Volume 12, Issue 1
  • ISSN 1879-7865
  • E-ISSN: 1879-7873
Buy:$35.00 + Taxes



While it has long been assumed that brain plasticity declines significantly with growing maturity, recent studies in adult subjects show grey and white matter changes due to language learning that suggest high adaptability of brain structures even within short time-scales. It is not known yet whether other language development phenomena, such as attrition, may also be linked to structural changes in the brain. In behavioral and neurocognitive research on language attrition and crosslinguistic influence, findings suggest high plasticity as language interaction patterns of bilingual speakers change constantly and from early stages of language acquisition onwards. In this paper we will speculate on possible links between brain plasticity and L1 attrition in adult bilinguals, with particular attention to a number of factors that are put forward in memory frameworks in order to explain forgetting: time elapsed, frequency of L1 use, and interference from L2. In order to better understand the time-scales involved in the plastic changes during bilingual development, we then discuss some recent studies of re-exposure to L1 in formerly attrited immigrants, and their implications with respect to brain plasticity.


Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...


  1. Abutalebi, J., & Green, D. W.
    (2016) Neuroimaging of language control in bilinguals: Neural adaptation and reserve. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 19 (4), 689–698. 10.1017/S1366728916000225
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S1366728916000225 [Google Scholar]
  2. Baus, C., Costa, A., & Carreiras, M.
    (2013) On the effects of second language immersion on first language production. Acta Psychologica, 142 (3), 402–409. 10.1016/j.actpsy.2013.01.010
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.actpsy.2013.01.010 [Google Scholar]
  3. Beatty-Martinez, A. L., & Dussias, P. E.
    (2019) Adaptive control and brain plasticity. A multi-dimensional account of the bilingual experience and its relation to cognition. InI. A. Sekerina, L. Spradlin, & V. Valian (Eds.), Bilingualism, executive function, and beyond. Questions and insights (pp.49–66). Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 10.1075/sibil.57.04bea
    https://doi.org/10.1075/sibil.57.04bea [Google Scholar]
  4. Bergmann, C., Meulman, N., Stowe, L. A., Sprenger, S. A., & Schmid, M. S.
    (2015) Prolonged L2 immersion engenders little change in morphosyntactic processing of bilingual natives. NeuroReport, 26, 1065–1070. 10.1097/WNR.0000000000000469
    https://doi.org/10.1097/WNR.0000000000000469 [Google Scholar]
  5. Bice, K., & Kroll, J. F.
    (2015) Native language change during early stages of second language learning. NeuroReport, 26(16), 966–971. doi:  10.1097/WNR.0000000000000453
    https://doi.org/10.1097/WNR.0000000000000453 [Google Scholar]
  6. Birdsong, D.
    (2014) The critical period hypothesis for second language acquisition: Tailering the coat of many colors. InM. Pawlak & L. Aronin (Eds.), Essential topics in applied linguistics and multilingualism (pp.43–50). Berlin: Springer International Publishing. 10.1007/978‑3‑319‑01414‑2_3
    https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-01414-2_3 [Google Scholar]
  7. (2018) Plasticity, variability and age in second language acquisition and bilingualism. Frontiers in Psychology, 9, 81. doi:  10.3389/fpsyg.2018.00081
    https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2018.00081 [Google Scholar]
  8. Brown, A., & Gullberg, M.
    (2013) L1-L2 convergence in clausal packaging in Japanese and English. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 16(3), 477–494. doi:  10.1017/S1366728912000491
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S1366728912000491 [Google Scholar]
  9. Bylund, E.
    (2019) Age effects in language attrition. InM. S. Schmid & B. Köpke (Eds.), The Oxford handbook on language attrition (pp.277–287). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Cabeza, R., Anderson, N. D., Locantore, J. K., & McIntosh, A. R.
