1887
Volume 43, Issue 2
  • ISSN 0272-2690
  • E-ISSN: 1569-9889
USD
Buy:$35.00 + Taxes

Abstract

Abstract

Though forty years of language policies much improved the status and use of French in Quebec, laws such as Bill 101 played a role in reducing the demographic and institutional vitality of the English-speaking communities of Quebec (ESCQ). Pro-French laws maintained Francophones at close to 80% of the Quebec population and ensured that 95% of the Quebec population acquired knowledge of French. Language laws contributed to the decline of Anglophone mother tongue speakers from 13% of the population in 1971 to 7.5% in 2016, while increasing to 70% French/English bilingualism amongst Anglophones. With a net interprovincial loss of over 310,000 Anglophones who left Quebec for the rest of Canada (ROC), results show that Anglophones who stayed in Quebec are less educated and earn lower income than Quebec Francophones. Language laws limiting access to English schools succeeded in reducing the size of the English school system from 256, 251 pupils in 1971 (100%) to only 96,235 pupils in 2018 (37%). While the Anglophone minority bemoan their demographic and institutional decline in education, health care, and government services, many Francophones remains concerned about threats to French by bilingualism in Montreal and their minority status in Canada and North America.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1075/lplp.00042.bou
2019-07-22
2019-08-24
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

References

  1. ABEE
    ABEE (2018) Plus ça change, plus c’est pareil. Revisiting the 1992 Task Force Report on English Education in Quebec. Annual Report submitted to theMinister of Education, June 2018 Québec, QC: Gouvernement du Québec. www.education.gouv.qc.ca/en/organismes-relevant-du-ministre/abee/publications/
    [Google Scholar]
  2. D’Anglejan, A.
    (1984) Language planning in Quebec: An historical overview and future trends. InR. Y. Bourhis, (Ed.). Conflict and Language Planning in Quebec. (pp.29–52). Bristol, UK: Multilingual Matters.
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Bougie, E., Usborne, E., de la Sablonière, R. & Taylor, D.
    (2010) The cultural narrative of Francophone and Anglophone Quebecers: Using a historical perspective to explore the relationships among collective relative deprivation, in-group entitativity, and collective esteem. British Journal of Social Psychology, 50, 726–746. 10.1348/014466610X526018
    https://doi.org/10.1348/014466610X526018 [Google Scholar]
  4. Bourhis, R. Y.
    (2001) Reversing language shift in Quebec. InJ. A. Fishman (Ed) Can threatened languages be saved? (pp.101–141). Bristol, UK: Multilingual Matters. 10.21832/9781853597060‑007
    https://doi.org/10.21832/9781853597060-007 [Google Scholar]
  5. (2012) Social Psychological Aspects of French-English Relations in Quebec: From Vitality to Linguicism. InR. Y. Bourhis (Ed.). Decline and prospects of the English-Speaking Communities of Quebec. (pp.313–378). Ottawa, ON: Canadian Heritage.
    [Google Scholar]
  6. (2017) Bilingual Health care in Quebec: Public policy, Vitality, and Acculturation Issues. In: M. Drolet, P. Bouchard, & J. Savard (Eds.). Accessibility and Active Offer: Health care and Social Services in Linguistic Minority Communities. (pp.349–396). Ottawa: University of Ottawa Press. 10.2307/j.ctv5vdcxc.19
    https://doi.org/10.2307/j.ctv5vdcxc.19 [Google Scholar]
  7. Bourhis, R. Y. & Carignan, N.
    (2010) Linguicism in Quebec and Canada. Our Diverse Cities. 7, 156–162.
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Bourhis, R. Y. & Foucher, P.
    (2012) Decline of the English School System in Quebec. Moncton: Institut canadien de recherche sur les minorités linguistiques (ICRML), www.icrml.ca
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Bourhis, R., Giles, H. & Rosenthal, D.
