19. de Bot, K.
    (2002) A bilingual production model. Levelt’s ‘Speaking’ model adapted. Applied Linguistics13(1), 1–24.
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Déprez, V., & Pierce, A.
    (1993) Negation and functional projections in early grammar. Linguistic Inquiry, 24, 25–67.
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Egger, E., Hulk, A., & Tsimpli, I. A.
    (2018) Cross-linguistic influence in the discovery of gender: The case of Greek-Dutch bilingual children. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 21(4), 694–709. 10.1017/S1366728917000207
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S1366728917000207 [Google Scholar]
  22. Ferdinand, A.
    (1993) Subject dislocations in French child language. HIL Manuscripts, 1(1), 54–64.
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Flynn, S., Foley, C., & Vinnitskaya, I.
    (2004) The cumulative-enhancement model for language acquisition: Comparing adults’ and children’s pattern of development in first, second and third language acquisition of relative clauses. The International Journal of Multilingualism, 1(1), 3–16. 10.1080/14790710408668175
    https://doi.org/10.1080/14790710408668175 [Google Scholar]
  24. Gibson, E., & Wexler, K.
    (1994) Triggers. Linguistic Inquiry, 25(3), 407–454.
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Gumperz, J. J.
    (1967) On the linguistic markers of bilingual communication. The Journal of Social Issues, 23(2), 137–153. 10.1111/j.1540‑4560.1967.tb00575.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-4560.1967.tb00575.x [Google Scholar]
  26. Hager, M.
    (2014) Der Genuserwerb bei mehrsprachig aufwachsenden Kindern – Eine longitudinale Untersuchung bilingualer und trilingualer Kinder der Sprachenkombinationen deutsch-französisch/italienisch/spanisch, französisch-italienisch/spanisch und deutsch-spanisch-katalanisch. Wuppertal: Bergische Universität Wuppertal. URL: elpub.bib.uni-wuppertal.de/edocs/dokumente/fba/romanistik/diss2014/hager/da1401.pdf
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Haider, H.
    (1993) Principled variability. Parametrization without parameter fixing. InG. Fanselow (Ed.), The parametrization of Universal Grammar (pp.1–16), Amsterdam: Benjamins. 10.1075/la.8.02hai
    https://doi.org/10.1075/la.8.02hai [Google Scholar]
  28. Hoffmann, C.
    (1985) Language acquisition in two trilingual children. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, 6(6), 479–495. 10.1080/01434632.1985.9994222
    https://doi.org/10.1080/01434632.1985.9994222 [Google Scholar]
  29. Hoffmann, C., & Stavans, A.
    (2007) The evolution of trilingual codeswitching from infancy to school age: The shaping of trilingual competence through dynamic language dominance. International Journal of Bilingualism, 11(1), 55–72. 10.1177/13670069070110010401
    https://doi.org/10.1177/13670069070110010401 [Google Scholar]
  30. Holmberg, A., Nayudu, A., & Sheehan, M.
    (2009) Three partial null-subject languages: A comparison of Brazilian Portuguese, Finnish and Marathi. Studia Linguistica, 63(1), 59–97. 10.1111/j.1467‑9582.2008.01154.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9582.2008.01154.x [Google Scholar]
  31. Hulk, A., & Müller, N.
    (2000) Cross-linguistic influence at the interface between syntax and pragmatics. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 3(3), 227–244. 10.1017/S1366728900000353
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S1366728900000353 [Google Scholar]
  32. Hyams, N.
    (1989) The null-subject parameter in language acquisition. InO. A. Jaeggli & K. J. Safir (Eds.), The null-subject parameter (pp.215–238). Dordrecht: Springer. 10.1007/978‑94‑009‑2540‑3_7
    https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-009-2540-3_7 [Google Scholar]
  33. (2011) Missing subjects in early child language. InJ. de Villiers & T. Roeper (Eds.), Handbook of generative approaches in language acquisition (pp.13–52). Dordrecht: Springer. 10.1007/978‑94‑007‑1688‑9_2
    https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-007-1688-9_2 [Google Scholar]
  34. Jansen, V.
    (2015) Der Erwerb der Wortstellung im simultan-bilingualen Erstspracherwerb: Dislokationen bei deutsch-französisch aufwachsenden Kindern. Berlin/Boston: de Gruyter.
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Kaiser, G.
