Volume 12, Issue 2
  • ISSN 1879-7865
  • E-ISSN: 1879-7873
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Evidentiality, i.e. the linguistic encoding of the mode of access to information (direct perception, inference, hearsay), despite not being fully grammaticalized in English and French, is expressed through a variety of means. This paper seeks to determine how a relatively non-salient concept in the source and target languages can be acquired by L2 learners. Using an oral elicited narrative task, we determine what markers of direct perception and inference are commonly used by native speakers of French ( = 10) and English ( = 10) and L2 learners of those two languages (at three levels of proficiency,  = 10 per group), and at which level they emerge. Our results point to a much more frequent use of inferential markers than direct perception markers, to slightly different patterns of evidential marking in French and in English, and to a late emergence of evidential markers in the speech of learners, who display sensitivity to their discursive functions, with types and tokens increasing as a function of proficiency level.


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  • Article Type: Research Article
Keyword(s): direct perception; discursive functions; English; evidentiality; French; inference; SLA

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