    (2002) Aging gracefully: Compensatory brain activity in high-performing older adults. NeuroImage, 17, 1394–1402. 10.1006/nimg.2002.1280
    https://doi.org/10.1006/nimg.2002.1280 [Google Scholar]
  11. Chamorro, G., Sorace, A., & Sturt, P.
    (2016) What is the source of L1 attrition? The effect of recent L1 re-exposure on Spanish speakers under L1 attrition. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 19, 520–532. doi:  10.1017/S1366728915000152
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S1366728915000152 [Google Scholar]
  12. Chang, C. B.
    (2012) Rapid and multifaceted effects of second-language learning on first-language speech production. Journal of Phonetics, 40, 249–268. doi:  10.1016/j.wocn.2011.10.007
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.wocn.2011.10.007 [Google Scholar]
  13. (2013) A novelty effect in phonetic drift of the native language. Journal of Phonetics, 41, 520–533. 10.1016/j.wocn.2013.09.006
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.wocn.2013.09.006 [Google Scholar]
  14. (2019) Phonetic drift. InM. S. Schmid & B. Köpke (Eds.), The Oxford handbook on language attrition (pp.191–203). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Cherciov, M.
    (2013) Investigating the impact of attitude on first language attrition and second language acquisition from a Dynamic Systems Theory perspective. International Journal of Bilingualism, 17(6), 716–733. 10.1177/1367006912454622
    https://doi.org/10.1177/1367006912454622 [Google Scholar]
  16. Cook, V.
    (2013) Multicompetence. InC. Chapelle (Eds.), The encyclopedia of applied linguistics (pp.3768–3774). Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell.
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Curtiss, S., Fromkin, V., Krashen, S., Rigler, D., & Rigler, M.
    (1974) The linguistic development of Genie. Language, 50(3), 528–554. 10.2307/412222
    https://doi.org/10.2307/412222 [Google Scholar]
  18. De Bot, K., Gommans, P., & Rossing, C.
    (1991) L1 loss in an L2 environment: Dutch immigrants in France. InH. W. Seliger & R. M. Vago (Eds.), First language attrition (pp.87–98). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9780511620720.006
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511620720.006 [Google Scholar]
  19. De Bot, K., & Clyne, M. G.
    (1994) A 16-year longitudinal study of language attrition in Dutch immigrants in Australia. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, 15(1), 17–28. 10.1080/01434632.1994.9994554
    https://doi.org/10.1080/01434632.1994.9994554 [Google Scholar]
  20. DeLuca, V., Rothman, J., & Pliatsikas, C.
    (2019) Linguistic immersion and structural effects on the bilingual brain: A longitudinal study. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 22, 1160–1175. doi:  10.1017/S1366728918000883
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S1366728918000883 [Google Scholar]
  21. DeLuca, V., Rothman, J., Bialystok, E., & Pliatsikas, C.
    (2020) Duration and extent of bilingual experience modulate neurocognitive outcomes. NeuroImage, 204, 116222. 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2019.116222
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroimage.2019.116222 [Google Scholar]
  22. Draganski, B., Gaser, C., Busch, V., Schuierer, G., Bogdahn, U., & May, A.
    (2004) Changes in grey matter induced by training. Nature, 427, 311–312. 10.1038/427311a
    https://doi.org/10.1038/427311a [Google Scholar]
  23. Driemeyer, J., Boyke, J., Gaser, C., Buchel, C., & May, A.
    (2008) Changes in gray matter induced by learning – revisited. PLoS One 2008 (3), p.e2669. 10.1371/journal.pone.0002669
    https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0002669 [Google Scholar]
  24. Duffau, H.
    (2014) The huge plastic potential of adult brain and the role of connectomics: New insights provided by serial mappings in glioma surgery. Cortex, 58, 325–337. 10.1016/j.cortex.2013.08.005
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cortex.2013.08.005 [Google Scholar]
  25. Dussias, P. E., Beatty-Martinez, A. L., & Perrotti, L.
    (2017) Susceptibility to interference affects the second and the first language. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 20(4), 681–682. 10.1017/S1366728916001024
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S1366728916001024 [Google Scholar]
  26. Dussias, P. E., Perrotti, L., Carlson, M., & Morales, L.
    (2016) Exposure to a second language can change processing routines in the first language. Paper presented atThe International Meeting of the Psychonomic Society, Granada, Spain. May 5–8.
  27. Dussias, P. E., Valdés Kroff, J. R., Beatty-Martinez, A. L., & Johns, M. A.
    (2019) What language experience tells us about cognition. Variable input and interactional contexts affect bilingual sentence processing. InJ. W. Schwieter (Eds.), The handbook of the neuroscience of multilingualism (pp.467–484). New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons. 10.1002/9781119387725.ch23
    https://doi.org/10.1002/9781119387725.ch23 [Google Scholar]
  28. Ebbinghaus, H.
    (1885) Über das Gedächtnis. Untersuchungen zur experimentellen Psychologie. Leipzig: Duncker & Humblot.
