Volume 9, Issue 2
  • ISSN 2214-9953
  • E-ISSN: 2214-9961



This article addresses the role of translocal interconnectedness between offline and online spaces by examining the varied presence of language displays in such spaces. Quantitative findings on language presence in the offline public spaces of four Gothenburg neighbourhoods are contrasted with the online presence found in three Swedish search portals, and the differences are interpreted in light of the broader socioeconomic processes of gentrification and segregation. The comparison between online and offline presence allows us to give a more holistic picture of the neighbourhoods; it reveals, among other things, the presence of semi-public spaces, with a multilingual presence of commercial enterprises and civil society organizations, and points out that some super-diverse neighbourhoods have more online than offline presence on search portals. Thus, the often-stereotyped mental picture of these neighbourhoods as being passive, static, ‘segregated’ and ‘problematic’ is challenged.

Available under the CC BY-NC 4.0 license.

Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...



  1. Baym, N. K., & Boyd, D.
    (2012) Socially Mediated Publicness: An Introduction. Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, 56(3), 320–329. 10.1080/08838151.2012.705200
    https://doi.org/10.1080/08838151.2012.705200 [Google Scholar]
  2. Benkler, Y.
    (2006) The wealth of networks: How social production transforms markets and freedomNew Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Berezkina, M.
    (2018) Language is a costly and complicating factor’: a diachronic study of language policy in the virtual public sector. Language Policy, 171, 55–75. 10.1007/s10993‑016‑9422‑2
    https://doi.org/10.1007/s10993-016-9422-2 [Google Scholar]
  4. Blackwood, R.
    (2015) LL explorations and methodological challenges. Analysing France’s regional languages. Linguistic Landscape, 1(1/2), 38–53. 10.1075/ll.1.1‑2.03bla
    https://doi.org/10.1075/ll.1.1-2.03bla [Google Scholar]
  5. Blommaert, J.
    (2013) Semiotic and Spatial Scope. Towards a Materialist Semiotics. InEthnography, Superdiversity and Lingusitic Landscapes: Cronicles of complexity. Bristol: Multilingual Matters. 10.21832/9781783090419‑005
    https://doi.org/10.21832/9781783090419-005 [Google Scholar]
  6. Blommaert, J., & Maly, I.
    (2019) Invisible Lines in the Online-Offline Linguistic Landscape. Tilburg Papers in Culture Studies. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/331452536_Invisible_Lines_in_the_Online-Offline_Linguistic_Landscape
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Bolander, B., & Locher, M.
    (2020) Beyond the online offline distinction: Entry points to digital discourse. Discourse, context & media, 351. 10.1016/j.dcm.2020.100383
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dcm.2020.100383 [Google Scholar]
  8. Bourdieu, P.
    (1984) Distinction: A Social Critique of the Judgement of Taste. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Diaz Cardona, R.
    (2016) Ambient text and the becoming space of writing. Environment and Planning D: Society and Space, 34(4), 637–654. 10.1177/0263775816631991
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0263775816631991 [Google Scholar]
  10. Florida, R.
    (2002) The Rise of the Creative Class: And How it’s transforming work, leisure, community and everyday life. New York: Perseus Book Group.
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Gorter, D.
    (2019) Methods and Techniques for Linguistic Landscape Research: About Definitions, Core Issues and Technological Innovations. InM. Pütz & N. Mundt (Eds.), Expanding the Linguistic Landscape: Multilingualism, Language Policy and the Use of Space as a Semiotic Resource (pp.38–57). Bristol: Multilingual Matters.
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Gothenburg municipality