    (1981) Notes on the construction of the ‘Subjective vitality questionnaire’ for ethnolinguistic groups. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, 2, 145–155. 10.1080/01434632.1981.9994047
    https://doi.org/10.1080/01434632.1981.9994047 [Google Scholar]
  10. Bourhis, R. Y. & Landry, R.
    (2002) La loi 101 et l’aménagement du paysage linguistique au Québec. InP. Bouchard & R. Y. Bourhis (Eds.). L’aménagement linguistique au Québec: 25 ans d’application de la Charte de la langue française. (pp.107–132). Revue d’aménagement linguistique. Québec: Les Publications du Québec.
    [Google Scholar]
  11. (2012) Group Vitality, Cultural Autonomy and the Wellness of Language Minorities. InR. Y. Bourhis (Ed.) Decline and prospects of the English-Speaking Communities of Quebec. (pp.23–69). Ottawa, ON: Canadian Heritage.
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Bourhis, R. Y., Montaruli, E. & Amiot, C.
    (2007) Language planning and French-English bilingual communication: Montreal field studies from 1977 to 1997. International Journal of the Sociology of Language, 185, 187–224.
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Bourhis, R. Y., Montreuil, A., Helly, D., & Jantzen, L.
    (2007) Discrimination et linguicisme au Québec: Enquête sur la diversité ethnique au Canada. Canadian ethnic studies, 39, 31–49. 10.1353/ces.0.0001
    https://doi.org/10.1353/ces.0.0001 [Google Scholar]
  14. Bourhis, R. Y. & Sioufi, R.
    (2017) Assessing forty years of language planning on the vitality of the Francophone and Anglophone communities of Quebec. Multilingua, 36, 627–661. 10.1515/multi‑2017‑3048
    https://doi.org/10.1515/multi-2017-3048 [Google Scholar]
  15. Caldwell, G.
    (1984) Anglo-Quebec: Demographic realities and options for the future. InR. Y. Bourhis (Ed). Conflict and language planning in Quebec (pp.205–221). Bristol, UK: Multilingual Matters.
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Canada
    Canada (1988) Official Languages Act. Ottawa, ON.: Commissioner of Official Languages.
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Canada
    Canada (2018) Investing in our future, 2018–2023: Action plan for official languages. Ottawa, ON.: Government of Canada.
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Carter, W.
    (2012) What future for English-Language Health and social Services in Quebec ?InR. Y. Bourhis (Ed.). Decline and Prospects of the English-Speaking Communities of Quebec (pp.215–244). Ottawa: Canadian Heritage.
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Clemens, J., Labrie, Y. & Emes, J.
    (2016) Interprovincial Migration in Canada. Quebeckers vote with their feet. Toronto, ON.: Fraser Institute, https://www.fraserinstitute.org/
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Clément, R., & Foucher, P.
    (2014) (Eds.). Fifty Years of Official Bilingualism. Challenges, Analyses and Testimonies. Ottawa, ON: Invenire.
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Coleman, W.
    (1984) Social class and language policies in Quebec. InR. Y. Bourhis, (Ed.). Conflict and Language Planning in Quebec. (pp.130–147). Bristol, UK: Multilingual Matters.
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Corbeil, J. C.
    (2007) L’Embarras des langues: Origine, conception et évolution de la politique linguistique Québécoise. Montréal: Québec Amérique.
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Corbeil, J. P., Chavez, B., Pereira, D.
    (2010) Portrait of Official-Language Minorities in Canada -Anglophones in Quebec. Table 2.2.1. Catalogue no. 89-642-X- No. 002. Ottawa, ON.: Statistics Canada.
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Coulombe, S.
    (2006) Internal Migration, Asymmetric Shocks, and Interprovincial Economic Adjustments in Canada. International Regional Science Review, 29 (2), 199–223. 10.1177/0160017606286357
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0160017606286357 [Google Scholar]
  25. Curzi, P.
    (2014) French, the Common language of Quebec. In: R. Clément, and P. Foucher (Eds.). Fifty Years of Official Bilingualism. Challenges, Analyses and Testimonies. (pp.15–19). Ottawa, ON.: Invenire.