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Ecke, P.
    (2004) Language attrition and theories of forgetting: A cross-disciplinary review. International Journal of Bilingualism, 8(3), 321–354. 10.1177/13670069040080030901
    https://doi.org/10.1177/13670069040080030901 [Google Scholar]
  30. Ecke, P., & Hall, C. J.
    (2013) Tracking tip-of-the-tongue states in a multilingual speaker: Evidence of attrition or instability in lexical systems?International Journal of Bilingualism. 17, 734–751. doi:  10.1177/1367006912454623
    https://doi.org/10.1177/1367006912454623 [Google Scholar]
  31. Elmer, S., Hänggi, J., & Jäncke, L.
    (2014) Processing demands upon cognitive, linguistic, and articulatory functions promote grey matter plasticity in the adult multilingual brain: Insights from simultaneous interpreters. Cortex, 54, 179–189. 10.1016/j.cortex.2014.02.014
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cortex.2014.02.014 [Google Scholar]
  32. Flege, J. E.
    (1987) The production of “new” and “similar” phones in a foreign language: Evidence for the effect of equivalence classification. Journal of Phonetics, 15 (1), 47–65. 10.1016/S0095‑4470(19)30537‑6
    https://doi.org/10.1016/S0095-4470(19)30537-6 [Google Scholar]
  33. Flores, C.
    (2020) Attrition and reactivation of a childhood language: The case of returnee heritage speakers. Language Learning, 70(1), 85–121. 10.1111/lang.12350
    https://doi.org/10.1111/lang.12350 [Google Scholar]
  34. Gargiulo, C., & van de Weijer, J.
    (2020) Anaphora resolution in L1 Italian in a Swedish-speaking environment before and after L1 re-immersion: A study on attrition. Lingua, 233, 102746. 10.1016/j.lingua.2019.102746
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lingua.2019.102746 [Google Scholar]
  35. Genevska-Hanke, D.
    (2017) Intrapersonal variation in late L1 attrition and its implications for the competence/performance debate. InN. Levkovych & A. Urdze (Eds.), Linguistik im Nordwesten: Beiträge zum 8. Nordwestdeutschen Linguistischen Kolloquium, 13.–14. November 2015 (pp.1–31). Bochum: Brockmeyer.
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Golestani, N.
    (2014) Brain structural correlates of individual differences at low-to-high-levels of the language processing hierarchy: A review of new approaches to imaging research. International Journal of Bilingualism, 18(1), 6–34. 10.1177/1367006912456585
    https://doi.org/10.1177/1367006912456585 [Google Scholar]
  37. Grosjean, F.
    (2015) Bicultural bilinguals. International Journal of Bilingualism, 19(5), 572–586. 10.1177/1367006914526297
    https://doi.org/10.1177/1367006914526297 [Google Scholar]
  38. (2018) Être bilingue aujourd’hui. Revue Française de Linguistique Appliquée, 2018–2, 7–14. 10.3917/rfla.232.0007
    https://doi.org/10.3917/rfla.232.0007 [Google Scholar]
  39. Gullifer, J. W., Chai, X. J., Whitford, V., Pivneva, I., Baum, S., Klein, D., & Titone, D.
    (2018) Bilingual experience and resting-state brain connectivity: Impacts of L2 age of acquisition and social diversity of language use on control networks. Neuropsychologia, 117, 123–134. 10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2018.04.037
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2018.04.037 [Google Scholar]
  40. Gürel, A.
    (2004) Selectivity in L2-induced L1 attrition: A psycholinguistic account. Journal of Neurolinguistics, 17(1), 53–78. 10.1016/S0911‑6044(03)00054‑X
    https://doi.org/10.1016/S0911-6044(03)00054-X [Google Scholar]
  41. Hamann, C., Rinke, E., & Genevska-Hanke, D.
    (2019) Bilingual language development: The role of dominance. Frontiers in Psychology, 10 (1064). doi:  10.3389/fpsyg.2019.01064
    https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2019.01064 [Google Scholar]
