1887
Volume 43, Issue 3
  • ISSN 0272-2690
  • E-ISSN: 1569-9889
USD
Buy:$35.00 + Taxes

Abstract

Abstract

The article explores evidence of public policy ignoring scholarly recommendations, and describes instances of this in the field of language policy at both supranational and national levels. One significant contemporary influence is that university autonomy and academic freedom are being constrained by neoliberal pressures. Evidence of this in the United Kingdom and Denmark is described. These trends are connected to the wider context of the transition from the practices and ideology of to legitimate colonisation and global Europeanisation, and the concomitant dispossession of the territories of others, to global Americanisation processes, the universalization of a in commerce, the media, academia, and domestic life. This dovetails with the promotion and establishment of English as a a language that should be learned by all worldwide, as if it serves the interests of all inhabitants of the globe, and is disconnected from the causal factors behind the expansion of the language. One speech by Winston Churchill argues for the maintenance of university autonomy and historical awareness. Another pleads for Anglo-American global dominance, including the promotion of English as a ‘world’ language. These competing pleas have had different outcomes: academic freedom and traditions are currently at risk, whereas US dominance and the promotion and expansion of English have thrived. The governments of the five Nordic countries have acted to ensure the maintenance of national languages as well as competence in ‘international languages’. This is exemplified by a description of how universities should assure parallel competence and thereby a healthy balance between English and national languages. Soft power is never far from economic, political, and military power, all of which entail language use. China and Chinese are well launched on a comparable trajectory to the expansion of English.

Comment

A commentary article has been published for this article:
“Rejoinder” to Robert Phillipson,
Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1075/lplp.00046.phi
2019-12-03
2020-09-28
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

