Pragmatic Markers and Pragmaticalization: Lessons from false friends
  • ISSN 1387-6759
  • E-ISSN: 1569-9897
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  • “You’re absolutely right!!”: A corpus-based contrastive analysis of ‘absolutely’ in British English and absolutamente in Peninsular Spanish, with special emphasis on the relationship between degree and certainty

  • Author(s): Marta Carretero 1
  • View Affiliations Hide Affiliations
    1 Universidad Complutense de Madrid (Spain)
  • Source: Languages in Contrast, Volume 10, Issue 2, Jan 2010, p. 194 - 222
  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1075/lic.10.2.05car


The English degree adverb absolutely and its Spanish equivalent absolutamente may function as modifiers of words of different kinds, as Adjuncts and as (parts of) minor clauses. This article sets forth a quantitative analysis, based on naturally-occurring linguistic data, of the distribution of these functions for both adverbs. Apart from distributional differences between the two adverbs and between their occurrences in spoken and written language, the results show that when they are modifiers of words or Verbal Group-oriented Adjuncts, their main function is to qualify (part of) the propositional content of the utterance; however, when they are clausal Adjuncts or (parts of) minor clauses, they are often geared to the performance of discourse functions such as contrast, concession or agreement. These functions are shared with some adverbs of certainty such as ‘certainly’ or ‘definitely’, which suggests that the semantic difference between degree and certainty tends to be blurred when adverbs of maximal strength of both types are used for performing discourse functions that enhance assertiveness.


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  • Article Type: Research Article
Keyword(s): adverbs; degree; discourse; English/Spanish; syntax
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