  42. Hara, Y.
    (2015) Brain plasticity and rehabilitation in stroke patients. Journal of Nippon Medical School 2015, 82(1), 4–13. doi:  10.1272/jnms.82.4
    https://doi.org/10.1272/jnms.82.4 [Google Scholar]
  43. Hartsuiker, R. J., Pickering, M. J., & Veltkamp, E.
    (2002) Is syntax separate or shared between languages? Cross-linguistic syntactic priming in Spanish-English bilinguals. Psychological Science, 15, 409–414. 10.1111/j.0956‑7976.2004.00693.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.0956-7976.2004.00693.x [Google Scholar]
  44. Hebb, D. O.
    (1949) The organization of behaviour. A neuropsychological theory. New York: Wiley & Sons.
    [Google Scholar]
  45. Hofstetter, S., Friedmann, N., & Assaf, Y.
    (2017) Rapid language-related plasticity: Microstructural changes in the cortex after a short session of new word learning. Brain Structure and Function, 222(3), 1231–1241. 10.1007/s00429‑016‑1273‑2
    https://doi.org/10.1007/s00429-016-1273-2 [Google Scholar]
  46. Hosoda, C., Tanaka, K., Nariai, T., Honda, M., & Hanakawa, T.
    (2013) Dynamic neural network reorganization associated with second language vocabulary learning: A multimodal imaging study. The Journal of Neuroscience, 33(34): 13663–13672. 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.0410‑13.2013
    https://doi.org/10.1523/JNEUROSCI.0410-13.2013 [Google Scholar]
  47. Jacobs, A., Fricke, M., & Kroll, J. F.
    (2016) Cross-language activation begins during speech planning and extends into second language speech. Language Learning, 66, 324–353. 10.1111/lang.12148
    https://doi.org/10.1111/lang.12148 [Google Scholar]
  48. Karayayla, T. & Schmid, M. S.
    (2018) First language attrition as a function of age at onset of bilingualism: First language attainment of Turkish-English bilinguals in the United Kingdom. Language Learning, 69(1), 106–142. 10.1111/lang.12316
    https://doi.org/10.1111/lang.12316 [Google Scholar]
  49. Kasparian, K., Vespignani, F., & Steinhauer, K.
    (2017) First language attrition induces changes in online morphosyntactic processing and re-analysis: An ERP study of number agreement in complex Italian sentences. Cognitive Science, 41: 1760–1803. doi:  10.1111/cogs.12450
    https://doi.org/10.1111/cogs.12450 [Google Scholar]
  50. Köpke, B.
    (2002) Activation thresholds and non-pathological first language attrition. InF. Fabbro (Eds.), Advances in the neurolinguistics of bilingualism. Essays in honor of Michel Paradis (pp.119–142). Udine: Forum.
    [Google Scholar]
  51. (2004) Neurolinguistic aspects of attrition. Journal of Neurolinguistics, 17(1), 3–30. 10.1016/S0911‑6044(03)00051‑4
    https://doi.org/10.1016/S0911-6044(03)00051-4 [Google Scholar]
  52. (2007) Language attrition at the crossroads of brain, mind, and society. InB. Köpke, M. S. Schmid, M. Keijzer & S. Dostert (Eds.), Language attrition. Theoretical perspectives (pp.9–39). Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 10.1075/sibil.33.03kop
    https://doi.org/10.1075/sibil.33.03kop [Google Scholar]
  53. (2019) First language attrition: From bilingual to monolingual proficiency?InA. de Houwer, & L. Ortega (Eds.), The Cambridge handbook of bilingualism (pp.349–365). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  54. Köpke, B., & Schmid, M. S.