References

  1. Amano, Tatsuya, Juan P. González-Varo, and William J. Sutherland
    (2016) Languages are still a major barrier to global science. PLoS Biol14(12): e2000933. doi:  10.1371/journal.pbio.2000933
    https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.2000933 [Google Scholar]
  2. Bourdieu, P.
    (1989) La noblesse d’état. Grandes Écoles et esprit de corps. Paris: Les Éditions de Minuit.
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Boussebaa, Mehdi
    (2015) Professional service firms, globalisation and the new imperialism. Accounting, Auditing and Accountability Journal, 28(8), pp.1217–1233. 10.1108/AAAJ‑03‑2015‑1986
    https://doi.org/10.1108/AAAJ-03-2015-1986 [Google Scholar]
  4. (2017) Global professional service firms, transnational organizing, and core/periphery networks. InProfessional networks in global governance, ed.L. Seabrooke and L. Henriksen, 233–244. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/9781316855508.015
    https://doi.org/10.1017/9781316855508.015 [Google Scholar]
  5. Brooks, Richard [Google Scholar]
  6. Bunce, Pauline, Robert Phillipson, Vaughan Rapatahana, and Ruanni F. Tupas
    (eds.) (2016) Why English? Confronting the Hydra. Bristol: Multilingual Matters. 10.21832/9781783095858
    https://doi.org/10.21832/9781783095858 [Google Scholar]
  7. Christensen, Jens Frøslev
    (2016) Oprøret på CBS. Forandring, ledelse og modstand i en professional organization. Copenhagen: Samfundslitteratur.
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Collini, Stefan
    (2017) Speaking of universities. London: Verso.
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Debray, Régis
    (2017) Civilisation. Comment nous sommes devenus américains. Paris: Gallimard.
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Enever, Janet and Eva Lindgren
    (eds.) (2017) Early language learning. Complexity and mixed methods. Bristol: Multilingual Matters. 10.21832/ENEVER8316
    https://doi.org/10.21832/ENEVER8316 [Google Scholar]
  11. Fekete, Liz
    (2018) Europe’s fault lines. Racism and the rise of the right. London: Verso.
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Gazzola, Michele
    (2016) European study for Multilingualism: Benefits and Costs. European Parliament’s Culture and Education Committee. www.europarl.europa.eu/supporting-analyses
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Gil, Jeffrey
    (2017) Soft power and the worldwide promotion of Chinese language learning. Bristol: Multilingual Matters. 10.21832/GIL8057
    https://doi.org/10.21832/GIL8057 [Google Scholar]
  14. Graddol, David
    (2006) English next: Why global English may mean the end of ‘English as a Foreign Language’. London: The British Council.
    [Google Scholar]
  15. (2010) English next India. London: British Council.
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Holroyd, Michael
    (1997) Bernard Shaw. The one-volume definitive edition, London: Chatto and Windus.
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Hamelink, Cees
    (1994) Trends in world communication: on disempowerment and self-empowerment. Penang: Southbound and Third World Network.
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Hinton, Leanne, Leena Huss, and Gerald Roche
    (eds.) (2018) The Routledge Handbook of Revitalization. New York and London: Routledge. 10.4324/9781315561271
    https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315561271 [Google Scholar]
  19. Holm, Erik
    (2001) The European anarchy. Europe’s hard road into high politics. Copenhagen: Copenhagen Business School Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Hultgren, Anna Kristina, Frans Gregersen and Jacob Thøgersen
    (eds.) (2014) English in Nordic universities. Ideologies and practices. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Judt, Tony
    (2010) Ill fares the land: A treatise on our present discontents. London: Penguin.
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Kayman, Martin A
    (2004) The state of English as a global language: communicating culture. Textual practice18/1, 1–22. 10.1080/0950236032000140131
    https://doi.org/10.1080/0950236032000140131 [Google Scholar]
  23. Kenny, Michael and Nick Pearce
    (2018) Shadows of Empire. The Anglosphere in British politics. Cambridge: Polity Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Kristinsson, Ari Páll
    (2016) English language as ‘fatal gadget’. InBunce , 118–128.
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Lainio, Jarmo, Moa Nordin and Sari Pesonen
    (2017) Nationella Minoritetsspråk i skolan – förbättrade förudsättningar til undervisning och revitalisering. Betänkande av Utredningen förbättrade möjligheter för elever att utveckla sitt nationella minoritetsspråk. Statens Offentliga Utredningar. SOU 2017: 91 (654pages, Summary in English, pp.333–43).
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Locke, John
    (1988) (originally 1690) Two treatises of government. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9780511810268
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511810268 [Google Scholar]
  27. McCarthy, Thomas
    (2009) Race, empire, and the idea of human development. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9780511814044
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511814044 [Google Scholar]
  28. Municio-Larsson, Ingegerd
    (2000) Science and policy. When does science matter?’. InPhillipson, Robert (ed.), Rights to language: equity, power and education. New York: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 127–134.
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Nordic Council of Ministers