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Dickinson, J.
    (2007) The English-speaking minority in Quebec: A historical perspective. International Journal of the Sociology of Language, 185, 11–24.
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Fishman, J.
    (2001) (Ed.). Can threatened language be saved ?Bristol, UK: Multilingual Matters. 10.21832/9781853597060
    https://doi.org/10.21832/9781853597060 [Google Scholar]
  28. Floch, W.
    (2018) Taux de rétention selon le niveau éducationnel. Québec: QC : Secrétariat aux relations avec les Québécois d’expression anglaise.
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Floch, W. & Pocock, J.
    (2012) The Socio-economic Status of English-speaking Quebec: Those who left and those who stayed. In: R. Y. Bourhis (Ed.). Decline and Prospects of the English-Speaking Communities of Quebec (pp.129–173). Ottawa, ON: Canadian Heritage.
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Foucher, P.
    (2012) Legal Status of Anglophone Communities in Quebec: Options and Some Recommendations. In: R. Y. Bourhis (Ed.). Decline and Prospects of the English-Speaking Communities of Quebec (pp.71–97). Ottawa, ON: Canadian Heritage.
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Fraser, G.
    (2006) Sorry, I don’t speak French. Confronting the Canadian crisis that won’t go away. Toronto, ON: McClelland & Stewart.
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Fuertes, J., Gottdiener, W., Martin, H., Gilbert, T. & Giles, H.
    (2012) A meta-analysis of the effects of speakers’ accents on interpersonal evaluation. European Journal of Social Psychology, 42, 120–133. 10.1002/ejsp.862
    https://doi.org/10.1002/ejsp.862 [Google Scholar]
  33. Georgeault, P. & Pagé, M.
    (2006) Le français, langue de la diversité québécoise. Montreal, QC: Québec Amérique.
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Gilbert, A.
    (2010) Territoires francophones. Études géographiques sur la vitalité des communautés francophones du Canada. Montréal, QC : Septentrion.
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Giles, H., Bourhis, R. Y. & Taylor, D.
    (1977) Towards a theory of language in ethnic group relations. In: H. Giles (Ed.). Language, ethnicity and inter-group relations. (pp.307–348). London: Academic Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Goldbloom, V.
    (2015) Building Bridges. Montreal, QC: McGill-Queen’s University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Harwood, J., Giles, H. & Bourhis, R. Y.
    (1994) The genesis of vitality theory: historical patterns and discoursal dimensions. International Journal of the Sociology of Language, 108, 167–206. 10.1515/ijsl.1994.108.167
    https://doi.org/10.1515/ijsl.1994.108.167 [Google Scholar]
  38. Houle, R. & Corbeil, J. C.
    (2018) Language projections for Canada 2011 – 2036. Catalogue no. 89-657-X2017001. Ottawa, ON: Statistics Canada.
    [Google Scholar]
  39. Jedwab, J.
    (2004) Going forward: The evolution of Quebec’s English-speaking Community. Ottawa, ON: Office of the Commissioner of Official Languages.
    [Google Scholar]
  40. (2011) Is Canada Bilingual? Perceptions and reality about knowledge of the two official languages. In: J. Jedwab and R. Landry (Eds.) Life after Forty: Official Language Policy in Canada. (pp.155–178). Montreal, QC: Mc-Gill-Queen’s University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  41. (2012) Determining Who is an English-Speaking Quebecer and Assessing its demographic Vitality. In: R. Y. Bourhis (Ed.). Decline and Prospects of the English-Speaking Communities of Quebec (pp.99–128). Ottawa, ON: Canadian Heritage.
