1887
Volume 13, Issue 2
  • ISSN 1879-7865
  • E-ISSN: 1879-7873
USD
Buy:$35.00 + Taxes

Abstract

Abstract

SLA research is characterised by a striking homogeneity in the linguistic, social and geographical data we as a field draw on. Such empirical homogeneity is a potential threat to the validity and scope of our models and theories. This paper focuses on a particular gap in our knowledge, namely the SLA of sign languages. It outlines an argument as to why the SLA of sign matters to general SLA research in terms of the empirical representativity, generalisability, and validity of the conclusions in the field. It exemplifies three domains where the study of language acquisition across modalities could shed important light on theoretical issues in mainstream SLA/bilingualism research (e.g. learner varieties, explicit-implicit learning, and crosslinguistic influence), and highlight some of the methodological challenges involved in such work.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1075/lia.22022.gul
2023-02-23
2024-04-13
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

References

  1. Alonso Alonso, R.
    (Ed.) (2016) Crosslinguistic influence in second language acquisition. Multilingual Matters. 10.21832/9781783094837
    https://doi.org/10.21832/9781783094837 [Google Scholar]
  2. Andringa, S.
    (2020) The emergence of awareness in uninstructed L2 learning: A visual world eye tracking study. Second Language Research, 36(3), 335–357. 10.1177/0267658320915502
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0267658320915502 [Google Scholar]
  3. Andringa, S., & Godfroid, A.
    (2020) Sampling bias and the problem of generalizability in Applied Linguistics. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, 401, 134–142. 10.1017/S0267190520000033
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0267190520000033 [Google Scholar]
  4. Andringa, S., & Rebuschat, P.
    (2015) New directions in the study of implicit and explicit learning. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 371, 185–96. 10.1017/S027226311500008X
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S027226311500008X [Google Scholar]
  5. Benazzo, S.
    (2009) The emergence of temporality: from restricted linguistic systems to early human language. InR. P. Botha & H. De Swart (Eds.), Language evolution: The view from restricted linguistic systems (pp.21–57). LOT, Netherlands Graduate School of Linguistics.
    [Google Scholar]
  6. (2012) Language origins, learner varieties and creating language anew: How acquisitional studies can contribute to language evolution research. InM. Watorek, S. Benazzo, & M. Hickmann (Eds.), Comparative perspectives to language acquisition: A tribute to Clive Perdue (pp.204–222). Multilingual Matters. 10.21832/9781847696045‑013
    https://doi.org/10.21832/9781847696045-013 [Google Scholar]
  7. Bishop, M., & Hicks, S. L.
    (2005) Orange eyes: Bimodal bilingualism in hearing adults from deaf families. Sign Language Studies, 5(2), 188–230. 10.1353/sls.2005.0001
    https://doi.org/10.1353/sls.2005.0001 [Google Scholar]
  8. Boers-Visker, E.
    (2020) Learning to use space: A study into the SL2 acquisition process of adult learners of Sign Language of the Netherlands. (PhD diss.), Utrecht University, Utrecht.
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Cadierno, T.
    (2017) Thinking for speaking about motion in a second language. Looking back and forward. InI. Ibarretxe-Antuñano (Ed.), Motion and space across languages: Theory and applications (pp.279–300). Benjamins. 10.1075/hcp.59.12cad
    https://doi.org/10.1075/hcp.59.12cad [Google Scholar]
  10. Carroll, M., Murcia-Serra, J., Watorek, M., & Bendiscioli, A.
    (2000) The relevance of information organization to second language acquisition studies: The descriptive discourse of advanced adult learners of German. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 22(3), 441–466. 10.1017/S0272263100003065
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0272263100003065 [Google Scholar]
  11. Carroll, S. E.
    (1999) Putting ‘input’ in its proper place. Second Language Research, 15(4), 337–388. 10.1191/026765899674928444
    https://doi.org/10.1191/026765899674928444 [Google Scholar]
  12. (2001) Input and evidence. The raw material of second language acquisition. Benjamins. 10.1075/lald.25
    https://doi.org/10.1075/lald.25 [Google Scholar]