    (2004) Language attrition: The next phase. InM. S. Schmid, B. Köpke, M. Keijzer, & L. Weilemar (Eds.), First language attrition: Interdisciplinary perspectives on methodological issues (pp.1–43). Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 10.1075/sibil.28.02kop
    https://doi.org/10.1075/sibil.28.02kop [Google Scholar]
  55. Köpke, B., & Genevska-Hanke, D.
    (2018) First language attrition and dominance: Same same or different?Frontiers in Psychology, 9 1963 doi:  10.3389/fpsyg.2018.01963
    https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2018.01963 [Google Scholar]
  56. Legault, J., Fang, S. -Y., Lan, Y. -L., & Li, P.
    (2019) Structural brain changes as a function of second language vocabulary training: Effects of learning context. Brain and Cognition, 134, 90–102. 10.1016/j.bandc.2018.09.004
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bandc.2018.09.004 [Google Scholar]
  57. Lenneberg, E.
    (1967) Biological foundations of language. New York, NY: Wiley. 10.1080/21548331.1967.11707799
    https://doi.org/10.1080/21548331.1967.11707799 [Google Scholar]
  58. Li, P., Legault, J., & Litcofsky, K. A.
    (2014) Neuroplasticity as a function of second language learning: Anatomical changes in the human brain. Cortex, 58, 301–324. 10.1016/j.cortex.2014.05.001
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cortex.2014.05.001 [Google Scholar]
  59. Linck, J. A., Kroll, J. F., & Sunderman, G.
    (2009) Losing access to the native language while immersed in a second language. Evidence for the role of inhibition in second-language learning. Psychological Science, 20(12), 1507–1515. 10.1111/j.1467‑9280.2009.02480.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9280.2009.02480.x [Google Scholar]
  60. Loftus, E. F.
    (1980) Surprising new insights into how we remember and why we forget. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley Publishing Co.
    [Google Scholar]
  61. Lubrano, V., Prod’homme, K., Démonet, J. -F., & Köpke, B.
    (2012) Language monitoring in multilingual patients undergoing awake craniotomy: A case study of a German-English-French trilingual patient with a WHO grade II glioma. Journal of Neurolinguistics, 25, 567–578. 10.1016/j.jneuroling.2011.08.002
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jneuroling.2011.08.002 [Google Scholar]
  62. MacWhinney, B.
    (2019) Language attrition and the Competition Model. InM. S. Schmid & B. Köpke (Eds.), The Oxford handbook of language attrition (pp.7–17). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  63. Mårtensson, J., Eriksson, J., Bodammer, N. C., Lindgren, M., Johansson, M., Nyberg, L., & Lövdén, M.
    (2012) Growth of language-related brain areas after foreign language learning. NeuroImage, 63, 240–244. doi:  10.1016/j.neuroimage.2012.06.043
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroimage.2012.06.043 [Google Scholar]
  64. Mechelli, A., Crinion, J. T., Noppeney, U., O’Doherty, J., Ashburner, J., Frackowiak, R. S., & Price, C. J.
    (2004) Neurolinguistics: Structural plasticity in the bilingual brain. Nature, 431(7010), 757. 10.1038/431757a
    https://doi.org/10.1038/431757a [Google Scholar]
  65. Merzenich, M. M.
    (2013) Soft-wired: How the new science of brain plasticity can change your life. San Francisco: Parnassus Publishing.
    [Google Scholar]
  66. Mickan, A., McQueen, J. M., & Lemhöfer, K.
    (2020) Between-language competition as a driving force in foreign language attrition. Cognition, 198, 104218. 10.1016/j.cognition.2020.104218
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2020.104218 [Google Scholar]
  67. Opitz, C.
    (2013) A dynamic perspective on late bilinguals’ linguistic development in an L2 environment. International Journal of Bilingualism, 17(6), 701–715. 10.1177/1367006912454621
    https://doi.org/10.1177/1367006912454621 [Google Scholar]
  68. Oppenheim, G., Griffin, Z. M., Pena, E. D., & Bedore, L. M.
    (2020) Longitudinal evidence for simultaneous bilingual language development with shifting language dominance, and how to explain it. Language Learning, 70(S2), 20–44. 10.1111/lang.12398
    https://doi.org/10.1111/lang.12398 [Google Scholar]
  69. Osterhout, L., McLaughlin, J., Pitkanen, I., Frenck-Mestre, C., & Molinaro, N.
    (2006) Novice learners, longitudinal designs, and event-related potentials: A paradigm for exploring the neurocognition of second-language processing. Language Learning, 56, 199–230. 10.1111/j.1467‑9922.2006.00361.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9922.2006.00361.x [Google Scholar]
  70. Osterhout, L., Poliakov, A., Inoue, K., McLaughlin, J., Valentine, G., Pitkanen, I., Frenck-Mestre, C., & Hirschensohn, J.