    Nordic Council of Ministers (2018), on behalf of Frans Gregersen et al. More parallel, please!: Best practice of parallel language use at Nordic Universities: 11 recommendations. København: Nordisk Ministerråd. norden.diva-portal.org/smash/record.jsf?pid=diva2%3A1203291&dswid=-7203
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Olthuis, Marja-Liisa, Suvi Kivelä and Tove Skutnabb-Kangas
    (2013) Revitalizing indigenous languages. How to recreate a lost generation. Bristol: Multilingual Matters. 10.21832/9781847698896
    https://doi.org/10.21832/9781847698896 [Google Scholar]
  31. Patel, Raj and Jason W. Moore
    (2018) A history of the world in seven cheap things. A guide to capitalism, nature, and the future of the planet. London: Verso.
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Patten, Chris
    (2005) Not quite the diplomat, Home truths about world affairs. London: Allen Lane/Penguin.
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Phillipson, Robert
    (1992) Linguistic imperialism. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  34. (2001) Global English and local language policies: what Denmark needs. Language Problems and Language Planning, 25/1, 1–24. 10.1075/lplp.25.1.02phi
    https://doi.org/10.1075/lplp.25.1.02phi [Google Scholar]
  35. (2003) English-only Europe? Challenging language policy. London: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  36. (2009) Linguistic imperialism continued. New York & London: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  37. (2016a) Linguistic imperialism of and in the European Union. InRevisiting the European Union as an empire, ed.Hartmut Behr and Jannis Stivachtis, London: Routledge, 134–163.
    [Google Scholar]
  38. (2016b) Promoting English: Hydras old and new. InBunce , eds, 35–46. 10.21832/9781783095858‑005
    https://doi.org/10.21832/9781783095858-005 [Google Scholar]
  39. (2017) Myths and realities of European Union language policy. World Englishes, 36/3: 347–349, online30 October 2017. doi:  10.1111/weng.12270
    https://doi.org/10.1111/weng.12270 [Google Scholar]
  40. (2018) English, the lingua nullius of global hegemony. InThe politics of multilingualism. Europeanisation, globalisation and linguistic governance, ed.Peter A. Kraus and François Grin. Amsterdam: John Benjamins, 275–304. 10.1075/wlp.6.12phi
    https://doi.org/10.1075/wlp.6.12phi [Google Scholar]
  41. Ritzer, George
    (2011) The McDonaldization of society 6. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
    [Google Scholar]
  42. Roche, Gerald
    (2018) Regional perspectives: Decolonizing and globalizing language revitalization. InHinton, Huss and Roche (eds.), 275–277. 10.4324/9781315561271‑34
    https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315561271-34 [Google Scholar]
  43. Salö, Linus, Natalia Ganuza, Christina Hedman, and Martha Sif Karrebæk
    (2018) Mother tongue instruction in Denmark and Sweden. Language policy, cross-field effects, and linguistic exchange rates. Language Policy17/4, 591–610. 10.1007/s10993‑018‑9472‑8
    https://doi.org/10.1007/s10993-018-9472-8 [Google Scholar]
  44. Saunders, Frances Stonor
    (1999) Who paid the piper? The CIA and the cultural cold war. London: Granta.
    [Google Scholar]
  45. Skutnabb-Kangas, Tove
    (1988) Multilingualism and the education of minority children. InSkutnabb-Kangas, Tove and Jim Cummins (eds). Minority education: from shame to struggle, Clevedon: Multilingual Matters, 9–44.
    [Google Scholar]
  46. Skutnabb-Kangas, Tove and Robert Phillipson
    (eds) (2017) Language Rights. Fourvolumes. London: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  47. Smith, Richard C.
    2003a ‘General Introduction’ to Smith, R.C. (ed.), Teaching English as a Foreign Language, 1912–36: Pioneers of ELT, Volume1. London: Routledge, pp.xi–xxxix.
    [Google Scholar]
  48. 2003b‘Introduction to Volume V’ (Introduction to Teaching English as a Foreign Language, 1912–36: Pioneers of ELT, Volume 5). London: Routledge, pp.xi–xxix.
    [Google Scholar]
  49. Spooner, Marc and James McNinth
    (eds.) (2018) Dissident knowledge in higher education. Regina, Canada: University of Regina Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  50. Uzgalis, William [Google Scholar]
  51. Verstraete-Hansen, Lisbeth og Robert Phillipson
    (red.) (2008) Fremmedsprog til fremtiden. Sprogpolitiske udfordringer for Danmark. København: Institut for Internationale Sprogstudier og Vidensteknologi, CBS.
    [Google Scholar]
  52. Verstraete-Hansen, Lisbeth og Per Øhrgaard
    (2017) Sprogløse verdensborgere. Om en uddannelsespolitik, der forsvandt. København: Djøf (Jurist- og Økonomernes Forlag).
    [Google Scholar]
  53. Wagnleitner, Reinhold
    (1994) Coca-Colonization and the cold war. The cultural mission of the United States in Austria after the Second World War. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  54. Wechsler, Alan
    (2017) The International-School Surge. The Atlantic, June5 2017 https://www.theatlantic.com/education/archive/2017/06/the-international-school-surge/528792/
    [Google Scholar]
  55. Winand, Pascaline
    (1993) Eisenhower, Kennedy, and the United States of Europe. New York: St. Martin’s Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  56. Ye, Wei
    (2017) Taking Chinese to the world. Language, culture and identity in Confucius Institute teachers. Bristol: Multilingual Matters. 10.21832/YE8637
    https://doi.org/10.21832/YE8637 [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.1075/lplp.00046.phi
Loading
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error