  13. Casey, S., Emmorey, K., & Larrabee, H.
    (2012) The effects of learning American Sign Language on co-speech gesture. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 15(4), 677–686. 10.1017/S1366728911000575
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S1366728911000575 [Google Scholar]
  14. Chapelle, C.
    (Ed.) (2012) The Encyclopedia of Applied Linguistics. Wiley-Blackwell. 10.1002/9781405198431
    https://doi.org/10.1002/9781405198431 [Google Scholar]
  15. Chen Pichler, D., & Koulidobrova, H.
    (2016) Acquisition of sign language as a second language (L2). InM. Marschark & P. E. Spencer (Eds.), The Oxford handbook of Deaf Studies in language: Research, policy, and practice (pp.218–230). Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Cheng, L. S. P., Burgess, D., Vernooij, N., Solís-Barroso, C., McDermott, A., & Namboodiripad, S.
    (2021) The problematic concept of native speaker in psycholinguistics: Replacing vague and harmful terminology with inclusive and accurate measures. Frontiers in Psychology, 121. 10.3389/fpsyg.2021.715843
    https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2021.715843 [Google Scholar]
  17. Christiansen, M. H.
    (2019) Implicit statistical learning: a tale of two literatures. Topics in Cognitive Science, 11(3), 468–481. 10.1111/tops.12332
    https://doi.org/10.1111/tops.12332 [Google Scholar]
  18. Cook, V.
    (1992) Evidence for multicompetence. Language Learning, 42(4), 557–591. 10.1111/j.1467‑1770.1992.tb01044.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-1770.1992.tb01044.x [Google Scholar]
  19. Davies, A.
    (2003) The native speaker: myth and reality. Multilingual Matters.
    [Google Scholar]
  20. DeKeyser, R. M.
    (2003) Implicit and explicit learning. InC. J. Doughty & M. H. Long (Eds.), The handbook of second language acquisition (pp.313–348). Blackwell. 10.1002/9780470756492.ch11
    https://doi.org/10.1002/9780470756492.ch11 [Google Scholar]
  21. Dewaele, J.-M., Bak, T. H., & Ortega, L.
    (2021) Why the mythical ‘native speaker’ has mud on its face. InN. Slavkov, S. M. Melo-Pfeifer, & N. Kerschhofer-Puhalo (Eds.), Changing face of the “native speaker”: Perspectives from multilingualism and globalization (pp.25–46). Mouton. 10.1515/9781501512353‑002
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9781501512353-002 [Google Scholar]
  22. Dimroth, C.
    (2012) Learner varieties. InC. Chapelle (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Applied Linguistics. Wiley-Blackwell. 10.1002/9781405198431.wbeal0673
    https://doi.org/10.1002/9781405198431.wbeal0673 [Google Scholar]
  23. Dimroth, C., Rast, R., Starren, M., & Watorek, M.
    (2013) Methods for studying the acquisition of a new language under controlled input conditions: The VILLA project. EUROSLA Yearbook, 131, 109–138. 10.1075/eurosla.13.07dim
    https://doi.org/10.1075/eurosla.13.07dim [Google Scholar]
  24. Doughty, C. J.
    (2003) Instructed SLA: Constraints, compensation, and enhancement. InC. J. Doughty & M. H. Long (Eds.), The handbook of second language acquisition (pp.256–310). Blackwell. 10.1002/9780470756492.ch10
    https://doi.org/10.1002/9780470756492.ch10 [Google Scholar]
  25. Ellis, N. C.
    (2005) At the interface: Dynamic interactions of explicit and implicit language knowledge. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 271, 305–352. 10.1017/S027226310505014X
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S027226310505014X [Google Scholar]
  26. (2012) What can we count in language, and what counts in language acquisition, cognition, and use?InS. T. Gries & D. Divjak (Eds.), Frequency effects in language learning and processing (pp.7–34). Mouton. 10.1515/9783110274059.7
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110274059.7 [Google Scholar]
  27. Ellis, N. C., & Collins, L.
    (2009) Input and second language acquisition: The roles of frequency, form, and function. Introduction to the Special Issue. The Modern Language Journal, 93(3), 329–335. 10.1111/j.1540‑4781.2009.00893.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-4781.2009.00893.x [Google Scholar]