    (2008) Second language learning and changes in the brain. Journal of Neurolinguistics, 21(6), 509–521. 10.1016/j.jneuroling.2008.01.001
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jneuroling.2008.01.001 [Google Scholar]
  71. Paradis, M.
    (2007) L1 attrition features predicted by a neurolinguistic theory of bilingualism. InB. Köpke, M. S. Schmid, M. Keijzer, & S. Dostert (Eds.), Language attrition. Theoretical perspectives (pp.121–133). Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 10.1075/sibil.33.09par
    https://doi.org/10.1075/sibil.33.09par [Google Scholar]
  72. Penfield, W., & Roberts, L.
    (1959) Speech and brain mechanisms. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. 10.1515/9781400854677
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9781400854677 [Google Scholar]
  73. Pierce, L. J., Chen, J. K., Delcenserie, A., Genesee, F., & Klein, D.
    (2015) Past experience shapes ongoing neural patterns for language. Nature Communications, 6, 10073. doi:  10.1038/ncomms10073
    https://doi.org/10.1038/ncomms10073 [Google Scholar]
  74. Pliatsikas, C.
    (2019) Multilingualism and brain plasticity. InJ. W. Schwieter (Ed.), The handbook of the neuroscience of multilingualism (pp.230–251). New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons. 10.1002/9781119387725.ch11
    https://doi.org/10.1002/9781119387725.ch11 [Google Scholar]
  75. Raboyeau, G., De Boissezon, X., Marie, N., Balduyck, S., Puel, M., Bezy, C., Demonet, J. -F., & Cardebat, D.
    (2008) Right hemisphere activation in recovery from aphasia. Lesion effect or function recruitment?Neurology, 70(4), 290–298. 10.1212/01.wnl.0000287115.85956.87
    https://doi.org/10.1212/01.wnl.0000287115.85956.87 [Google Scholar]
  76. Sancier, M. L., & Fowler, C. A.
    (1997) Gestural drift in a bilingual speaker of Brazilian Portuguese and English. Journal of Phonetics, 25 (4), 421–436. 10.1006/jpho.1997.0051
    https://doi.org/10.1006/jpho.1997.0051 [Google Scholar]
  77. Schlegel, A., Rudelson, J. J., & Tse, P.
    (2012) White matter structure changes as adults learn a second language. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 24, 1664–1670. 10.1162/jocn_a_00240
    https://doi.org/10.1162/jocn_a_00240 [Google Scholar]
  78. Schmid, M. S.
    (2002) First language attrition, use, and maintenance: The case of German Jews in Anglophone countries. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 10.1075/sibil.24
    https://doi.org/10.1075/sibil.24 [Google Scholar]
  79. (2011) Contact x time. External factors and variability in L1 attrition. InM. S. Schmid & W. Lowie (Eds.), Modeling bilingualism: From structure to chaos (pp.155–176). Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 10.1075/sibil.43.11sch
    https://doi.org/10.1075/sibil.43.11sch [Google Scholar]
  80. (2019a) The impact of frequency of use and length of residence on L1 attrition. InM. S. Schmid & B. Köpke (Eds.), The Oxford handbook of language attrition (pp.288–303). Oxford: Oxford University Press. 10.1093/oxfordhb/9780198793595.013.24
    https://doi.org/10.1093/oxfordhb/9780198793595.013.24 [Google Scholar]
  81. (2019b) Annotated bibliography. InM. S. Schmid & B. Köpke (Eds.), The Oxford handbook of language attrition (pp.509–541). Oxford: Oxford University Press. 10.1093/oxfordhb/9780198793595.001.0001
    https://doi.org/10.1093/oxfordhb/9780198793595.001.0001 [Google Scholar]
  82. Schmid, M. S., & Dusseldorp, E.
    (2010) Quantitative analyses in a multivariate study of language attrition: The impact of extralinguistic factors. Second Language Research, 26(1), 125–160. 10.1177/0267658309337641
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0267658309337641 [Google Scholar]
