The Morphological Expression of Temporality on the Verb in French as a Second Language / L’expression morphologique de la temporalité sur le verbe en français langue seconde
  • ISSN 1879-7865
  • E-ISSN: 1879-7873
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This investigation studies the second language (L2) development of variable future-time expression in French. One hundred and eighteen nonnative speakers at four proficiency levels and 30 native speakers completed a written-contextualized task (WCT), a language-proficiency test and a background questionnaire. The verb form (inflectional future, periphrastic future, and present) selected for each item on the WCT was coded for three independent linguistic factors: presence of a lexical temporal indicator, temporal distance and (un)certainty. Multinomial logistic regression tests and a follow-up analysis of high and low frequency of the present demonstrated that this form plays a complex role in native-speaker variability and is acquired late in contexts of future-time reference for nonnative speakers.


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  • Article Type: Research Article
Keyword(s): future-time reference; Hexagonal French; L2; variation

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