  28. Ellis, N. C., & Sagarra, N.
    (2011) Learned attention in adult language acquisition. A replication and generalization study and meta-analysis. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 33(4), 589–624. 10.1017/S0272263111000325
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0272263111000325 [Google Scholar]
  29. Ellis, R.
    (2017) Task-based language teaching. InS. Loewen & M. Sato (Eds.), The Routledge handbook of instructed second language acquisition (pp.108–125): Routledge. 10.4324/9781315676968‑7
    https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315676968-7 [Google Scholar]
  30. Emmorey, K., Borinstein, H. B., Thompson, R., & Gollan, T. H.
    (2008) Bimodal bilingualism. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 11(1), 43–61. 10.1017/S1366728907003203
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S1366728907003203 [Google Scholar]
  31. Emmorey, K., Giezen, M. R., & Gollan, T. H.
    (2016) Psycholinguistic, cognitive, and neural implications of bimodal bilingualism. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 19(2), 223–242. 10.1017/S1366728915000085
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S1366728915000085 [Google Scholar]
  32. Evans, N., & Levinson, S. C.
    (2009) The myth of language universals: Language diversity and its importance for cognitive science. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 321, 429–492. 10.1017/S0140525X0999094X
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0140525X0999094X [Google Scholar]
  33. Gärdenfors, M., Johansson, V., & Schönström, K.
    (2019) Spelling in deaf, hard of hearing and hearing children with sign language knowledge. Frontiers in Psychology, 101. 10.3389/fpsyg.2019.02463
    https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2019.02463 [Google Scholar]
  34. Godfroid, A.
    (2021) Implicit and explicit learning and knowledge. InH. Mohebbi & C. Coombe (Eds.), Research questions in language education and Applied Linguistics (pp.823–829). Springer. 10.1007/978‑3‑030‑79143‑8_142
    https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-79143-8_142 [Google Scholar]
  35. Gullberg, M.
    (2003) Gestures, referents, and anaphoric linkage in learner varieties. InC. Dimroth & M. Starren (Eds.), Information structure and the dynamics of language acquisition (pp.311–328). Benjamins. 10.1075/sibil.26.15gul
    https://doi.org/10.1075/sibil.26.15gul [Google Scholar]
  36. (2012) Bilingual multimodality in language documentation data. Language Documentation & Conservation, 61, 47–54.
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Gullberg, M., Roberts, L., & Dimroth, C.
    (2012) What word-level knowledge can adult learners acquire after minimal exposure to a new language?International Review of Applied Linguistics, 50(4), 239–276. 10.1515/iral‑2012‑0010
    https://doi.org/10.1515/iral-2012-0010 [Google Scholar]
  38. Gullberg, M., Roberts, L., Dimroth, C., Veroude, K., & Indefrey, P.
    (2010) Adult language learning after minimal exposure to an unknown natural language. Language Learning, 60(S2), 5–24. 10.1111/j.1467‑9922.2010.00598.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9922.2010.00598.x [Google Scholar]
  39. Gutierrez-Mangado, M. J., Martínez-Adrián, M., & Gallardo-del-Puerto, F.
    (Eds.) (2019) Cross-linguistic influence: From empirical evidence to classroom practice. Springer. 10.1007/978‑3‑030‑22066‑2
    https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-22066-2 [Google Scholar]
  40. Haug, T., Mann, W., & Knoch, U.
    (Eds.) (2022) The handbook of language assessment across modalities. Oxford University Press. 10.1093/oso/9780190885052.001.0001
    https://doi.org/10.1093/oso/9780190885052.001.0001 [Google Scholar]
  41. Hendriks, H.
    (Ed.) (2011) The structure of learner varieties. Mouton.
