Volume 9, Issue 2
  • ISSN 2214-9953
  • E-ISSN: 2214-9961
Buy:$35.00 + Taxes



Although gaining momentum in research, the issue of gender representations in the Linguistic Landscape demands more attention. Hence, this study aims to explore the issue of language and gender in the LL of the red-light district (RLD) of Ermita-Malate, Manila, using frameworks from semiotics, multimodality, and feminist stylistics. Particularly, it seeks to answer questions on verbal and non-verbal choices in sign production, and the role of women in the process of interpretation, production, and function of these signs in the RLD. The linguistic and multimodal analysis reveals that the RLD Ermita-Malate, Manila, features linguistic diversity, and that language and image choice support the highly consumerist activities observed in the area. A more in-depth feminist reading of the texts also reveals that women’s role in sign production is limited to the commodification of their images whose function is highly symbolical and imaginative.


Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...


  1. Backhaus, P.
    (2006) Multilingualism in Tokyo: A look into the linguistic landscape. International Journal of Multilingualism, 3(1), 52–66. 10.1080/14790710608668385
    https://doi.org/10.1080/14790710608668385 [Google Scholar]
  2. Ben-Rafael, E., Shohamy, E., Amara, M.H., & Trumper-Hecht, N.
    (2006) Linguistic Landscape as symbolic construction of the public space: The case of Israel, International Journal of Multilingualism, 3(1), 7-30, 10.1080/14790710608668383
    https://doi.org/10.1080/14790710608668383 [Google Scholar]
  3. Blackwood, R. J., Johannessen, J. B. & Mendisu, B. S.
    (2021) English in Norwegian and Ethiopian linguistic landscapes: Returning to symbolic language use. InBlackwood, R. J. & Røyneland, U. (Eds.) Spaces of Multilingualism, pp.115–134. London & New York: Routledge. 10.4324/9781003125839‑10
    https://doi.org/10.4324/9781003125839-10 [Google Scholar]
  4. Correa, D. & Shohamy, E.
    (2018) Commodification of women’s breasts: Internet sites as modes of delivery to local and transnational awareness. Linguistic Landscape, 4 (3), 298–319. 10.1075/ll.18010.cor
    https://doi.org/10.1075/ll.18010.cor [Google Scholar]
  5. Curtin, M.
    (2009) Languages on Display: Indexical Signs, Identities and the Linguistic Landscape of Taipei. InShohamy, E. & Gorter, D. (Eds.) Linguistic Landscape: Expanding the Scenery, pp.221 – 237. New York & London: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  6. De Vasconcelos Barboza, R. & Borba, R.
    (2018) Linguistic landscapes as pornoheterotopias: (De)regulating gender and sexuality in the public toilet. Linguistic Landscape, 4 (3), 257–277. 10.1075/ll.18005.vas
    https://doi.org/10.1075/ll.18005.vas [Google Scholar]
  7. Frederickson, B. & Roberts, T.
    (1997) Objectification theory: Towards understanding women’s lived experiences and mental health risks. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 211, 173–206. 10.1111/j.1471‑6402.1997.tb00108.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1471-6402.1997.tb00108.x [Google Scholar]
  8. Huebner, T.
    (2006) Bangkok’s Linguistic Landscapes: Environmental Print, Codemixing and Language Change. International Journal of Multilingualism3(1), 31–51. 10.1080/14790710608668384
    https://doi.org/10.1080/14790710608668384 [Google Scholar]
  9. Kress, G.
    (2010) Multimodality: A social semiotic approach to contemporary communication. London & New York: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Kress, G. & Van Leeuwen, T.
    (1996) Reading images: The grammar of visual design. Routledge: London.
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Lazar, M.
    (2018) Gender, sexuality, and semioscapes. Linguistic Landscape, 4 (3), 320–327. 10.1075/ll.00008.laz
    https://doi.org/10.1075/ll.00008.laz [Google Scholar]
  12. Mills, S.
    (1992) Knowing your place: A Marxist feminist stylistic analysis. InToolan, M. (Ed). Language, text and context: Essays in Stylistics, pp.182–207. New York: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  13. (1995) Feminist Stylistics. London: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Pan, L.
    (2014) Dissecting multilingual Beijing: the space and scale of vernacular globalization. Visual Communication, 9(1), 67–90. 10.1177/1470357209352948
    https://doi.org/10.1177/1470357209352948 [Google Scholar]
  15. Petrilli, S. & Ponzio, A.
    (2005) Semiotics Unbound: Interpretive routes through open network of signs. Toronto: University of Toronto Press. 10.3138/9781442657113
    https://doi.org/10.3138/9781442657113 [Google Scholar]
  16. Scollon, R. and Scollon, S. W.
    (2003) Discourses in Place: Language in the Material World. London & New York: Routledge. 10.4324/9780203422724
    https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203422724 [Google Scholar]
  17. Taylor-Leech, K. J.
    (2012) Language Choice as an Index of Identity: Linguistic Landscape in Dili, Timor-Leste. International Journal of Multilingualism, 9 (1), 15–34. 10.1080/14790718.2011.583654
    https://doi.org/10.1080/14790718.2011.583654 [Google Scholar]
  18. Tran, T. T.
    (2021) Pho as the embodiment of Vietnamese national identity in the linguistic landscape of a western Canadian city. International Journal of Multilingualism, 18(1), 73–89. 10.1080/14790718.2019.1604713
    https://doi.org/10.1080/14790718.2019.1604713 [Google Scholar]
  19. Trinch, S. & Snajdr, E.
    (2020) What the Signs Say: Language, gentrification, and place-making in Brooklyn. Nashville: Vanderbilt University Press. 10.2307/j.ctv160btqs
    https://doi.org/10.2307/j.ctv160btqs [Google Scholar]
  20. Van Leeuwen, T.
    (2005) Introducing Social Semiotics. London: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Warner, M.
    (2002) Publics and Counterpublics. Public Culture14(1), 49–90. 10.1215/08992363‑14‑1‑49
    https://doi.org/10.1215/08992363-14-1-49 [Google Scholar]

Data & Media loading...

  • Article Type: Research Article
Keyword(s): gender; Linguistic Landscape; Manila; red-light district; women
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error