    (1992) Die klitischen Personalpronomina im Französischen und Portugiesischen. Eine synchronische und diachronische Analyse. Frankfurt/Main: Vervuert. 10.31819/9783964562340
    https://doi.org/10.31819/9783964562340 [Google Scholar]
  36. Kaiser, G., & Meisel, J. M.
    (1991) Subjekte und Null-Subjekte im Französischen. InS. Olsen & G. Fanselow (Eds.), „Det, Comp und Infl”. Zur Syntax funktionaler Kategorien und grammatischer Funktionen (pp.110–136). Tübingen: Niemeyer. 10.1515/9783111353838.110
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783111353838.110 [Google Scholar]
  37. Kaltsa, M., Tsimpli, I. M., & Argyri, F.
    (2019) The development of gender assignment and agreement in Greek-English and German-Greek bilingual children. Linguistic Approaches to Bilingualism, 9(2), 253–288. doi:  10.1075/lab.16033.kal
    https://doi.org/10.1075/lab.16033.kal [Google Scholar]
  38. Kayne, R. S.
    (2000) Parameters and Universals. Oxford University Press: New York.
    [Google Scholar]
  39. Kazzazi, K.
    (2011) Ich brauche mix-cough: Cross-linguistic influence involving German, English and Farsi. International Journal of Multilingualism, 8(1), 63–79. 10.1080/14790711003671879
    https://doi.org/10.1080/14790711003671879 [Google Scholar]
  40. Krumreihn, J.
    (2019) Erwerb der Subjekt-Verb Kongruenz bei mehrsprachigen Kindern mit Französisch als Erstsprache. Unpublished Master’s thesis, Bergische Universität Wuppertal.
  41. Leonetti, M.
    (2018) Two types of postverbal subject. Italian Journal of Linguistics, 30(2), 11–36.
    [Google Scholar]
  42. Lightfoot, D.
    (1999) The development of language. Acquisition, change, and evolution. Oxford: Blackwell.
    [Google Scholar]
  43. Lleó, C.
    (2016) Acquiring multilingual phonologies (2L1, L2 and L3): Are the difficulties in the interfaces?InS. Fisher & C. Gabriel (Eds.), Manual of grammatical interfaces in Romance (pp.519–550). Berlin/München/Boston: de Gruyter. 10.1515/9783110311860‑020
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110311860-020 [Google Scholar]
  44. MacSwan, J.
    (2000) The architecture of the bilingual language faculty: evidence from intrasentential code switching. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 3(1), 37–54. 10.1017/S1366728900000122
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S1366728900000122 [Google Scholar]
  45. Maneva, B.
    (2004) Maman, je suis polyglotte !: A case study of multilingual language acquisition from 0 to 5 years. International Journal of Multilingualism, 1(2), 109–122. 10.1080/14790710408668182
    https://doi.org/10.1080/14790710408668182 [Google Scholar]
  46. Marty, F.
    (2001) Les signaux morphologiques du français parlé. Le français moderne, LXIX(2), 211–240.
    [Google Scholar]
  47. Meisenburg, T.
    (2000) Vom Wort zum Flexiv. Zeitschrift für französische Sprache und Literatur, CX, 223–237.
    [Google Scholar]
  48. Mikès, M.
    (1991) Some issues of grammatical development in early trilinguals. Anuario de Psicología, 48, 29–38.
    [Google Scholar]
  49. Montanari, S.
    (2009) Multi-word combinations and the emergence of differentiated ordering patterns in early trilingual development. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 12(4), 503–519. 10.1017/S1366728909990265
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S1366728909990265 [Google Scholar]
  50. (2010a) Language differentiation in early trilingual development. Evidence from a case study. Saarbrücken, Germany: Verlag Dr. Müller.
    [Google Scholar]
  51. (2010b) Translation equivalents and the emergence of multiple lexicons in early trilingual development. First Language, 30(1), 102–125. 10.1177/0142723709350528
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0142723709350528 [Google Scholar]
  52. (2013) Productive trilingualism in infancy: what makes it possible?World Journal of English Language, 3(1), 62–77. 10.5430/wjel.v3n1p62
    https://doi.org/10.5430/wjel.v3n1p62 [Google Scholar]
  53. Müller, G., & Rohrbacher, B.
    (1989) Eine Geschichte ohne Subjekt. Zur Entwicklung der pro-Theorie. Linguistische Berichte, 119, 3–52.
    [Google Scholar]
  54. Müller, N.
    (1993) Komplexe Sätze. Der Erwerb von COMP und von Wortstellungsmustern bei bilingualen Kindern (Französisch/Deutsch). Tübingen: Narr.
    [Google Scholar]
  55. (1998) Transfer in bilingual first language acquisition. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 1(3), 151–171. 10.1017/S1366728998000261
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S1366728998000261 [Google Scholar]
  56. (2016) Mehrsprachigkeitsforschung. Tübingen: Narr.
    [Google Scholar]
  57. Müller, N., Arnaus Gil, L., Eichler, N., Geveler, J., Hager, M., Jansen, V., Patuto, M., Repetto, V., & Schmeißer, A.