    [Google Scholar]
  42. Hofweber, J., Aumonier, L., Janke, V., Gullberg, M., & Marshall, C. R.
    (2022) Breaking into language in a new modality: The role of input and of individual differences in recognising signs. Frontiers in Psychology, 13(895880). 10.3389/fpsyg.2022.895880
    https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2022.895880 [Google Scholar]
  43. Housen, A., Kuiken, F., & Vedder, I.
    (Eds.) (2012) Dimensions of L2 performance and proficiency: Complexity, accuracy, and fluency in SLA. Benajmins. 10.1075/lllt.32
    https://doi.org/10.1075/lllt.32 [Google Scholar]
  44. Hulstijn, J. H.
    (2003) Incidental and intentional learning. InC. J. Doughty & M. H. Long (Eds.), The handbook of second language acquisition (pp.349–381). Blackwell. 10.1002/9780470756492.ch12
    https://doi.org/10.1002/9780470756492.ch12 [Google Scholar]
  45. (2005) Theoretical and empirical issues in the study of implicit and explicit second-language learning. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 27(2), 129–140. 10.1017/S0272263105050084
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0272263105050084 [Google Scholar]
  46. (2012) Incidental learning in second language acquisition. InC. Chapelle (Ed.), The Encyclopedia of Applied Linguistics. Wiley-Blackwell. 10.1002/9781405198431.wbeal0530
    https://doi.org/10.1002/9781405198431.wbeal0530 [Google Scholar]
  47. Jarvis, S., & Pavlenko, A.
    (2008) Crosslinguistic influence in language and cognition. Routledge. 10.4324/9780203935927
    https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203935927 [Google Scholar]
  48. Kellerman, E.
    (1995) Crosslinguistic influence: Transfer to nowhere?Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, 151, 125–150. 10.1017/S0267190500002658
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0267190500002658 [Google Scholar]
  49. Klein, W.
    (1998) The contribution of second language acquisition research. Language Learning, 48(4), 527–550. 10.1111/0023‑8333.00057
    https://doi.org/10.1111/0023-8333.00057 [Google Scholar]
  50. Klein, W., & Dimroth, C.
    (2009) Untutored second language acquisition. InW. C. Ritchie & T. K. Bhatia (Eds.), The new handbook of second language acquisition (pp.503–522). Academic Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  51. Klein, W., & Perdue, C.
    (1992) Utterance structure. Benjamins. 10.1075/sibil.5
    https://doi.org/10.1075/sibil.5 [Google Scholar]
  52. (1997) The basic variety (or: Couldn’t natural languages be much simpler?). Second Language Research, 13(4), 301–347. 10.1191/026765897666879396
    https://doi.org/10.1191/026765897666879396 [Google Scholar]
  53. Kroll, J. F., Bogulski, C. A., & McClain, R.
    (2012) Psycholinguistic perspectives on second language learning and bilingualism: The course and consequence of cross-language competition. Linguistic Approaches to Bilingualism, 2(1), 1–24. 10.1075/lab.2.1.01kro
    https://doi.org/10.1075/lab.2.1.01kro [Google Scholar]
  54. Kubus, O., Villwock, A., Morford, J. P., & Rathmann, C.
    (2015) Word recognition in deaf readers: Cross-language activation of German Sign Language and German. Applied Psycholinguistics, 36(4), 831–854. 10.1017/S0142716413000520
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0142716413000520 [Google Scholar]
  55. Lado, R.
    (1957) Linguistics across cultures: Applied Linguistics and language teachers. University of Michigan Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  56. Lambert, M., Von Stutterheim, C., Carroll, M., & Gerwien, J.
    (2022) Under the surface: A survey on principles of language use in advanced L2 speakers. Language, Interaction and Acquisition, 13(1), 1–28. 10.1075/lia.21014.lam
    https://doi.org/10.1075/lia.21014.lam [Google Scholar]
  57. Leow, R. P., & Zamora, C. C.
    (2017) Intentional and incidental L2 learning. InS. Loewen & M. Sato (Eds.), The Routledge handbook of instructed second language acquisition. Routledge. 10.4324/9781315676968‑3
    https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315676968-3 [Google Scholar]
  58. Leung, J. H. C., & Williams, J. N.
    (2014) Crosslinguistic differences in implicit language learning. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 361, 733 – 755. 10.1017/S0272263114000333
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0272263114000333 [Google Scholar]
  59. Levelt, W. J. M.
    (1989) Speaking: From intention to articulation. Bradford Books/MIT Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  60. Levinson, S. C., & Evans, N.
