Volume 19, Issue 1
  • ISSN 1387-6759
  • E-ISSN: 1569-9897
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This article compares the grammaticalizing human impersonal pronoun () in Afrikaans to fully grammaticalized and non-grammaticalized in Dutch. It is shown that and can still be used lexically, unlike and , and that () and are restricted to non-referential indefinite, universal-internal uses while exhibits the whole range of (non-) referential indefinite ones. Despite the latter’s presence in the earliest Afrikaans data, it is argued not to have influenced the development of () . This pronoun and Dutch are also found to have syntactic functions other than subjecthood, unlike . The contrast is attributed to their different degrees of grammaticalization. Lastly, the Afrikaans ‘man’-pronoun is shown to differ from its Dutch counterparts in relying on the second person singular for suppletion, though forms of () are found to occasionally occur instead.


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  • Article Type: Research Article
Keyword(s): Afrikaans/Dutch; grammaticalization; impersonal; pronoun
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