    [Google Scholar]
  42. (2017) Le faible revenue au Québec: peu importe comment on le tranche, les Anglophones s’en tirent moins bien que les francophones. Montréal, QC: Association for Canadian Studies.
    [Google Scholar]
  43. Jedwab, J. & Landry, R.
    (2011) Life After Forty: Official Languages Policy in Canada. Montreal, QC: McGill-Queen’s University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  44. Jedwab, J. & Maynard, H.
    (2012) Politics of Community: The evolving challenge of representing English-speaking Quebecers. InR. Y. Bourhis (Ed.), Decline and Prospects of the English-Speaking Communities of Quebec (pp.277–311). Ottawa, ON: Canadian Heritage.
    [Google Scholar]
  45. Jennings, M.
    (2015) English School boards Election Systems Study Panel Report. Montreal, QC.
    [Google Scholar]
  46. Johnson, M. & Doucet, P.
    (2006) A Sharper view: Evaluating the Vitality of Official Language Minority Communities. Ottawa, ON: Office of the Commissioner of Official Languages.
    [Google Scholar]
  47. Laforge, S.
    (2018) Riding the official minority language advocacy roller-coaster: Challenges faced and met- and opportunities seized. Canadian Diversity, 15, 36–38.
    [Google Scholar]
  48. Lamarre, P.
    (2012) English Education in Quebec: Issues and Challenges. InR. Y. Bourhis (Ed.), Decline and Prospects of the English-Speaking Communities of Quebec (pp.175–214). Ottawa, ON: Canadian Heritage.
    [Google Scholar]
  49. Landry, R., Allard, R., Deveau, K.
    (2013) The vitality of the English-Speaking Community of Quebec. A Sociolinguistic Profile of Secondary 4 Students in Quebec English Schools. Ottawa, ON.: Canadian Heritage.
    [Google Scholar]
  50. Landry, R., & Bourhis, R. Y.
    (1997) Linguistic landscape and ethnolinguistic vitality: An empirical study. Journal of Language and Social Psychology, 16, 23–49. 10.1177/0261927X970161002
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0261927X970161002 [Google Scholar]
  51. La Presse
    La Presse (2010, May12). Lacoursière, A. Les Anglophones craignent pour la survie de leurs écoles. www.lapresse.ca/actualites/education/201005/12/01-4279554
  52. Levine, M.
    (1990) The Reconquest of Montreal: Language policy and social change in a bilingual city. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  53. Magnan, M. O.
    (2004) “To stay or not to stay” : Migration des jeunes Anglo-québécois : Revue de la littérature. Montréal, QC: Institut national de la recherche scientifique: urbanisation, culture et société.
    [Google Scholar]
  54. Mallea, J.
    (1984) Minority language education in Quebec and Anglophone Canada. InR. Y. Bourhis (Ed.). Conflict and language planning in Quebec (pp.222–260). Bristol, UK: Multilingual Matters.
    [Google Scholar]
  55. Martel, M. & Pâquet, M.
    (2010) Langue et politique au Canada et au Québec : Une synthèse historique. Montréal, QC: Boréal.
    [Google Scholar]
  56. Maurais, J.
    (1987) L’expérience québécoise d’aménagement linguistique. InJ. Maurais (ed.), Politique et aménagement linguistique (pp.359–416). Québec & Paris: Conseil de la langue française, Le Robert.
    [Google Scholar]
  57. McLeod Arnopoulos, S. & Clift, D.
    (1984) The English Fact in Quebec. Montreal, QC: McGill-Queen’s University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  58. MIDI
    MIDI (2016) Recueil de Statistiques. Politique québécoise en matière d’immigration, de participation et d’inclusion. Québec, QC: Ministère de l’Immigration, de la Diversité et de l’Inclusion. www.midi.gouv.qc.ca
    [Google Scholar]
  59. Montreal Gazette
    Montreal Gazette (2010, May11). Bauch, H.Most Back Allowing Choice in Schools. www.pressreader.com/canada/montreal-gazette/20100511/textview
  60. Montreal Gazette
    Montreal Gazette (2018, December14). Authier, P.English community will fight for school boards despite Legault’s warning. montrealgazette.com/news/quebec/english-community