    (2010) Time for a sea-change in linguistics: Response to comments on ‘The Myth of Language Universals’. Lingua, 120(12), 2733–2758. 10.1016/j.lingua.2010.08.001
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lingua.2010.08.001 [Google Scholar]
  61. Li, S., Hiver, P., & Papi, M.
    (Eds.) (2022) The Routledge handbook of second language acquisition and individual differences. Routledge. 10.4324/9781003270546
    https://doi.org/10.4324/9781003270546 [Google Scholar]
  62. Loewen, S., & Sato, M.
    (Eds.) (2017) The Routledge handbook of instructed second language acquisition: Routledge. 10.4324/9781315676968
    https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315676968 [Google Scholar]
  63. Lyster, R.
    (2017) Content-based language teaching. InS. Loewen & M. Sato (Eds.), The Routledge handbook of instructed second language acquisition (pp.87–107). Routledge. 10.4324/9781315676968‑6
    https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315676968-6 [Google Scholar]
  64. MacWhinney, B.
    (1997) Second language acquisition and the Competition Model. InA. M. B. De Groot & J. F. Kroll (Eds.), Tutorials in bilingualism. Psycholinguistic perspectives (pp.113–142). Erlbaum.
    [Google Scholar]
  65. Mann, W., Haug, T., & Knoch, U.
    (2022) Epilogue: Finding common ground in language assessment of signed and spoken language: so far and yet so close. InH. Tobias, M. Wolfgang, & K. Ute (Eds.), The handbook of language assessment across modalities. Oxford University Press. 10.1093/oso/9780190885052.003.0038
    https://doi.org/10.1093/oso/9780190885052.003.0038 [Google Scholar]
  66. Marshall, C. R., Bel, A., Gulamani, S., & Morgan, G.
    (2021) How are signed languages learned as second languages?Language and Linguistics Compass, 15(1), e12403. 10.1111/lnc3.12403
    https://doi.org/10.1111/lnc3.12403 [Google Scholar]
  67. McManus, K.
    (2021) Crosslinguistic influence and second language learning. Routledge. 10.4324/9780429341663
    https://doi.org/10.4324/9780429341663 [Google Scholar]
  68. Meade, G., Midgley, K. J., Sevcikova Sehyr, Z., Holcomb, P. J., & Emmorey, K.
    (2017) Implicit co-activation of American Sign Language in deaf readers: An ERP study. Brain and Language, 1701, 50–61. 10.1016/j.bandl.2017.03.004
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bandl.2017.03.004 [Google Scholar]
  69. Meisel, J. M., Clahsen, H., & Pienemann, M.
    (1981) On determining developmental stages in natural second language acquisition. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 3(2), 104–135. 10.1017/S0272263100004137
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0272263100004137 [Google Scholar]
  70. Michel, M.
    (2017) Complexity, accuracy, and fluency in L2 production. InS. Loewen & M. Sato (Eds.), The Routledge handbook of instructed second language acquisition (pp.50–68): Routledge. 10.4324/9781315676968‑4
    https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315676968-4 [Google Scholar]
  71. Mirus, G., Rathmann, C., & Meier, R. P.
    (2001) Proximalization and distalization of Sign movement in adult learners. InV. Dively, M. Metzger, S. Taub, & A. M. Baer (Eds.), Signed languages. Discoveries from international research (pp.103–119). Gallaudet University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  72. Mitchell, R. E., & Karchmer, M. A.
    (2004) Chasing the mythical ten percent: Parental hearing status of deaf and hard of hearing students in the United States. Sign Language Studies, 4(2), 138–163. 10.1353/sls.2004.0005
    https://doi.org/10.1353/sls.2004.0005 [Google Scholar]
  73. Monaghan, P., Schoetensack, C., & Rebuschat, P.
    (2019) A single paradigm for implicit and statistical learning. Topics in Cognitive Science, 11(3), 536–554. 10.1111/tops.12439
    https://doi.org/10.1111/tops.12439 [Google Scholar]
  74. Morgan-Short, K.
    (2020) Insights into the neural mechanisms of becoming bilingual: A brief synthesis of second language research with artificial linguistic systems. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 23(1), 87–91. 10.1017/S1366728919000701
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S1366728919000701 [Google Scholar]
  75. Müller de Quadros, R., Lillo-Martin, D., & Chen Pichler, D.
    (2015) Bimodal bilingualism: Sign languague and spoken language. InM. Marschark & P. E. Spencer (Eds.), The Oxford handbook of Deaf Studies in language (pp.181–196). Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  76. Nassaji, H., & Kartchava, E.