  13. Greiner, C., & Sakdapolrak, P.
    (2013) Translocality: Concepts, Applications and Emerging Research Perspectives. Geography Compass, 7(5), 373–384. 10.1111/gec3.12048
    https://doi.org/10.1111/gec3.12048 [Google Scholar]
  14. Hammami, F.
    (2021) The Scopic Feast of Heritage and the Invention of Unthreatening Diversity in Neoliberal Cities. Heritage, 4(3), 1660–1680. 10.3390/heritage4030092
    https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage4030092 [Google Scholar]
  15. Hult, F. M.
    (2009) Language ecology and linguistic landscape analysis. InE. Shohamy & D. Gorter (Eds.), Linguistic landscape: Expanding the scenery (pp.88–103). London: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Hutton, C. M.
    (2011) Vernacular spaces and >non-places<: dynamics of the Hong Kong linguistic landscape. InM. Messling, D. Läpple, & J. Trabant (Eds.), Stadt und Urbanität (pp.162–184). Berlin: Kulturtverlag Kadmos.
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Jurgenson, N.
    (2012) When Atoms Meet Bits: Social Media, the Mobile Web and Augmented Revolution. Future Internet, 41, 83–91. 10.3390/fi4010083
    https://doi.org/10.3390/fi4010083 [Google Scholar]
  18. Järlehed, J., Löfdahl, M., Milani, T., Nielsen, H. L., & Rosendal, T.
    (2021) Entrepreneurial Naming and Scaling of Urban Places: The case of Nya Hovås. InK. Leibring, L. Mattfolk, K. Neumüller, S. Nyström, & E. Pihl (Eds.), The Economy in Names. Values, Branding and Globalization. Proceedings of Names in the Economy 6, International Conference, Uppsala 3–5 June 2019 (pp.71–86). Uppsala, Sweden: Institutet för språk och folkminnen.
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Järlehed, J., Nielsen, H. L., & Rosendal, T.
    (2018) Language, food and gentrification: signs of socioeconomic mobility in two Gothenburg neighbourhoods. Multilingual Margins, 5(1). 10.14426/mm.v5i1.88
    https://doi.org/10.14426/mm.v5i1.88 [Google Scholar]
  20. Kallen, J. L., Ní Dhonnacha, E., & Wade, K.
    (2020) Online linguistic landscapes: Discourse, globalization, and enregisterment. InD. Malinowski & S. Tufi (Eds.), Reterritorializing Linguistic Landscapes: Questioning Boundaries and Opening Spaces (pp.96–116). London: Bloomsbury Academic. 10.5040/9781350077997.0013
    https://doi.org/10.5040/9781350077997.0013 [Google Scholar]
  21. Lane, J.
    (2018) The Digital Street. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 10.1093/oso/9780199381265.001.0001
    https://doi.org/10.1093/oso/9780199381265.001.0001 [Google Scholar]
  22. Lindström, J.
    (2019) Segregation. Stockholm: Liber.
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Lou, J. J., & Jaworski, A.
    (2016) Itineraries of protest signage. Journal of Language and Politics, 151, 609–642. 10.1075/jlp.15.5.06lou
    https://doi.org/10.1075/jlp.15.5.06lou [Google Scholar]
  24. Lyons, K.
    (2019) Let’s get phygital. Seeing through the ‘filtered’ landscapes of Instagram. Linguistic Landscape, 5(2), 179–197. 10.1075/ll.18025.lyo
    https://doi.org/10.1075/ll.18025.lyo [Google Scholar]
  25. Moriarty, M.
    (2014) Languages in motion: Multilingualism and mobility in the linguistic landscape. International Journal of Bilingualism, 18(5), 457–463. 10.1177/1367006913484208
    https://doi.org/10.1177/1367006913484208 [Google Scholar]
  26. Nielsen, H. L., Löfdahl, M., Rosendal, T., Järlehed, J., & Milani, T.
    (2022) Moskénamn i Göteborg: Självpositionering i det urbana rummet. Nordic Journal of Socio-Onomastics, 21, 89–119.
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Papen, U.
    (2012) Commercial discourses, gentrification and citizens’ protest: The linguistic landscape of Prenzlauer Berg, Berlin. Journal of Sociolinguistics, 16(1), 56–80. 10.1111/j.1467‑9841.2011.00518.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9841.2011.00518.x [Google Scholar]