    (2015) Code-Switching: Spanisch, Italienisch, Französisch. Eine Einführung. Tübingen: Narr.
    [Google Scholar]
  58. Müller, N., & Hulk, A.
    (2001) Cross-linguistic influence in bilingual children: Object omissions and Root Infinitives. InC. Howell, S. A. Fish & T. Keith-Lucas (Eds), Proceedings of the 24th Annual Boston University Conference on Language Development (pp.546–557). Somerville MA.: Cascadilla Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  59. Muysken, P.
    (1997) Code-switching processes. Alternation, insertion, congruent lexicalization. InM. Pütz (Ed.), Language choices: Conditions, constraints, and consequences (pp.361–380). Amsterdam: Benjamins. 10.1075/impact.1.25muy
    https://doi.org/10.1075/impact.1.25muy [Google Scholar]
  60. Paradis, J., & Genesee, F.
    (1996) Syntactic acquisition in bilingual children: Autonomous or interdependent?Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 18, 1–25. 10.1017/S0272263100014662
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0272263100014662 [Google Scholar]
  61. Patuto, M.
    (2012) Der Erwerb des Subjekts in (Nicht-)Nullsubjektsprachen: die Rolle des Spracheneinflusses und der Sprachdominanz bei bilingual deutsch-italienisch, deutsch-spanisch und französisch-italienisch aufwachsenden Kindern. Tübingen: Narr.
    [Google Scholar]
  62. Patuto, M., Hager, M., Arnaus Gil, L., Eichler, N., Jansen, V., Schmeißer, A., & Müller, N.
    (2014) Child-external and -internal factors in bilingual code-switching: Spanish, Italian, French and German. InA. Koll-Stobbe, & S. Knospe (Eds.), Language contact around the globe. Proceedings of the LCTG3 Conference (pp.191–209). Frankfurt am Main: Lang.
    [Google Scholar]
  63. Pinker, S.
    (1984) Language learnability and language development. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  64. (1989) Learnability and cognition. The acquisition of argument structure. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  65. Poeste, M., & Müller, N.
    (2020) Code-mixing in trilingual children: Domains and dimensions of language dominance. InC. Gabriel, A. Pešková, & M. Selig (Eds.), Contact, variation and change in Romance and beyond (pp.303–322). Berlin: Schmidt.
    [Google Scholar]
  66. Poeste, M., Müller, N., & Arnaus Gil, L.
    (2019) Code-mixing and language dominance: bilingual, trilingual and multilingual children compared. International Journal of Multilingualism, 16(4), 459–491. doi:  10.1080/14790718.2019.1569017
    https://doi.org/10.1080/14790718.2019.1569017 [Google Scholar]
  67. Pollock, J. -Y.
    (1997) Langage et cognition. Paris: Presses Universitaires de France.
    [Google Scholar]
  68. Poplack, S.
    (1980) Sometimes I’ll start a sentence in Spanish y termino en español: Toward a typology of code-switching. Linguistics, 18, 581–618. 10.1515/ling.1980.18.7‑8.581
    https://doi.org/10.1515/ling.1980.18.7-8.581 [Google Scholar]
  69. (1987) Contrasting patterns of code-switching in two communities. InE. Wande, J. Anward, B. Nordberg, L. Steensland & M. Thelander (Eds.), Aspects of multilingualism: Proceedings from the fourth Nordic symposium on bilingualism 1984 (pp.51–77). Uppsala: Borgströms.
    [Google Scholar]
  70. Prévost, P.
    (2009) The acquisition of French. The development of inflectional morphology and syntax in L1 acquisition, bilingualism, and L2 acquisition. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: Benjamins. 10.1075/lald.51
    https://doi.org/10.1075/lald.51 [Google Scholar]
  71. Quay, S.
    (2001) Managing linguistic boundaries in early trilingual development. InJ. Cenoz & F. Genesee (Eds.), Trends in bilingual acquisition (pp.149–199). Amsterdam: Benjamins. 10.1075/tilar.1.09qua
    https://doi.org/10.1075/tilar.1.09qua [Google Scholar]
  72. (2008) Dinner conversations with a trilingual two-year-old: Language socialization in a multilingual context. First Language, 28(1), 5–33. 10.1177/0142723707083557
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0142723707083557 [Google Scholar]
  73. (2011) Introduction: Data-driven insights from trilingual children in the making. International Journal of Multilingualism, 8(1), 1–4. 10.1080/14790711003671838
    https://doi.org/10.1080/14790711003671838 [Google Scholar]
  74. Rasetti, L.
    (2003) Optional categories in early French syntax: A developmental study of root infinitives and null arguments. PhD dissertation, University of Geneva.