    (Eds.) (2017) Corrective feedback in second language teaching and learning: Research, theory, applications, implications. Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  77. Norris, J. M., & Ortega, L.
    (2000) Effectiveness of L2 instruction: A research synthesis and quantitative meta-analysis. Language Learning, 50(3), 417–528. 10.1111/0023‑8333.00136
    https://doi.org/10.1111/0023-8333.00136 [Google Scholar]
  78. Odlin, T.
    (2022) Explorations of language transfer. Multilingual Matters.
    [Google Scholar]
  79. Odlin, T., & Yu, L.
    (Eds.) (2016) New perspectives on transfer in second language learning. Multilingual Matters.
    [Google Scholar]
  80. Ortega, G., & Morgan, G.
    (2015) Phonological development in hearing learners of a sign language: The influence of phonological parameters, sign complexity, and iconicity. Language Learning, 65(3), 660–688. 10.1111/lang.12123
    https://doi.org/10.1111/lang.12123 [Google Scholar]
  81. Ortega, L.
    (2013) SLA for the 21st Century: Disciplinary progress, transdisciplinary relevance, and the bi/multilingual turn. Language Learning, 63(S1), 1–24. 10.1111/j.1467‑9922.2012.00735.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9922.2012.00735.x [Google Scholar]
  82. (2018) SLA in uncertain times: Disciplinary constraints, transdisciplinary hopes. Working Papers in Educational Linguistics, 331. URL: https://repository.upenn.edu/wpel/vol33/iss1/1
    [Google Scholar]
  83. Otwinowska, A.
    (2016) Cognate vocabulary in language acquisition and use: Attitudes, awareness, activation. Multilingual Matters.
    [Google Scholar]
  84. Pavlenko, A.
    (2013) The affective turn in SLA: From ‘affective factors’ to ‘language desire’ and ‘commodification of affect’. InD. Gabryś-Barker & J. Bielska (Eds.), The affective dimension in second language acquisition (pp.3–28). Multilingual Matters.
    [Google Scholar]
  85. Perdue, C.
    (2000) Organising principles of learner varieties. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 22(3), 299–305. 10.1017/S0272263100003016
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0272263100003016 [Google Scholar]
  86. (2006) “Creating language anew”: some remarks on an idea of Bernard Comrie’s. Linguistics, 44(4), 853–871. 10.1515/LING.2006.027
    https://doi.org/10.1515/LING.2006.027 [Google Scholar]
  87. (Ed.) (1984) Second language acquisition by adult immigrants. A field manual. Newbury House.
    [Google Scholar]
  88. (Ed.) (1993) Adult language acquisition: Cross-linguistic perspectives (Vol.1 and 21). Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  89. Quer, J., & Steinbach, M.
    (2019) Handling sign language data: The impact of modality. Frontiers in Psychology, 10(483). 10.3389/fpsyg.2019.00483
    https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2019.00483 [Google Scholar]
  90. Quinto–Pozos, D.
    (2011) Teaching American Sign Language to hearing adult learners. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, 311, 137–158. 10.1017/S0267190511000195
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0267190511000195 [Google Scholar]
  91. Rast, R. M.
    (2008) Foreign language input: Initial processing. Multilingual Matters. 10.21832/9781847690432
    https://doi.org/10.21832/9781847690432 [Google Scholar]
  92. Rebuschat, P., & Williams, J. N.
    (2012a) Implicit learning in second language acquisition. InC. Chapelle (Ed.), The Encyclopedia of Applied Linguistics. 10.1002/9781405198431.wbeal0529
    https://doi.org/10.1002/9781405198431.wbeal0529 [Google Scholar]
  93. (Eds.) (2012b) Statistical learning and language acquisition. Mouton.