  61. Oakes, L. & Warren, J.
    (2007) Language, citizenship and identity in Quebec. Houndmills, UK: Palgrave Macmillan. 10.1057/9780230625495
    https://doi.org/10.1057/9780230625495 [Google Scholar]
  62. Paillé, M.
    (2011) Les caractéristiques linguistiques de la population du Québec. Profil et tendance 1996-2006. Rapport de recherche, Montréal, QC: Office québécois de la langue française. www.oqlf.gouv.qc.ca
    [Google Scholar]
  63. Pettinicchio, D.
    (2012) Migration and ethnic nationalism: Anglophone exit and the ‘decolonisation’ of Québec. Nations and Nationalism, 18(4), 719–743. 10.1111/j.1469‑8129.2011.00513.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-8129.2011.00513.x [Google Scholar]
  64. Picard, J. C.
    (2003) Camille Laurin : L’Homme debout. Montréal, QC: Boréal.
    [Google Scholar]
  65. Plourde, M.
    (1988) La politique linguistique du Québec. Montréal, QC: Institut québécois de recherche sur la culture.
    [Google Scholar]
  66. Plourde, M., Duval, H. & Georgeault, P.
    (Eds.) (2000) Le Français au Québec: 400 ans d’histoire et de vie. Montréal, QC: Fides et Les Publications du Québec.
    [Google Scholar]
  67. Pocock, J.
    (2018) Demographic profile of the English-speaking Communities: Administrative region of Montreal & the rest of Québec. Community Health and Social Services Network (CHSSN) MRC Profile Series. chssn.org/document-center/socio-demographic-profiles-by-mrc
    [Google Scholar]
  68. Québec
    Québec (2011) Rapport sur l’évolution de la situation linguistique au Québec : Suivi démolinguistique. Montréal, QC: Office québécois de la langue française. www.oqlf.gouv.qc.ca
    [Google Scholar]
  69. Quebec
    Quebec (1977) Charter of the French Language. Chapter C-11. Québec, QC: Éditeur officiel du Québec. (Updated toAugust 1, 2018).
    [Google Scholar]
  70. Reid, S.
    (1993) Lament for a notion: The life and death of Canada’s bilingual dream. Vancouver, BC: Arsenal Pulp Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  71. Rocher, G.
    (2002) Les dilemmes identitaires à l’origine de l’engendrement de la Charte de la langue française. InP. Bouchard & R. Y. Bourhis (Eds.). L’aménagement linguistique au Québec: 25 ans d’application de la Charte de la langue française. (pp.17–25). Revue d’aménagement linguistique. Québec, QC: Les Publications du Québec.
    [Google Scholar]
  72. Rodgers, G., Needle, J. & Garber, R.
    (2012) The artistic and cultural vitality of English-speaking Quebec. InR. Y. Bourhis (Ed.), Decline and prospects of the English-Speaking communities of Quebec. (pp.245–276). Ottawa: Canadian Heritage.
    [Google Scholar]
  73. Rudin, R.
    (1985) The Forgotten Quebecers. A history of English-Speaking Quebec: 1759–1980. Montreal, QC: Institut Québécois de recherche sur la culture.
    [Google Scholar]
  74. Sachdev, I. & Bourhis, R. Y.
    (1993) Ethnolinguistic vitality: some motivational and cognitive considerations. InM. Hogg and D. Abrams (Eds.), Group Motivation: Social Psychological Perspectives. (pp.33–52). New York: Harvester-Wheatsheaf.
    [Google Scholar]
  75. Scowen, R.
    (1991) A different vision: English Quebec in the 1990s. Don Mills, ON: Maxwell Macmillan Canada.