  83. Schmid, M. S., & Köpke, B.
    (2017a) The relevance of first language attrition to theories of bilingual development. Linguistic Approaches to Bilingualism, 7(6), 637–667. 10.1075/lab.17058.sch
    https://doi.org/10.1075/lab.17058.sch [Google Scholar]
  84. (2017b) When is a bilingual an attriter? Response to the commentaries. Linguistic Approaches to Bilingualism, 7(6), 763–770. 10.1075/lab.17059.sch
    https://doi.org/10.1075/lab.17059.sch [Google Scholar]
  85. Steinhauer, K., & Kasparian, K.
    (2020) Brain plasticity in adulthood: ERP evidence for L1-attrition in lexicon and morphosyntax after predominant L2 use. Language Learning, 70(2), 171–193. 10.1111/lang.12391
    https://doi.org/10.1111/lang.12391 [Google Scholar]
  86. Steinkrauss, R., & Schmid, M. S.
    (2016) Entrenchment and language attrition. InH. -J. Schmid (Eds.), Entrenchment and the psychology of language learning: How we reorganize and adapt linguistic knowledge (pp.367–383). Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
    [Google Scholar]
  87. Stolberg, D., & Münch, A.
    (2010) “Die Muttersprache vergisst man nicht” – or do you? A case study in L1 attrition and its (partial) reversal. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 13(1), 19–31. 10.1017/S1366728909990332
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S1366728909990332 [Google Scholar]
  88. Sulpizio, S., Del Maschio, N., Del Mauro, G., Fedeli, D., & Abutalebi, J.
    (2020) Bilingualism as a gradient measure modulates functional connectivity of language and control networks. NeuroImage, 205, 116306. 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2019.116306
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroimage.2019.116306 [Google Scholar]
  89. Takeuchi, H., Sekiguchi, A., Taki, Y., Yokoyama, S., Yomogida, Y., Komuro, N., Yamanouchi, T., Suzuki, S., & Kawashima, R.
    (2010) Training of working memory impacts structural connectivity. Journal of Neuroscience, 30(9): 3297–3303. 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.4611‑09.2010
    https://doi.org/10.1523/JNEUROSCI.4611-09.2010 [Google Scholar]
  90. Thierry, G., & Sanoudaki, E.
    (2012) Activation syntaxique non-sélective à la langue chez le bilingue précoce. Revue Française de Linguistique Appliquée, XVII (2), 33–48. 10.3917/rfla.172.0033
    https://doi.org/10.3917/rfla.172.0033 [Google Scholar]
  91. Underwood, B. J.
    (1957) Interference and forgetting. Psychological Review, 64, 49–60. 10.1037/h0044616
    https://doi.org/10.1037/h0044616 [Google Scholar]
  92. van Hell, J. G., & Dijkstra, T.
    (2002) Foreign language knowledge can influence native language performance in exclusively native contexts. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 9, 780–789. 10.3758/BF03196335
    https://doi.org/10.3758/BF03196335 [Google Scholar]
  93. Ventureyra, V. A. G. & Pallier, C.
    (2004) In search of the lost language: The case of adopted Koreans in France. InM. S. Schmid, B. Köpke, M. Keijzer, & L. Weilemar (Eds.), First language attrition: Interdisciplinary perspectives on methodological issues (pp.207–221). Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 10.1075/sibil.28.12ven
    https://doi.org/10.1075/sibil.28.12ven [Google Scholar]
  94. White, E. J., Hutka, S. A., Williams, L. J., & Moreno, S.
    (2013) Learning, neural plasticity and sensitive periods: Implications for language acquisition, music training and transfer across the lifespan. Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience, 20(7), 90. doi:  10.3389/fnsys.2013.00090
    https://doi.org/10.3389/fnsys.2013.00090 [Google Scholar]
  95. Xiang, H., van Leeuwen, T. M., Dediu, D., Roberts, L., Norris, D. G., & Hagoort, P.
    (2015) L2-proficiency-dependent laterality shift in structural connectivity of brain language pathways. Brain Connectivity, 5(6), 349–361. 10.1089/brain.2013.0199
    https://doi.org/10.1089/brain.2013.0199 [Google Scholar]
  96. Yilmaz, G.
    (2011) Complex embeddings in free speech production among late Turkish-Dutch bilinguals. Language, Interaction, Acquisition, 2(2), 221–250. 10.1075/lia.2.2.04yil
    https://doi.org/10.1075/lia.2.2.04yil [Google Scholar]

Data & Media loading...

Most Cited

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error