    [Google Scholar]
  94. Robinson, P.
    (2003) Attention and memory during SLA. InC. J. Doughty & M. H. Long (Eds.), The handbook of second language acquisition (pp.631–678). Blackwell. 10.1002/9780470756492.ch19
    https://doi.org/10.1002/9780470756492.ch19 [Google Scholar]
  95. (2011) Task-based language learning: A review of issues. Language Learning, 61(s1), 1–36. 10.1111/j.1467‑9922.2011.00641.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9922.2011.00641.x [Google Scholar]
  96. Rosen, R. S.
    (2004) Beginning L2 production errors in ASL lexical phonology: A cognitive phonology model. Sign Language and Linguistics, 7(1), 31–61. 10.1075/sll.7.1.04beg
    https://doi.org/10.1075/sll.7.1.04beg [Google Scholar]
  97. Saffran, J. R.
    (2003) Statistical language learning: Mechanisms and constraints. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 121, 110–114. 10.1111/1467‑8721.01243
    https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-8721.01243 [Google Scholar]
  98. Saffran, J. R., Newport, E. L., Aslin, R. N., Tunick, R. A., & Barrueco, S.
    (1997) Incidental language learning: Listening (and learning) out of the corner of your ear. Psychological Science, 8(2), 101–105. 10.1111/j.1467‑9280.1997.tb00690.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9280.1997.tb00690.x [Google Scholar]
  99. Sandler, W., Gullberg, M., & Padden, C.
    (2019) Editorial: Visual language. Frontiers in Psychology, 10(1765). 10.3389/fpsyg.2019.01765
    https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2019.01765 [Google Scholar]
  100. Schmidt, R.
    (1990) The role of consciousness in second language learning. Applied Linguistics, 11(2), 129–158. 10.1093/applin/11.2.129
    https://doi.org/10.1093/applin/11.2.129 [Google Scholar]
  101. (1993) Awareness and second language acquisition. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, 131, 206–226. 10.1017/S0267190500002476
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0267190500002476 [Google Scholar]
  102. Schönström, K.
    (2021) Sign languages and second language acquisition research: An introduction. Journal of the European Second Language Association, 5(1), 30–42. 10.22599/jesla.73
    https://doi.org/10.22599/jesla.73 [Google Scholar]
  103. Schönström, K., & Holmström, I.
    (2022) L2M1 and L2M2 acquisition of sign lexicon: The impact of multimodality on the sign second language acquisition. Frontiers in Psychology, 13(896254). 10.3389/fpsyg.2022.896254
    https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2022.896254 [Google Scholar]
  104. Schwartz, B. D., & Sprouse, R. A.
    (1996) L2 cognitive states and the Full Transfer/Full Access model. Second Language Research, 12(1), 40–72. 10.1177/026765839601200103
    https://doi.org/10.1177/026765839601200103 [Google Scholar]
  105. Sehyr, Z. S., Giezen, M. R., & Emmorey, K.
    (2018) Comparing semantic fluency in American Sign Language and English. The Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education, 23(4), 399–407. 10.1093/deafed/eny013
    https://doi.org/10.1093/deafed/eny013 [Google Scholar]
  106. Selinker, L.
    (1972) Interlanguage. International Review of Applied Linguistics, 10(3), 209–231. 10.1515/iral.1972.10.1‑4.209
    https://doi.org/10.1515/iral.1972.10.1-4.209 [Google Scholar]
  107. Senghas, A., Kita, S., & Özyürek, A.
    (2004) Children creating core properties of language: Evidence from an emerging sign language in Nicaragua. Science, 305(5691), 1779–1782. 10.1126/science.1100199
    https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1100199 [Google Scholar]
  108. Slobin, D. I.
    (1991) Learning to think for speaking. Pragmatics, 11, 7–25.