    [Google Scholar]
  75. Rizzi, L.
    (1982) Issues in Italian syntax. Dordrecht: Foris. 10.1515/9783110883718
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110883718 [Google Scholar]
  76. (1986) Null objects in Italian and the theory of pro. Linguistic Inquiry, 17, 501–558.
    [Google Scholar]
  77. (1990) Relativized minimality. Cambridge: MIT Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  78. (2014): On the elements of syntactic variation. InC. Picallo (Ed.), Linguistic variation in the Minimalist Framework (pp.13–35). Oxford: Oxford University Press. 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198702894.003.0002
    https://doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198702894.003.0002 [Google Scholar]
  79. Roeper, T.
    (1999) Universal bilingualism. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 2(3), 169–186. 10.1017/S1366728999000310
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S1366728999000310 [Google Scholar]
  80. Rothman, J.
    (2011) L3 syntactic transfer selectivity and typological determinacy: The typological primacy model. Second Language Research, 27(1), 107–127. 10.1177/0267658310386439
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0267658310386439 [Google Scholar]
  81. Scalise, E.
    (2020) Argumentauslassungen bei einem trilingualen Kind: Französisch im Vergleich zu Spanisch und Italienisch. Unpublished BA thesis. Bergische Universität Wuppertal.
    [Google Scholar]
  82. Scalise, E., & Sivakumar, A.
    (2019) Sprachdominanz und Wortschatzgröße bei trilingualen Kindern. InL. Arnaus Gil, & N. Müller (Eds.), Frühkindlicher Trilinguismus. Französisch, Spanisch, Deutsch (pp.185–195). Tübingen: Narr.
    [Google Scholar]
  83. Schmeißer, A., Eichler, N., Arnaus Gil, L., & Müller, N.
    (2016) Mélanges interpropositionnels chez les enfants bilingues français-allemands: est-ce vraiment du code-switching?Language, Interaction and Acquisition, 7(2), 238–274. 10.1075/lia.7.2.04sch
    https://doi.org/10.1075/lia.7.2.04sch [Google Scholar]
  84. Schmitz, K.
    (2007) L’interface syntaxe – pragmatique : Le sujet chez des enfants franco-allemands et italo-allemands. Acquisition et Interaction en Langue Etrangère, 25, 9–43. 10.4000/aile.2263
    https://doi.org/10.4000/aile.2263 [Google Scholar]
  85. Schmitz, K., & Müller, N.
    (2008) Strong and clitic pronouns in monolingual and bilingual acquisition of French and Italian. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 11(1), 19–41. 10.1017/S1366728907003197
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S1366728907003197 [Google Scholar]
  86. Schmitz, K., Patuto, M., & Müller, N.
    (2011) The null-subject parameter at the interface between syntax and pragmatics: Evidence from bilingual German-Italian, German-French and Italian-French children. First Language, 32(1–2), 205–238. 10.1177/0142723711403880
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0142723711403880 [Google Scholar]
  87. Shlonsky, U.
    (2009) Hebrew as a partial null-subject language. Studia Linguistica, 63(1), 133–157. 10.1111/j.1467‑9582.2008.01156.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9582.2008.01156.x [Google Scholar]
  88. Sivakumar, A.
    (2017) Die soziolinguistischen Faktoren des Code-Switching bei trilingual aufwachsenden Kindern: Eine empirische Untersuchung eines trilingual spanisch-französisch-italienisch aufwachsenden Kindes. Unpublished Master’s thesis, Bergische Universität Wuppertal.
    [Google Scholar]
  89. Suñer, M.
    (2001) The lexical preverbal subject in a Romance null subject language. Where are thou?InR. Núñes-Cedeño, L. López, & R. Cameron (Eds.), A Romance perspective on language knowledge and use (pp.341–357). Amsterdam/Philadelphia: Benjamins.
    [Google Scholar]
  90. Treffers-Daller, J.
    (2009) Code-switching and transfer: an exploration of similarities and differences. InB. E. Bullock & A. J. Toribio (Eds.), The Cambridge handbook of linguistic code-switching (pp.58–74). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9780511576331.005
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511576331.005 [Google Scholar]
  91. Valian, V.
    (1990) Null-subjects: A problem for parameter-setting models of language acquisition. Cognition, 35, 105–12. 10.1016/0010‑0277(90)90011‑8
    https://doi.org/10.1016/0010-0277(90)90011-8 [Google Scholar]
  92. Zribi-Hertz, A.
    (1994) La syntaxe des clitiques nominatifs en français standard et en français avancé. Travaux de Linguistique et de Philologie, 32, 131–147.
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.1075/lia.20011.sca
Loading
  • Article Type: Research Article
Keyword(s): acceleration; French; null-subjects; parameter setting; trilingualism

Most Cited

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error