    [Google Scholar]
  76. Sioufi, R. & Bourhis, R. Y.
    (2018) Acculturation and linguistic tensions as predictors of Quebec Francophone and Anglophone desire for internal migration in Canada. Journal of Language and Social Psychology, 37, 136–159. 10.1177/0261927X17714571
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0261927X17714571 [Google Scholar]
  77. Sioufi, R., Bourhis, R. Y. & Allard, R.
    (2016) Vitality and ethnolinguistic attitudes of Acadians, Franco-Ontarians and Francophone Quebecers: two or three solitudes in Canada’s Bilingual Belt?Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, 37, 385–401. 10.1080/01434632.2015.1072205
    https://doi.org/10.1080/01434632.2015.1072205 [Google Scholar]
  78. Skutnabb-Kangas, T.
    (1988) Multilingualism and the education of minority children. InT. Skutnabb-Kangas, & J. Cummins, (Eds.), Minority Education. (pp.9–44). Bristol, UK: Multilingual Matters.
    [Google Scholar]
  79. Smith, B., Ehala, M., & Giles, H.
    (2018) Vitality theory. InH. Giles & J. Harwood (Eds.), The Oxford Encyclopedia of Intergroup Communication (Vol.2, pp.485–500). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  80. Statistics Canada
    Statistics Canada (2013) Selected Demographic, Income and Sociocultural Characteristics, National Household Survey. Ottawa, ON: 2011 Census. Statistics Canada Catalogue no. 99-014-X2011032. https://www150.statcan.gc.ca/n1/en/catalogue/99-014-X2011032
    [Google Scholar]
  81. Statistic Canada
    Statistic Canada (2017) 2016 Census topic: Language. The Daily, August17 2017 Update of the 2016 Census language data (corrected). Ottawa, ON: Statistics Canadawww12.statcan.gc.ca/census-recensement/2016/rt-td/lang-eng.cfm
    [Google Scholar]
  82. Statistics Canada
    Statistics Canada (2018) Selected Demographic, Cultural, Educational, Labour Force and Income Characteristics. 2016 Census – 25% Sample Data, 2016353. Ottawa, ON: Statistics Canada. Catalogue. no. 98-400-X2016353. https://www150.statcan.gc.ca/n1/en/catalogue/98-400-X2016353
    [Google Scholar]
  83. Stevenson, G.
    (1999) Community besieged: The Anglophone minority and the politics of Quebec. Montreal, QC: McGill-Queen’s University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  84. Termote, M., Payeur, F. & Thibault, N.
    (2011) Perspectives démolinguistiques du Québec et de la région de Montréal. Montréal, QC: Office québécois de la langue française. www.oqlf.gouv.qc.ca
    [Google Scholar]
  85. Vaillancourt, F.
    (2018) Analyse économique des politiques linguistiques au Québec: 40 ans de loi 101. Montréal : Cirano : Cahiers scientifiques, 2018S-16.
    [Google Scholar]
  86. Vaillancourt, F., Coche, O., Cadieux, M. A. & Ronson, J. L.
    (2012) Official language policies of the Canadian Provinces. Costs and benefits in 2006. Toronto, ON: The Fraser Institute. www.fraserinstitute.org
    [Google Scholar]
  87. Vaillancourt, F., Lemay, D. & Vaillancourt, L.
    (2007) Laggards No More: The changed Socioeconomic Status of Francophones in Quebec. C.D. Howe Institute Backgrounder, 103, www.cdhowe.org
    [Google Scholar]
  88. Woehrling, J.
    (2005) L’évolution du cadre juridique et conceptuel de la législation linguistique au Québec. InA. Stefanescu & P. Georgeault (Eds.), Le français au Québec: Les nouveaux défis (pp.253–356). Québec, QC: Conseil supérieur de la langue française.
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.1075/lplp.00042.bou
Loading
/content/journals/10.1075/lplp.00042.bou
Loading

Data & Media loading...

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error