    [Google Scholar]
  109. (1996) From “thought and language” to “thinking for speaking”. InJ. J. Gumperz & S. C. Levinson (Eds.), Rethinking linguistic relativity (pp.70–96). Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  110. (2004) How people move. Discourse effects of linguistic typology. InC. L. Moder & A. Martinovic-Zic (Eds.), Discourse across languages and cultures (pp.195–210). Benjamins. 10.1075/slcs.68.11slo
    https://doi.org/10.1075/slcs.68.11slo [Google Scholar]
  111. Spada, N.
    (2015) SLA research and L2 pedagogy: Misapplications and questions of relevance. Language Teaching, 48(1), 69–81. 10.1017/S026144481200050X
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S026144481200050X [Google Scholar]
  112. Talmy, L.
    (1991) Paths to realization: A typology of event conflation. InL. A. Sutton, C. Johnson, & R. Shields (Eds.), Proceedings of the Berkeley Linguistics Society (Vol.171, pp.480–519). Berkeley Linguistics Society. 10.3765/bls.v17i0.1620
    https://doi.org/10.3765/bls.v17i0.1620 [Google Scholar]
  113. (2008) Aspects of attention in language. InP. Robinson & N. C. Ellis (Eds.), Handbook of cognitive linguistics and second language acquisition (pp.27–38). Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  114. Thompson, R. L., & Gutierrez, E.
    (2019) Bimodal bilingualism: A unique window into the multilingual brain. InJ. W. Schwieter (Ed.), The Handbook of the neuroscience of multilingualism (pp.754–783). Wiley-Blackwell. 10.1002/9781119387725.ch36
    https://doi.org/10.1002/9781119387725.ch36 [Google Scholar]
  115. VanPatten, B., & Williams, J.
    (2014) Input processing in adult SLA. InB. VanPatten (Ed.), Theories in second language acquisition. An introduction (2nd ed.) (113–134). Routledge. 10.4324/9780203628942
    https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203628942 [Google Scholar]
  116. Véronique, G. D.
    (2009) Classes lexicales et développement grammatical dans la variété de base des apprenants de français L2 et dans le développement des créoles français. AILE…LIA, 1(1), 227–251. 10.4000/aile.4522
    https://doi.org/10.4000/aile.4522 [Google Scholar]
  117. Von Stutterheim, C., & Klein, W.
    (2002) Quaestio and L-perspectivation. InC. F. Graumann & W. Kallmeyer (Eds.), Perspective and perspectivation in discourse (pp.59–88). Benjamins. 10.1075/hcp.9.06stu
    https://doi.org/10.1075/hcp.9.06stu [Google Scholar]
  118. Von Stutterheim, C., Nüse, R., & Murcia-Serra, J.
    (2002) Cross-linguistic differences in the conceptualisation of events. InH. Hasselgård, S. Johansson, B. Behrens, & C. Fabricius-Hansen (Eds.), Information structure in a cross-linguistic perspective (pp.179–198). Rodopi. 10.1163/9789004334250_012
    https://doi.org/10.1163/9789004334250_012 [Google Scholar]
  119. Wardhaugh, R.
    (1970) The Contrastive Analysis Hypothesis. TESOL Quarterly, 4(2), 123–130. 10.2307/3586182
    https://doi.org/10.2307/3586182 [Google Scholar]
  120. Willoughby, L., Linder, S., Ellis, K., & Fisher, J.
    (2015) Errors and feedback in the beginner Auslan classroom. Sign Language Studies, 15(3), 322–347. 10.1353/sls.2015.0009
    https://doi.org/10.1353/sls.2015.0009 [Google Scholar]
  121. Woll, B.
    (2012) Second language acquisition of sign language. InC. Chapelle (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Applied Linguistics. Wiley-Blackwell. 10.1002/9781405198431.wbeal1050
    https://doi.org/10.1002/9781405198431.wbeal1050 [Google Scholar]
  122. Wulff, S., & Ellis, N. C.
    (2018) Usage-based approaches to second language acquisition. InD. Miller, F. Bayram, J. Rothman, & L. Serratrice (Eds.), Bilingual cognition and language (pp.37–56). Benjamins. 10.1075/sibil.54.03wul
    https://doi.org/10.1075/sibil.54.03wul [Google Scholar]
  123. Zeshan, U., & Palfreyman, N.
    (2020) Comparability of signed and spoken languages: Absolute and relative modality effects in cross-modal typology. Linguistic Typology, 24(3), 527–562. 10.1515/lingty‑2020‑2059
    https://doi.org/10.1515/lingty-2020-2059 [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.1075/lia.22022.gul
Loading
  • Article Type: Research Article
Keyword(s): generalisability; modality; sign languages; SLA

Most Cited

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error