  28. Peth, S. A. & Sakdapolrak, P.
    (2020) Resilient family meshwork. Thai-German migrations, translocal ties, and their impact on social resilience. Geoforum, 1141, 19–29, 10.1016/j.geoforum.2020.05.019
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geoforum.2020.05.019 [Google Scholar]
  29. Sahlin, I.
    (2010) I trygghetens namn. Gothenburg: Daidalos.
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Salonen, T.
    (2021) Samhällsbygget Gårdsten : allmännyttans framtid?Stockholm: Premiss.
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Scollon, R., & Wong Scollon, S.
    (2003) Discourse in place: Language in the material world. London: Routledge. 10.4324/9780203422724
    https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203422724 [Google Scholar]
  32. Shohamy, E., & Waksman, S.
    (2009) Linguistic landscape as an ecological arena: Modalities, meanings, negotiation, education. InE. Shohamy & D. Gorter (Eds.), Linguistic Landscape: Expanding the Scenery (pp.313–331). New York: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Stjernholm, K.
    (2015) Two Faces of Oslo: A comparative study of sense of place. InM. Laitinen & A. Zabrodskaja (Eds.), Dimensions of Sociolinguistic Landscapes in Europe. Materials and Methodological Solutions (pp.77–104). Frankfurt am Main, Berlin, Bern, Bruxelles, New York, Oxford, Wien: Peter Lang.
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Swedish Migration Agency
    Swedish Migration Agency (2000) Applications for asylum received 1984–1999. Retrieved fromhttps://www.migrationsverket.se/English/About-the-Migration-Agency/Statistics/Asylum.html
  35. Swedish Migration Agency
    Swedish Migration Agency (2021) Applications for asylum received 2000–2020. https://www.migrationsverket.se/English/About-the-Migration-Agency/Statistics/Asylum.html
  36. Thörn, C., & Holgersson, H.
    (2014) Gentrifiering – kultur, politik och ekonomi. InC. Thörn & H. Holgersson (Eds.), Gentrifiering (pp.11–34). Lund: Studentlitteratur.
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Tonkiss, F.
    (2013) Cities by design. The social life of urban form. Cambridge: Polity Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Trinch, S., & Snajdr, E.
    (2017) What the signs say: Gentrification and the disappearance of capitalism without distinction in Brooklyn. Journal of Sociolinguistics, 21(1), 64–89. 10.1111/josl.12212
    https://doi.org/10.1111/josl.12212 [Google Scholar]
  39. (2020) What the Signs Say: Language, Gentrification, and Place-Making in Brooklyn. Nashville, TS: Vanderbilt University Press. 10.2307/j.ctv160btqs
    https://doi.org/10.2307/j.ctv160btqs [Google Scholar]
  40. Vertovec, S.
    (2007) Super-diversity and its implication. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 30(6), 1024–1054. 10.1080/01419870701599465
    https://doi.org/10.1080/01419870701599465 [Google Scholar]
  41. Vuorsola, L.
    (2020) Minority positioning in physical and online spaces. Linguistic Landscape, 6(3), 297–325. 10.1075/ll.18031.vuo
    https://doi.org/10.1075/ll.18031.vuo [Google Scholar]
  42. Wei, L., & Hua, Z.
    (2021) Making sense of handwritten signs in public spaces. Social Semiotics, 31(1), 61–87. 10.1080/10350330.2020.1810549
    https://doi.org/10.1080/10350330.2020.1810549 [Google Scholar]
  43. Westerström, A.
    (2013) Stadens förändrade funktion – En ideologikritisk studie av Göteborgs översiktliga planering mellan 1959 och 2011. Department of Cultural Sciences, University of Gothenburg.
    [Google Scholar]
  44. Yao, X.
    (2021) Metrolingualism in online linguistic landscapes. International Journal of Multilingualism. 10.1080/14790718.2021.1887197
    https://doi.org/10.1080/14790718.2021.1887197 [Google Scholar]
  45. Yousuf, E. [Google Scholar]

Data & Media loading...

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error