Volume 43, Issue 2
  • ISSN 0272-2690
  • E-ISSN: 1569-9889
Buy:$35.00 + Taxes



Census data are used to monitor the efficiency of Bill 101 in reorienting language shift more favourably for French. Immigration from former French colonies or Romance-language countries is shown to be the major factor driving the increase in the share of French in the assimilation of Allophones since 1991. The schooling provisions of Bill 101 are seen to play a significant supporting role in this respect, but not those promoting French as language of work. It is further shown that the corresponding trend towards a greater share for French in overall assimilation has become seriously compromised by a growing Anglicization of Francophones themselves, notably in the Montreal metropolitan area. The resulting consolidation of the superiority of English as language of assimilation in Quebec is seen to explain in large part the emergence of a new language dynamic since 2001, combining a record decline in relative weight of Quebec’s French-speaking majority with a mild but equally historic increase in weight of its English-speaking minority.


Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...


  1. Casesnoves Ferrer, R., & Sankoff, D.
    (2004) Transmission, Education, and Integration in Projections of Language Shift in Valencia. Language Policy, 3, 107–131. 10.1023/B:LPOL.0000036178.69368.fb
    https://doi.org/10.1023/B:LPOL.0000036178.69368.fb [Google Scholar]
  2. Castonguay, C.
    (1994) L’assimilation linguistique au Québec : mesure et évolution 1971–1986. Quebec, Qc: Conseil de la langue française.
    [Google Scholar]
  3. (2005a) Les indicateurs généraux de vitalité des langues au Québec : comparabilité et tendances 1971–2001. Montreal, Qc: Office québécois de la langue française.
    [Google Scholar]
  4. (2005b) Incidence du sous-dénombrement et des changements apportés aux questions de recensement sur l’évolution de la composition linguistique de la population du Québec entre 1991 et 2001. Montreal, Qc: Office québécois de la langue française.
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Houle, R., & Corbeil, J.-P.
    (2017) Language Projections for Canada, 2011 to 2036. Ottawa, On: Statistics Canada.
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Henripin, J.
    (1974) Immigration and Language Imbalance. Ottawa, On: Information Canada.
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Joy, R.
    (1967) Languages in Conflict: The Canadian Experience. Ottawa, On: the author. Reprinted in 1972 by McClelland & Stuart, Toronto, Ontario.
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Laurin, C.
    (1977) La politique québécoise de la langue française. Quebec, Qc: Éditeur officiel.
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Ostler, N.
    (2010) The Last Lingua Franca: English Until the Return of Babel. New York, NY: Walker & Company.
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Termote, M., & Gauvreau, D.
    (1988) La situation démolinguistique au Québec. Quebec, Qc: Conseil de la langue française.
    [Google Scholar]

Data & Media loading...

  • Article Type: Research Article
Keyword(s): assimilation; Bill 101; language policy; language shift; language vitality; Quebec
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error